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  • 8/3/2019 Project by Vipin






    Project Report Submitted By:-


    Submitted in Partial Full fillment of the Requirements for the


    of the degree of



    AICTE, Ministry of HRD,

    Government Of India, New Delhi

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    I the under sign hereby declare that the project

    report entitled Training and Development

    written and submitted by me to SGRRITS PATAL

    NAGAR DEHRAUN in partial ful fillment of the

    requirement for the award of MBA under the

    guidance of my mentor, my guide.. and . is my original work

    and the conclusion drawn there in are based on

    the material collected by myself. I hereby declare

    also this study has not been permitted by me to

    publish anywhere.


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    This is to certify that Mr. VIPIN KUMAR DOGRA the

    student of MBA has worked on summer project titled

    Training and Development in DEHRADUN after

    semester II in partial fulfillment of the requirement for

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    the Program. This is her original work to the best of my


    Date: Directors Signature:


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    I take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all the

    concerned people who have directly or indirectly

    contributed towards completion of this project. I extend

    my sincere gratitude towards Reliance Money for

    providing the opportunity and resources to work on this

    project. I am extremely grateful to Mr. MANOJ

    KUMAR my mentor in Reliance for her guidance and

    invaluable advice during the projects. Also to my guide,

    whose insight encouraged me to go

    beyond the scope of the project and this broadened melearning on this project .I also want to show my gratitude

    to .. whose insight helped me to

    complete this project.


    The global economy of the day has endangered the

    survival of every organization and in particular those

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    who want to have a competitive edge over the others.

    The competitive edge may be a distant dream in the

    absence of Superior Quality Products which otherwise isthe function of well-trained employees. Today resources

    are scarce and have to be used carefully and trainers of

    all kinds are required to justify their position and account

    for their activities. Training activities, which are ill

    directed and inadequately focused, do not serve the

    purpose of the trainers. The trainees or the organization

    hence identification of training needs becomes the top

    priority of every progressive organization. Identification

    of training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on

    which all other training activities can be considered and

    will lead to multi skilling, fitting people to take extra

    responsibilities increasing all round competence and

    preparing people to take on higher level responsibility in




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    CHAPTER 1:


    (ii)Scope and Objectives

    (iii)Executive Summary

    CHAPTER 2:

    (i)Introduction to Reliance

    (ii)About the project

    (iii)Training and Development

    (iv)Importance of Training

    (v)Objectives of Training

    CHAPTER 3:

    (i)Learning and Training

    (ii)Training inputs

    (iii)Benefits of training

    (iv)Methods of training

    (v)Training Design

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    (vi)Training method used in Reliance

    CHAPTER 4:

    (i)Methodology of the project

    (ii)Data interpretation and analysis



    CHAPTER 5:



    (iii) Conclusion

    CHAPTER 6:


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    Employee training tries to improve skills, or add tothe existing level of knowledge sothat employee isbetter equipped to do his present job, or to preparehim for a higher position with increasedresponsibilities. However individual growth is notand ends in itself. Organizational growth need to bemeasured along with individual growth. Trainingrefers to the teaching /learning activities done forthe primary purpose of helping members of anorganization to acquire and apply the knowledgeskills, abilities, and attitude needed by thatorganization to acquire and apply the same. Broadlyspeaking training is the act of increasing theknowledge and skill of an employee for doing aparticular job. In todays scenario change is theorder of the day and the only way to deal with it is

    to learn and grow. Employees have become centralto success or failure of an organization they are thecornucopia of ideas. So it high time theorganization realize that train and retain is themantra of new millennium.


    The scope of the study covers in depth, the varioustraining practices, modules, formats being followed

    and is limited to the company Reliance Money and

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    its employees. The different training programmesincorporated/facilitated in Reliance Money throughits faculties, outside agencies or professional

    groups. It also judges the enhancement of theknowledge & skills of employees and feedback onits effectiveness.


    The broad objective of the study of training policiesin Reliance Money is to study the impact of trainingon the overall skill development of workers. Thespecific objectives of the study are: 1. To examine

    the effectiveness of training in overall developmentof skills of workforce. 2. To examine the impact oftraining on the workers. 3. To study the changes inbehavioral pattern due to training. 4. To measurethe differential change in output due to training 5.To compare the cost effectiveness in implantingtraining programmes.


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    Every organization needs to have well trained andexperienced people to perform the activities thathave to be done. If current or potential joboccupants can meet this requirement, training is notimportant. When this not the case, it is necessary toraise the skill levels and increase the versatility andadaptability of employees. It is being increasingcommon for individual to change careers severaltimes during their working lives. The probability ofany young person learning a job to day and havingthose skills go basically unchanged during the fortyor so years if his career is extremely unlikely, maybe even impossible. In a rapid changing societyemployee training is not only an activity that isdesirable but also an activity that an organizationmust commit resources to if it is to maintain a

    viable and knowledgeable work force. The entireproject talks about the training and development intheoretical as well as new concepts, which are intrend now. Here we have discussed what would bethe input of training if we ever go for and how canit be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested in terms like

    (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the wayswe can identify the training need of any employeeand how to know what kind of training he can gofor? Training being covered in different aspect likesintegrating it with organizational culture. The bestand latest available trends in training method, thebenefits which we can derive out of it. How the

    evaluation should be done and how effective is thetraining all together. Some of the companies

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    practicing training in unique manner a lesson forother to follow as to how to train and retain the bestresource in the world to reap the best out of it.

    Development is integral part of training if some body is trained properly and efficiently thedevelopments of that individual and the companyfor whom he is working. Here we discussed aboutdevelopment of employee, how to identify theneeds, and after developing how to developexecutive skill to sharpen there knowledge.

    Learning should be the continuous process and oneshould not hesitate to learn any stage. Learning anddeveloping is fast and easy at Reliance Money.


