Project the Kite Runner 1

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Transcript of Project the Kite Runner 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Many authors are interested in portraying History and politics in their works. The historical novel is an attempt to reconstruct the atmosphere, the habits of thought and the prevailing psychology of a generation. The novelist selects facts and arranges them according to his own choice. The main function of the novelist is to enliven the past with maximum fidelity without making it dull and insipid. His mind should be a store-house of all types of his background. Actual facts of history are mixed up with stories of love and war, in order to display knowledge of human nature and the complexities of life. The political history of Afghanistan begins in the eighteenth century with the rise of the Pastitun tribes. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Afghanistan was confronted with economic and social change which also sparked a new approach to literate. In 1911, Mahmud Tarzi, who came back to Afghanistan after years of exile in Turkey and was influential in Government circles, started a fortnightly publication named Sarajul Akhbar. In the field of literature and journalism it instigated a new period of change and modernization. In poetry, brushing aside personalized themes and the subject of love and romance, Mahmud Tarzis efforts opened the way for technical and European literary styles, and social and nationalistic aspects were given more importance.

Mahmud Tarzi tried to clothe new ideas and perceptions in the classical style, and put new models of expression in the framework of old forms of writing. Ghary Abdullah, Abdul Hagh Beytat and Khalil Ullah Khalili were the prominent classical poets in Afghanistan at that time. In 1930s the Kabul literary circle was formed publishing their own regular magazines dedicated to culture and Ahghan literature. Those who had influenced on political and social life also left their marks on the cultured life of society and brought their new ways of thought and expression into the literary and social circles. Under the rule of Aman ullah, an atmosphere of political and social change developed. The people enjoyed political self-determination and constitutionalist were managing the affairs of the country. Free publications appeared in Kabul and spread to other cities. The press was free and the writers enjoyed free expression. Novelists who earlier had to resort to allegories and hints could now use a simple and direct style of narration. During this period the first novel was printed by the government owned Marefate Maaref, a publication devoted to educational themes. This novel, which was printed in installments in 1928, is called The Great War by Moulawi Mohammad Hossain Panjabi, who earlier had to endure long imprisonment because of his political beliefs. It is a saga of peoples resistance against colonial Great Britain, the hero is Mohammed Akram and his courageous struggle is the

main theme of the story. Although this novel uses a more modern writing style, at the same time it also contains elements of traditional Persian writing. Taswire Ebrat (1922) written by Mohammad Abdulghadere Afandi can be considered as the first truly modern Afghan novel. It is a novel of its time and is written in the modern style of prose. In this novel the author takes a critical look at the contemporary society, particularly the upper class clinging to the traditional ways of the novel, especially that of Bibi Khouri Jan, the main charecter of the novel, is a sample of the language used in the society of the time. The novel also contains elements of traditional prose, but because of the clear storyline and the use of contemporary language, it becomes an enjoyable modern novel. The ten years between 1964 and 1973 were not only an important period for the development of modern Afghan poetry; they were also of great importance for the development of modern Afghan prose. During this period, new style of prose writing developed and the influence of western literature are quite palpable. In these years one could easily discern the influence of soviet literature on the Afghan scene. Afghan students studying in the Soviet Socialist Republic, the friendly relations between the two nations and the visits of delegations to both countries all played a role, as well as a flood of modern Soviet literature which became easily available in Afghanistan. These were books written by authors such as Maxim Gorky, Michail Sholokhov, Chingiz Aitmatov and others. At the same