    Introduction to Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani


    The Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group is among

    Indias top three private sector business houses on allmajor financial parameters, with a group market

    capitalization of Rs 200,000 crore (US$ 50 billion), and

    net worth to the tune of Rs 58,000 crore (US$ 13Billion)

    Across different companies, the group has a customer

    base of over 150 million, the largest in India, and a

    shareholder base of over 12 million, among the largest in

    the World. Through its products and services, the

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    Reliance - ADA Group touches the life of 1 in 8Indians

    every single day. It has a business presence that extends

    to over 5000 towns and Cities in India, and served by

    12,000 distribution outlets, 500,000 business partners

    and30,000 strong motivated workforce. The interests of

    the Group range from communications (Reliance

    Communications) and Financial services (Reliance

    Capital Ltd), to generation, transmission and distribution

    of Power (Reliance Energy), infrastructure, media and


    Introduction to Reliance Money

    Reliance Money provides investors with the facility of

    anytime-anywhere online trading in all major asset

    classes, namely:

    Equities, Equities and Commodity derivatives

    IPOs, Mutual Funds

    Life and General Insurance products

    Foreign exchange derivatives

    Money transfer,

    Money changing,

    Precious metal retailing

    Credit Cards


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    Wealth Management products

    Network of kiosks have been set up across the

    country to facilitate the above trading activities

    Reliance Money provides entire commodity related

    services such as broking distribution and warehouse

    receipt financing

    Expanded its presence to 20,000 touch points. It has

    10,000 outlets across 5,000 towns and cities across India.

    Currently 2200+ employees across 162 locations

    spread across the country.

    The Corporate Office at Worli, Mumbai has approx

    350 people belonging to these various functions

    Acquired 2.5 million customers

    Accounts for daily traded volumes of over Rs 2,000

    crore ( US$ 454 million ), or 3-4 % of the average daily

    volume of transactions logged on the stock exchanges

    Among the Top 3 private sector companies in

    financial services sector

    Moved into International arena- West Asia, South

    East Asia, Africa and Europe.

    Our Mission.

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    . is to attract, nurture & retain a team of competitive,

    growth oriented talent who:-

    consistently deliver share-holder returns of 20%+year-on-year

    are responsive to Employee Needs & achieving an

    employee satisfaction index of 90%+ and

    are committed to making Reliance Capital among the

    top 3 Best Employers to work for in India through

    Transparent & Robust HR processes.

    Our Chairmans Vision

    We live in a world where the young are reaching higher,dreaming bigger and demanding more; a world that is

    challenging the limits of hope and possibility. Nowhere

    is this more strikingly visible than in India a country

    that wakes up every morning a little younger in age, but

    infinitely more ambitious in spirit.

    About The Project

    The duration of my project was of two months during

    these two months I did many things regarding my project

    as I was also the part of operations I also understands

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    how the operations department works at Reliance money.

    How the shares of the client are kept in electronic form

    in the clients account and how it is dematerialized by

    operations department at Reliance money.


    It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that

    randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change

    takes place in structured format.


    Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before

    never used to believe in training. They were holding the

    traditional view that managers are born and not made.

    There were also some views that training is a very costly

    affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more

    in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be


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    The modern approach of training and development is that

    Indian Organizations have realized the importance of

    corporate training. Training is now considered as more of

    retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian

    Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce

    and yield the best results.


    It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of

    knowledge, sharpening of skills, , rules, or changing of

    attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of

    employees. Training is activity leading to skilled

    behavior Its not what you want in life, but its knowing

    how to reach it Its not where you want to go, but its

    knowing how to get there Its not how high you want to

    rise, but its knowing how to take off It may not be quite

    the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an

    outcome Its not what you dream of doing, but its

    having the knowledge to do it Its not a set of goals, but

    its more like a vision Its not the goal you set, but its

    what you need to achieve it Training is about knowing

    where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current.

    situation looks) at present, and where you will be after

    some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of

    knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through

    professional development.

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    Importance of Training and Development

    Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Training

    and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of

    human resource that further helps the employee to

    achieve the organizational goals as well as their

    individual goals

    . Development of Human Resources Training and

    Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad

    structure for the development of human resources

    technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also

    helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

    Development of skills of employees Training andDevelopment helps in increasing the job knowledge and

    skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the

    horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of

    the employees.

    Productivity Training and Development helps in

    increasing the productivity of the employees that helps

    the organization further to achieve its long-term goal

    Team spirit Training and Development helps ininculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal tolearn with in the employees

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    Organization Culture Training and Developmenthelps to develop and improve the organizational healthculture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning

    culture within the organization. Organization Climate Training and Developmenthelps building the positive perception and feeling aboutthe organization. The employees get these feelings fromleaders, subordinates, and peers. Quality Training and Development helps inimproving upon the quality of work and work-life

    . Healthy work-environment Training andDevelopment helps in creating the healthy workingenvironment. It helps to build good employee,relationship so that individual goals aligns withorganizational goal. Health and Safety Training and Development helps inimproving the health and safety of the organization thuspreventing obsolescence. Morale Training and Development helps inimproving the morale of the work force. Image Training and Development helps in creating abetter corporate image. Profitability Training and Development leads toimproved profitability and more positive attitudestowards profit orientation.

    Training and Development aids in organizationaldevelopment i.e. Organization gets more effectivedecision making and problem solving. It helps inunderstanding and carrying out organizational policies. Training and Development helps in developingleadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, andother aspects that successful workers and managers

    usually display.

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    The principal objective of training and developmentdivision is to make sure the availability of a skilled andwilling workforce to an organization. In addition to that,there are four other objectives: Individual,Organizational, Functional, and Societal.Individual Objectives help employees in achieving

    their personal goals, which in turn ,enhances theindividual contribution to an organization.Organizational Objectives assist the organization withits primary objective by bringing individualeffectiveness.Functional Objectives maintain the departmentscontribution at a level suitable to the organizationsneeds.Societal Objectives ensure that an organization isethically and socially responsible to the needs andchallenges of the society.

    Importance of Training Objectives

    Training objective is one of the most important parts of

    training program. While some people think of trainingobjective as a waste of valuable time. Thecounterargument here is that resources are always limitedand the training objectives actually lead the design oftraining. It provides the clear guidelines and develops thetraining program in less time because objectives focusspecifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan.

    Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected

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    out of him at the end of the training program. Trainingobjectives are of great significance from a number ofstake holder

    1. Trainer2. Trainee3. Designer4. Evaluator

    Trainer The training objective is also beneficial totrainer because it helps the trainer to measure the

    progress of trainees and make the required adjustments.Also, trainer comes in a position to establish arelationship between objectives and particular segmentsof training.

    Trainee The training objective is beneficial to thetrainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of thetrainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything orgoing to a place which is unknown creates anxiety thatcan negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is importantto keep the participants aware of the happenings, ratherthan keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase inconcentration, which is the crucial factor to make thetraining successful. The objectives create an image of thetraining program in trainees mind that actually helps in

    gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to bechallenging and motivating, then the likelihood ofachieving those goals is much higher than the situation inwhich no goal is Set. Therefore, training objectives helpsin increasing the probability that the participants will besuccessful in training.

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    Designer The training objective is beneficial to thetraining designer because if the designer is aware what isto be achieved in the end then hell buy the training

    package according to that only. The training designerwould then look for the training methods, trainingequipments, and training content accordingly to achievethose objectives .Further more, planning always helps indealing effectively in an unexpected situation .Consideran example; the objective of one training program is todeal effectively with customers to increase the sales.

    Since the objective is known, the designer will design atraining program that will include ways to improve theinterpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verballanguage, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when thereis a defect in a product or when a customer is angry.Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not bedesigned appropriately.

    Evaluator It becomes easy for the training evaluator tomeasure the progress of the trainees because theobjectives define the expected performance of trainees.Training objective is an important to tool to judge theperformance of participants.

    Training and Human Resource Management

    The HR functioning is changing with time and with thischange, the relationship between the training functionand other management activity is also changing. Thetraining and development activities are now equallyimportant with that of other HR functions. Gone are the

    days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of

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    time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is aninvestment because the departments such as, marketing& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training

    for its survival. If training is not considered as a priorityor not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it isdifficult to accept that such a company has effectivelycarried out HRM. Training actually provides theopportunity to raise the profile development activities inthe organization

    To increase the commitment level of employees andgrowth in quality movement(concepts of HRM), seniormanagement team is now increasing the role of training.Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as wellas greater emphasis on employee development and longterm education.

    Training is now the important tool of Human ResourceManagement to control the attrition rate because it helpsin motivating employees, achieving their professionaland personal goals, increasing the level of jobsatisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a varietyof skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

    Role of HRD Professionals in Training

    This is the era of cut-throat competition and with thischanging scenario of business; the role of HRprofessionals in training has been widened. HR role nowis:1. Active involvement in employee education

    2. Rewards for improvement in performance

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    3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and selfworth4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill

    development education and post employment supportfor advanced education and training6. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.

    Models of Training

    Training is a sub-system of the organization because thedepartments such as, marketing& sales, HR, production,finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Trainingis a transforming process that requires some input and inturn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills,and attitudes (KSAs).


    A System is a combination of things or parts that mustwork together to perform a particular function. Anorganization is a system and training is a sub system ofthe organization. The System Approach views training asa sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives,

    functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationshipbetween the sequential stages in the process of trainingneed analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, andevaluating. There are 4necessary inputs i.e. technology,man, material, time required in every system to produceproducts or services. And every system must have someoutput from these inputs in order to survive. The output

    can be tangible or intangible depending upon the

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    organizations requirement. A system approach totraining is planned creation of training program. Thisapproach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the

    problems. Under systematic approach, training isundertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort,one such basic model of five steps is system model thatis explained below. Organization are working in openenvironment i.e. there are some internal and externalforces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore,trainers need to be aware of these forces which may

    impact on the content, form, and conduct of the trainingefforts. The internal forces are the various demands ofthe organization for a better learning environment; needto be up to date with the latest technologies. The threemodel of training are:1. System Model2. Instructional System Development Model3. Transitional model

    System Model Training

    The system model consists of five phases and should berepeated on a regular basis to make furtherimprovements. The training should achieve the purposeof helping employee to perform their work to required

    standards. The steps involved in System Model oftraining are as follows:

    1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyzethe department,

    2. employees requirement, who needs training, what do

    they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next

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    step is to develop a performance measure on the basis ofwhich actual performance would be evaluated.

    3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs.This step requires developing objectives of training,identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuringthe contents.

    4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities inthe training program that will assist the participants to

    learn, selecting delivery method, examining the trainingmaterial, validating information to be imparted to makesure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.

    5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system becauseone wrong step can lead to the failure of whole trainingprogram.

    6. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it hasachieved its aim in terms of subsequent workperformance. Making necessary amendments to any ofthe previous stage in order to remedy or improve failurepractices

    Instructional System Development

    Model(ISD) Model

    Instructional System Development model was made toanswer the training problems. This model is widely used

    now-a-days in the organization because it is concernedwith the training need on the job performance. Training

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    objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilitiesand job description and on the basis of the definedobjectives individual progress is measured. This model

    also helps in determining and developing the favorablestrategies, sequencing the content, and delivering mediafor the types of training objectives to be achieved. TheInstructional System Development model comprises offive stages:

    1. ANALYSIS This phase consist of training need

    assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.