time, writers like Franz Kalka, Albert Camus and Sadeghe Hedayat also exerted their own influence of Afghan prose. Nineteenth century Russian literature left its impression on Afghan literature. After French literature, it was Russian literature that affected Afghan writings the most. The influence of Iranian literature on modern Afghan prose and poetry, especially in the second half of the twentieth century are taken into consideration. Western literature, especially French and German, was also much admired and influenced Afghan literature from the second decade of the twentieth century onward. In recent times American literature has also gained influence. Traditionalists insisted on their old forms and were unwilling to accept new styles, while on the other hand the followers of the new styles. There have been notable attempts, by novelists of Afghan origin, to chronicle the pain of their country, like Atiq Rahimis novels Earth and ashes (2002) and A Thousand Rooms of Dreams and Fear (2006). The noted Pakistani activist Feryal Gautar made the Americal occupation of the Afghanistan the theme of her recent novel, No Room for Further burials (2002). Nadeem Aslam, a Pakistani novelist who lives in England and has visited Afghanistan extensively, has now made his own bid for the fictional peaks. In The Wasted Vigil (2008) he ranges across the countrys ancient and modern history, not just a mesmerizing work of fiction, elegantly speaking for million of

nameless victims of Afghan tragedy in modern times but also a socio political history of the country. Khaled Hosseini, an Afghan doctor who found refuge in the U.S in the 1980s, has made his mark with his debut novel The Kite Runner in 2003. In the first Afghan novel to be written in English, Hosseini memorably evokes the devastating history of Afghanistan over the last thirty years. Khaled Hosseini was born on March 4, 1965 in Kabul the capital of Afghanistan as the oldest of five children. His father worked for the Afghan Foreign Ministry as a diplomat, and his mother was a high school teacher of Farsi and History. When he was five years old, his family moved from Kabul in the historic year of 1973, when Afghanistan became a republic. In 1976, Hosseinis father obtained a job in Paris and moved the family there. After the PDPA (the Peoples Democratic Poetry of Afghanistan) seized control of the government in 1978 and the Soviets occupied Afghanistan shortly thereafter, the Hosseini family decided to seek political asylum in the United States and their residence in San Jose, California. After college, Hosseini decided to become a physician. He attended the University of California San-Diegos School of Medicine, where he completed his M.D in1993. He served his medical residency at the well respected Cedars-Sinai hospital of Los Angeles and became an internist. Hossieni started writing The Kite Runner in 2001 while he was a practicing physician. Hosseini published The Kite Runner in 2003 to critical acclaim. Touch of autobiographical elements is based on

Hosseinis childhood in the Kabul neighborhood of Wazir Akbar Khan. While some events in the story echo those in this, the novel is fictional. By May 2007, it had been published in thirty-eight countries but not Afghanistan. When Khaled Hosseini was a child, he had a great deal of Persian poetry as well as Persian translation of novels ranging from Alice in Wonderland to Mickey Spillanes Mike Hammer series. Hosseinis memories of a peaceful pre-soviet era Afghanistan, I have very fond memories of my childhood in Afghanistan (Kristine Huntley, review of The Kite Runner, 1864) as well as his personal experiences with Afghanistans Hazara people, led to the writing of his first novel, The kite Runner. The Kite Runner has been lavishly praised by the critics, captivated readers across the country, and climbed steadily up the bestseller lists. His narrative is moving and evocating that explores all the great themes of literature and life. Moreover it offers the readers a sweeping overview of three decades of Afghan history. Hossieni felt estranged from the devastation in Afghanistan, but his separation from his homeland and his western sensibility combined in his fiction to bring Americas, and the worlds, attention to the faces of Afghanistan. Hosseini published his second novel, A Thousand Splendid Suns in May 2007. Unlike The Kite Runner which centers on relationships between men, A Thousand Splendid Suns, focuses on those between women. Once again set in Afghanistan, the story twists and turns its way through turmoil and chaos that

ensued following the fall of the monarchy in 1973, focuses mainly on the lives of two women, thrown together by fate, Mariam and Lalia. The story starts decades before the Taliban came into power in 1996, and ends after the era of Taliban rule. The rest of this unforgettable story reflects the heart-rending sacrifices of these women, and allows the reader peek behind the burqa, to the heart of Afghanistan. In the months since its release, the novel has garnered a plethora of positive reviews. The Kite Runner is said to be the first novel written in English by an Afghan. Its first printing was fifty thousand copies, it has been featured on the reading lists of countless book clubs, and foreign rights to the novel have been sold in at least ten countries. Reviewers admired the novel for its straight forward storytelling, its convincing character studies