    2. PLANNING This phase consist of setting goal of thelearning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types oftraining material, media selection, methods of evaluatingthe trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies toimpart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing ofcontent, etc.

    3. DEVELOPMENT This phase translates designdecisions into training material. It consists of developingcourse material for the trainer including hand outs,workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, coursematerial for the trainee including hand outs of summary.

    4. EXECUTION This phase focuses on logisticalarrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting,parking, and other training accessories.

    5. EVALUATION The purpose of this phase is to

    make sure that the training program has achieved its aim

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    in terms of subsequent work performance. This phaseconsists of identifying strengths and weaknesses andmaking necessary amendments to any of the previous

    stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

    The ISD model is a continuous process that laststhroughout the training program. It also highlights thatfeedback is an important phase throughout the entiretraining program. In this model, the output of one phaseis an input to the next phase. Transitional model focuses

    on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describesthe vision, mission and values of the organization on thebasis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.

    Vision focuses on the mile stones that the organizationwould like to achieve after the defined point of time. Avision statement tells that where the organization seesitself few years down the line. A vision may includesetting a role mode, or bringing some internaltransformation, or may be promising to meet some otherdeadlines

    Mission explain the reason of organizational existence.It identifies the position in the community. The reason ofdeveloping a mission statement is to motivate, inspire,

    and in form the employees regarding the organization.The mission statement tells about the identity that howthe organization would like to be viewed by thecustomers, employees, and all other stake holders.

    Values is the translation of vision and mission intocommunicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of

    the organization and is independent of current industry

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    environment. For example, values may include socialresponsibility, excellent customer service, etc.Themission, vision, and values precede the objective in the

    inner loop. This model considers the organization as awhole. The objective is formulated keeping these threethings in mind and then the training model is furtherimplemented.


    In todays competitive world, where margins areconstantly under pressure, training budgets are the first toaxed. So it becomes imperative that the training modelthat is evolved should be less capital intensive and notdependent upon profit margins and profitability.Although training needs are identified much beforetraining programmed actually commence but still somecrucial points are left some un-addressed. For examplevery little is done to know the opinion of the employeeabout training need identified for him as to what he feelsabout the same .99% cases employee is nominated byhigher authorities instead of chance being given tovolunteer program under notion that boss is always rightand he knows the best off. Taking this in context thereare many organization where some employee who are

    earmarked are regularly nominated to attend trainingprogram. He is stressed out, why dont pack him up fora training program approach.


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    Irrespective of the type or method of training, atrainer has to keep in mind some of the principles oflearning or motivation, which would enhance

    internationalization of what is taught.


    A trainee needs to have a desire to learn and benefitfrom the programme. If the is not interested, or is de-

    motivated, the learning outcome is going to beinsignificant and the company will have spent its money badly. On the other hand, being too intense aboutlearning and outcome may result in setting overambitious goals for the individual.


    Following on the concept of motivation is that ofreinforcement. For learning to take place and beinternalized to the desired extent, a trainee is rewarded orgiven some encouragement. This reinforcement, or theacknowledgement that what has been acquire disdesirable, can be either an extrinsic or intrinsic reward-external praise or some tangible reward, or the

    individuals feeling of a sense of progress. Current stressis on positive support and helpful behavior, even whenmistakes are made.


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    During the training process, it is useful for the trainee tobe told how he is progressing. Several researchers haveconfirmed that knowledge of results is an effective

    motivator. Constant and periodic feedback has positiveeffects on the trainees learning. Unless the traineeknows how close his performance comes to the desiredstandard, he will not have an opportunity to improve.Feedback therefore provides a basis for correctingoneself. Secondly, feedback helps to sustain the traineesinterest in the task, or in each learning that is taking

    place, by bringing greater involvement with the learningprocess. If feedback is to be meaningful, it should followa learning segment as quickly as possible.

    Transfer of Learning

    The maximum use of training can be made if the traineeis able to transfer his learning to his actual work role.This is possible if identical elements are incorporated inthe training situation from the job role, either existing orproposed. The more similar the learning situation is tothe job situation, the higher the degree of transfer thetrainee can expect,and hence the grater the relevance ofthe training programme.


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    Repetition etches a pattern into our memory, e.g., whenone studies for an examination, itis necessary torepeatedly to over ideas so that they can be recalled later.


    Relevance relates to the meaningful fuse of material,which aids learning, e.g., trainersusually explain in theoverall purpose of a job to trainees before assigning themaparticular task


    There are three basic types of inputs;




    The primary purpose of training is to establishing asound relationship is at its best when the workers attitudeto the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the necessaryskills. Training activities in an industrial organization are

    aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitudes

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    and knowledge of employee so that they perform theirjobs most efficiently and effectively.



    These have a requirement for induction into the companyas a whole in terms of its business activities andpersonnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditionsand benefits appropriate to the particular employee, andthe career and advancement opportunities available.


    These are people who are moved from one job to

    another, either within the same work area, i.e. the samedepartment or function, or to dissimilar work under adifferent management. Under this heading we areexcluding promotions, which take people into entirelynew levels of responsibility.


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    Although similar to the transferee in that there is a newjob to be learned in new surroundings, he is dissimilar inthat the promotion has brought him to a new level ofsupervisory or management responsibility. The change isusually too important and difficult to make successfullyto permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it upashe goes along and attention has to be paid to training inthe tasks and the responsibilitiesand personal skillsnecessary for effective performance.


    Even the most experienced operator has everything to

    learn when a computer andelectronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system ontheprocess plant on which he works. There is no less atraining requirement for thesupervisors and processmanagement, as well as for technical service productioncontroland others.


    Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial andadministrative functions but also for those who weworkplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any

    occasion on which there is a modification to existing

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    paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawalofmaterials from stores, the control of customer credit theapproval of expense claims,there needs to be instruction

    on the change in the way of working in many instances,anote bringing the attention of all concerned the changeis assume to be sufficient, butthere are cases, such aswhen total new systems in corporating IT up dates areinstalled,when more thorough training is needed.


    Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed byprinted note or by word of mouth by the manager to hissubordinates, and this can be the most satisfaction way ofdealing with the change from the point of view of getting

    those affected to understand their new responsibility.However not all changes under this heading can be left tothis sort of handling. Even the simplest lookinginstruction may be regarded as undesirable orimpracticable by whoever has to perform it he may notunderstand the purpose behind the change and loseconfidence in a management which he now believes to

    be messing about, or he may understand the purposeand have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late.


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    These can arise, as a result of management decisions, in anumber of ways. In examples, the recognition of theaccounts department can result in a realization of

    responsibilities between the section leaders of creditcontrol, invoicing and customer records, although thereis no movement of staff between the sections (i.e. notransfers). Although the change in work content for eachclerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person inthe new procedures, there is nevertheless a need for eachperson to know where he stands in the new set up, which

    is responsible for what, and where to direct problems andenquiries as they arise in the future.


    We are here concerned with maintenance of standardsthrough training, for it must beremembered that

    supervision and inspection and qualify control arecontinuouslyresponsible for standards and exercise theirown authorities to this end. Although it isgenerallyagreed that some retraining from time to time, takingvaried forms even for theon group of employees, does actas both a reminder and a stimulus, there is notmuchagreement on the next frequency and form that such

    retraining should take, of there is asyet little scientific

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    knowledge on this subject which is of much use inindustrialsituations.


    Again, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss ofability to learn new skills inthose cases where peoplespend a long time without change, and without the needtolearn, there is increasing evidence in current experienceto suggest that this is the case inindustrial employment.Add, of course, there is the inference arising from thelaboratoryexperiments of psychologists.


    Skills in supervising, employee appraisal,communications, leadership etc are importantin allcompanies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to

    major developments incompany organisation, culture,employee empowerment and so on. Initial training inthese skills is not uncommon in the largest companies onappointment into management and supervision. Butcontinuous training and performance monitoring is rare,despite thecommon knowledge that standards are asvaried as human nature.

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    Employees of any position in the company who areheading towards retirement willbenefit from learningabout health, social life, work opportunities moneymanagementetc. Internal or external courses are bestattended a year or two before retirement date, ina fewcompanies a member of Personnel will act as a counseloras required.


    Employees and the organization need to realize the

    importance of contribution and learning for mutualgrowth and development. Training is the answer to dealwith stagnation stage by constantly updating it in everyfield.

    Other benefits of training include:

    Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attracta better quality Workforce.

    Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.

    Enhancing workforce flexibility.Cross-culturaltraining is essential for t them for

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    better adjustment in the new environment.

    Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty

    booster. Employee motivation is also enhanced when theemployee knows that the organization would providethem opportunities to increase their skills andknowledge.

    It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping

    abreast of the latest changes; it acts as a catalyst forchange.

    Higher customer satisfaction and lower support costresults through improved service, increased productivityand greater sufficiency.

    Training acts as benchmark for hiring promoting andcareer planning.

    It acts act as a retention tool by motivating employeeto the vast opportunities for growth available in anorganization.


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    There are a number of expressions used to describe stepstaken by management and bytraining offices at theconclusion of training and during the days or weeksafterwards.These expressions include validation,evaluation, follow-up and implementation, as wellas costbenefit, which have appeared in more recent years. Weare interested in all of these and have already tackled one

    of the, implementation, and we start by giving ourdefinitions in order to establish a clearer picture of whateach is, and how they relate toeach other.

    Evaluation of training, or, indeed of anything,consists simply of putting a value to it. To evaluatetraining means undertaking a search for the effect that ithas had on the peopleand the situations, which itinfluences, and then trying to measure or estimatewhether this is advantageous or disadvantageous. Weshall see that at the level of pure training there is anevaluation to be made, but that the principal evaluation isat a higher level in the chain.

    First the chain of intentions is clear at the outset

    1. The forecourt attendants were to receive training to adefined level of competence.

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    2. They were then to apply their new capability correctlyduring the service that they gave to motorists.

    3. The motorists would respond to this with a reaction of pleasure and would tend to use that particular stationrather more, thus increasing the amount of gasoline sold.

    4. The increased sales, and negligible increased costs,would improve the revenue and the profits.


    In the new era new era, challenges for the trainer are tocreate learning environment.Trainer needs to innovatenew ways design and deliver the training inputs. Widerange of technique like interactive methods like teaching,experiential learning cases inventories games, includinghumour. Where as we have the ancient way of storytelling as apowerful tool to create learning for adultmanagers of industry. Sharing ones own perception,

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    experience and ideas learning value can be increasedexponentially.

    Methods of Training

    There are various methods of training, which can bedivided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainersneed to understand the pros and cons of each method,alsoits impact on trainees keeping their background andskills in mind before giving training.Cognitive methodsare more of giving theoretical training to the trainees.The variousmethods under Cognitive approach providethe rules for how to do something, written orverbalinformation, demonstrate relationships among concepts,etc. These methods areassociated with changes inknowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.Thevarious methods that come under Cognitive approach


    LECTURES A Method of Training

    It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method isused to create understanding ofa topic or to influencebehavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in

    printed ororal form. Lecture is telling someone aboutsomething. Lecture is given to enhance theknowledge oflistener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic.Training is basicallyincomplete without lecture. Whenthe trainer begins the training session by telling theaim,goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used intraining that means thetrainer is using the lecture method.

    It is difficult to imagine training without lectureformat.There are some variations in Lecture method. The

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    variation here means that someforms of lectures areinteractive while some are not.StraightLecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting

    information, which thetrainee attempts to absorb. In thismethod, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic.However, it does not involve any kind of interactionbetween the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may alsotake the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc.The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainers intonation, control of

    speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer.The trainer in case of straightlecture can decide to varyfrom the training script, based on the signals from thetrainees,whereas same material in print is restricted towhat is printed.A good lecture consists of introduction ofthe topic, purpose of the lecture, and prioritiesand preferences of the order in which the topic will becovered.

    Main Features of Lecture MethodSome of the main features of lecture method are:

    Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once

    Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods oftrainee inactivity

    Demonstration Training Method

    This method is a visual display of how something works

    or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows

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    the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of thejob. In order to be more effective, demonstration methodshould be should be accompanied by the discussion or

    lecture method. To carry out an effective demonstration,a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking thetask to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes thosemodules and prepares an explanation for why that part isrequired. While performing the demonstration, trainer:

    Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, whiledoing Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects ofthe task Tells the trainees what you will be doing so theyunderstand what you will be showing them Explains why it should be carried out in that wayThedifference between the lecture method and thedemonstration method is the level ofinvolvement of thetrainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee isinvolved.The financial costs that occur in thedemonstration method are as follows: Cost of training facility for the program Cost of materials that facilitate training Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers

    Compensation of time spent in training to trainers andtrainees Cost related to creating content, material Cost related to the organization of the training

    After completing the demonstration the trainer providefeedback, both positive and ornegative, give the trainee

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    the opportunity to do the task and describe what he isdoing andwhy.

    Discussion Training Method

    This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners withcontext that is supported, elaborated, explains, orexpanded on through interactions both among thetrainees and between the trainer and the trainees. Theinteraction and the communication between these two

    make it much more effective and powerful than thelecture method. If the Discussion method is used withproper sequence i.e. lectures, followed by discussion andquestioning, can achieve higher level knowledgeobjectives, such as problem solving and principlelearning.The Discussion method consists a two-way flowof communication i.e. knowledge in theform of lecture iscommunicated to trainees, and then understanding isconveyed back bytrainees to trainer.Understanding isconveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedbackthat enablesthe trainer to determine whether the materialis understood. If yes, then definitely itwould help out thetrainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not,the trainer mayneed to spend more time on that particulararea by presenting the information again in adifferent

    manner.Questioning can be done by both ways i.e. thetrainees and the trainer. When the traineesask questions,they explain their thinking about the content of thelecture. A trainer whoasks questions stimulates thinkingabout the content of the lecture. Asking andrespondingquestions are beneficial to trainees because it enhanceunderstanding andkeep the trainees focused on the

    content. Besides that, discussions, and interactions

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    allowthe trainee to be actively engaged in the material ofthe trainer. This activity helps in improving recall.

    Computer-Based Training (CBT)

    With the world-wide expansion of companies andchanging technologies, the demandsfor knowledge andskilled employees have increased more than ever, whichin turn, isputting pressure on HR department to providetraining at lower costs. Many organizationsare now

    implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom basedtraining to accomplishthose goals

    Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are:

    According to a recent survey, about 75% of theorganizations are providing training toemployees throughIntranet or Internet. Internet is not the method of training,but hasbecome the technique of delivering training. Thegrowth of electronic technology hascreated alternativetraining delivery systems. CBT does not require face-to-faceinteraction with a human trainer. This method is sovaried in its applications that it isdifficult to describe inconcise terms.

    The various methods that come under Cognitiveapproach are :




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    Behavioral methods are more of giving practical trainingto the trainees. The variousmethods under Behavioral

    approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion.Thesemethods are best used for skill development.

    The various methods that come under Behavioralapproach are:




    Both the methods can be used effectively to changeattitudes, but through differentmeans.Another Method isMANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD


    Coaching is one of the training methods, which isconsidered as a corrective method forinadequate performance. According to a survey conducted byInternational CoachFederation (ICF), more than 4,000companies are using coach for their executives.Thesecoaches are experts most of the time outside

    consultants.A coach is the best training plan for the

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    CEOs becauseA It is one-to-one interactionA It can bedone at the convenience of CEOA It can be done onphone, meetings, through e-mails, chatA It provides an

    opportunity to receive feedback from an expertA It helpsin identifying weaknesses and focus on the area thatneeds improvement Thismethod best suits for the peopleat the top because if we see on emotional front, whenaperson reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomesdifficult to find someone to talk to It helps in finding outthe executives specific developmental needs. The needs

    can beidentified through 60 degree performance review.


    The procedure of the coaching is mutuallydetermined by the executive and coach. Theprocedure isfollowed by successive counseling and meetings at theexecutivesconvenience by the coach. 1. Understand theparticipants job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, andresources required to meet the desired expectation 2.Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objectivethat has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan andschedule 4. At the job, show the participant how toachieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance

    improves. For the people at middle-level management,coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; howeverexperts from outside the organization are at times usedfor up- and-coming managers. Again, the personalizedapproach assists the manger focus on definite needs andimprovement


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    Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring

    provides guidance and clear understanding of how theorganizationgoes to achieve its vision and mission to thejunior employeeThe meetings are not as structured andregular than in coaching. Executive mentoringisgenerally done by someone inside the company. Theexecutive can learn a lot frommentoring. By dealing withdiverse mentees, the executive is given the chance to

    growprofessionally by developing management skillsand learning how to work with peoplewith diverse background, culture, and language and personalitytypesExecutives also have mentors. In cases where theexecutive is new to the organization, asenior executivecould be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executivesettled into hisrole. Mentoring is one of the importantmethods for preparing them to be futureexecutives. Thismethod allows the mentor to determine what is requiredto improvementees performance. Once the mentoridentifies the problem, weakness, and the areathat needsto be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevanttraining. The mentor canalso provide opportunities towork on special processes and projects that require useofproficiency.Some key points on Mentoring

    Mentoring focus on attitude development Conductedfor management-level employees Mentoring is done bysomeone inside the company It is one-to-one interactionIt helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the areathat needs improvement

    Job Rotation

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    For the executive, job rotation takes on differentperspectives. The executive is usually not simply goingto another department. In some vertically integrated

    organizations, forexample, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, jobrotationmight be to the supplier to seehow the business operatesfrom the supplier point of view. Learning how theorganizationis perceived from the outside broadens theexecutives outlook on the process of theorganization. Orthe rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a

    global perspective.For managers being developed forexecutive roles, rotation to different functions inthecompany is regular carried out.This approach allowsthe manger to operate in diverse roles and understand thedifferentissues that crop up. If someone is to be acorporate leader, they must have this type oftraining. Arecent study indicated that the single most significantfactor that leads toleaders achievement was the varietyof experiences in different departments, businessunits,cities, and countries.An organized and helpful way todevelop talent for the management or executive levelofthe organization is job rotation. It is the process ofpreparing employees at a lower levelto replace someoneat the next higher level. It is generally done for thedesignations thatare crucial for the effective and efficient

    functioning of the organization.Benefits of JobRotationSome of the major benefits of job rotation are: It provides the employees with opportunities to broadenthe horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by workingin different departments, business units, functions, andcountries Identification of Knowledge, skills, andattitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where

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    improvement is required Assessment of the employeeswho have the potential and caliber for filling the position


    There are many management development techniquesthat an employee can take in offthe job. The few popularmethods are:




    Case Study on Training Methods


    Few years ago, ABC Company developed a trainingstrategy for training its global sales force. An importantfeature of the strategy was to create a master trainingplan for each year. The organizations strategic plans,objectives, and functional tactics would drive tthis plan.Once an initial procedure was designed it was then

    evaluated and critiqued thetop management, differentunits, and training council. The input fromthesestakeholderswould be summarized and transferredinto a master training Plan.The major question that wasasked by the designers of training program was,whatresults do we want from salespeople after thetraining program is over? Answer to thisquestion becomes the objective of the training program. Thentraining content was designed, videos were made. The

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    videos took 3 to 6 months to produce. Video containslive production plants, clients offices, partner offices,suppliers,manufacturers locations, and other

    locations.Videos were used to train sales people invarious areas, such as: Market information i.e. about customer profile, marketupdates, and computer integrated manufacturingapplications, etc Sales Process i.e. how to deal in the situation ofconflicts with customer, coaching on undesirable

    behavior, supplement skills developed during livecourses Product information, such as, product usage,applications, system description, product description,comparison with competitors products, etc Policies and procedures, i.e. about sales contests,incentive plans on achieving targets, annual bonuses,winners receiving the best salesperson award to motivatethe sales force Representatives then watch video, followthe directions, and refer to the material if face sanyproblem. When salespeople feel they have mastered theAround thousands of sales persons were getting aspecific video training. The salespeople were gettingtraining material along with the video. Salesmaterial,they would take an exam and call a toll-free number to

    transmit responses toexam.Salespeople who successfully passed an exam were factored into performance andmeritreviews as well as promotional opportunities. Thosewho couldnt pass the exam wereasked to go through thematerial and video again before retaking the exam. Ifthesalesperson failed an exam again, the reportingmanager was notified.

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    This case gives rise to few important questions. Thesequestions are: In todays technological world, is video still the best

    way to deliver training? Is video the most effective way to achieve trainingobjectives? What role did cost of development, cost of delivery,and other constraints play in selection of video deliverysystem?

    Training Need Analysis (TNA)

    An analysis of training need is an essential requirementto the design of effective training. The purpose oftraining need analysis is to determine whether there is agap between what is required for effective performanceand present level of performance.

    Why training need analysis?

    Training need analysis is conducted to determinewhether resources required are available or not. It helpsto plan the budget of the company, areas where trainingis required, and also highlights the occasions wheretraining might not be appropriate but requires alternate

    action. Corporate need and training need areinterdependent because the organization performanceultimately depends on the performance of its individualemployee and its sub group.

    Organizational Level

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    Training need analysis at organizational level focuses onstrategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts withthe assessment of internal environment of the

    organization such as, procedures, structures, policies,strengths, and weaknesses and external environment suchas opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOTanalysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the traininginterventions, while strengths can further be strengthenedwith continued training. Threats can be reduced byidentifying the areas where training is required. And,

    opportunities can be exploited by balancing it againstcosts. For this approach to be successful, the HRdepartment of the company requires to be involved instrategic planning. In this planning, HR developsstrategies to be sure that the employees in theorganization have the required Knowledge, Skills, andAttributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAsrequirements at each level

    Individual Level

    Training need analysis at individual level focuses oneach and every individual in the organization. At thislevel, the organization checks whether an employee isperforming at desired level or the performance is below

    expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training.However, individual competence can also be linked toindividual need. The methods that are used to analyze theindividual need are: Appraisal and performance reviewPeer appraisal Competency assessments Subordinate

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    appraisal Client feedbackCustomer feedbackSelf-assessment or self-appraisal

    Operational Level

    Training Need analysis at operational level focuses onthe workthat is being assigned to the employees. The jobanalyst gathers the information onwhether the job isclearly understood by an employee or not. He gathersthis informationthrough technical interview, observation,

    psychological test; questionnaires asking theclosed endedas well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs aredynamic and keepchanging over the time. Employeesneed to prepare for these changes. The job analystalsogathers information on the tasks needs to be done plusthe tasks that will be required in the future. Based on theinformation collected, training Need analysis (TNA) isdone.


    The design of the training program can be undertakenonly when a clear trainingobjective has been produced.The training objective clears what goal has to be

    achievedby the end of training program i.e. what thetrainees are expected to be able to do at theend of theirtraining. Training objectives assist trainers to design thetraining program.

    The trainer

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    Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes histechnical,interpersonal, judgmental skills in order todeliver quality content to trainers

    The trainees

    A good training design requires close scrutiny of thetrainees and theirprofiles. Age, experience, needs andexpectations of the trainees are some of theimportantfactors that affect training design.

    Training climate

    A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone,feelings,positive perception for training program, etc.Therefore, when the climate is favorablenothing goeswrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almosteverything goes wrong.

    Trainees learning style

    the learning style, age, experience, educationalbackground of trainees must be kept in mind in order toget the right pitch to the design of the program

    Training strategies

    Once the training objective has been identified, thetrainer translates it into specific training areas andmodules. The trainer prepares the priority list of aboutwhat must be included, what could be included.

    Training topics

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    After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon thecontent to be delivered. Trainers break the content into

    headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modulesare then classified into information, knowledge, skills,and attitudes.

    Sequence the contents Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: From simple to complex

    Topics are arranged in terms of their relativeimportance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship

    Training tactics

    Once the objectives and the strategy of the trainingprogram becomes clear, trainer comes in the position toselect most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques.

    The method selection depends on the following factors: Trainees background Time allocated

    Style preference of trainer Level of competence of trainer Availability of facilities and resources, etc.

    Support facilities

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    It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. Thevarious requirements in a training program are whiteboards, flip charts, markers, etc.

    Constraints The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: Time Accommodation, facilities and their availability Furnishings and equipments Budget

    Design of the training, etc.

    Training Implementation

    To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation.Training implementation is the hardest part of the systembecause one wrong step can lead to the failure of wholetraining program. Even the best training program will faildue to one wrong action.Training implementation can be segregated into: Practical administrative arrangements Carrying out of the training Implementing TrainingOnce the staff, course, content, equipments, topics areready, the training is implemented. Completing training

    design does not mean that the work is done becauseimplementation phase requires continual adjusting,redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the mostimportant factor to taste the success. Therefore,following are the factors that are kept in mind whileimplementing training program:

    The trainer

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    The trainers need to be prepared mentally before thedelivery of content. Trainer prepares materials andactivities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds

    before meeting with participants by making sure that heis comfortable with course content and is flexible in hisapproach

    .Physical set-up

    Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and

    successful training program because it makes the firstimpression on participants. Classrooms should not bevery small or big but as nearly square as possible. Thiswill bring people together both physically andpsychologically. Also, right amount of space should beallocated to every participant.

    Establishing rapport with participants

    There are various ways by which a trainer can establishgood rapport with trainees by: Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense momentsEncouraging informal conversation Remembering theirfirst name Pairing up the learners and have themfamiliarized with one another Listening carefully to

    trainees comments and opinions Telling the learners bywhat name the trainer wants to be addressed Getting toclass before the arrival of learners Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time Using familiarexamples Varying his instructional techniques Usingthe alternate approach if one seems to bog down.

    Reviewing the agenda

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    At the beginning of the training program it is veryimportant to review the program objective. The trainer

    must tell the participants the goal of the program, what isexpected out of trainers to do at the end of the program,and how the program will run. The followinginformation needs to be included: Kinds of training activities Schedule Setting group norms

    Housekeeping arrangements Flow of the program Handling problematic situations

    Training Evaluation

    The process of examining a training program is calledtraining evaluation. Training evaluation checks whethertraining has had the desired effect. Training evaluationensures that whether candidates are able to implementtheir learning in their respective workplaces, or to theregular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation

    the five main purposes of training evaluation are:Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learningoutcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining therelationship between acquired knowledge, transfer ofknowledge at the work place, and training. Control: Ithelps in controlling the training program because if the

    training is not effective, then it can be dealt with

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    Particularly in those industries, which have to compete ininternational markets, the management made clear links

    between training policies and the quality of work.

    Change in Corporate culture

    Continuous training was used to transmit new businessstrategies and new organisation culture.

    Organisational Development

    In some organisation where financial responsibilitieswere being decentralized, the training function was alsogetting decentralized. In other training department wasabolished altogether and all managers were maderesponsible for instruction and training.

    Flexible working practices

    Company made a major training program after makingtwo third work forces redundant. This involved bothvocational training and encouraging employee to takeeducational courses in their free time.

    Training and employment package

    In certain companies training formed part of the paypacket offered to employees. It also had a bearing on theLab our turnover percentage of employee. In other waywe can say its like cost to company.

    Corporate structure

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    In some instances I became difficult for managers tomeet business objectives because they had in sufficient

    control over recruitment and training decision. In someother cases rivalries between different divisions of samecompany, prevented the integration of coherent trainingand personal policies at central level.

    The role of professional trainers

    The findings suggest that the role of the professionaltrainer had undergone significant changes. He is todaynot only a mere provider or organiser of training but alsois being seen as an agent or facilitator of change. This because today the management is integrating traininginto the very culture of their organisation. In someorganisation the trainers now have access to keydecision-makers and have established greater legitimacyfor training and development activities.

    Corporate and individual training needs

    Evidence suggests that numbers of organisation areeffectively integrating their training and businessstrategies and progress has been made in training for

    organisational development. Although the need forcontinuing training of manager and professional is beingassessed on a more systematic basis this has not beenextended more widely.


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    The training methods which are generally used in anorganization are classified into two i.e.

    1) On the job: On-the-job training places theemployees in an actual work situation and makes themappear to be immediately productive. It is learning bydoing. For jobs, that either are difficult to simulate orcan be learn quickly by watching and doing on-the-jobtraining makes sense. One of the drawbacks to on-the- job training can be low productivity while the

    employees develop their skills. Another drawback canbe the errors made by the trainees while they learn.However, when the damage the trainees can do isminimal, where training facilities and personnel arelimited or costly, and where it is desirable for theworkers to learn the job under normal workingconditions, the benefits of on-the-job training

    frequently off set its drawbacks.Job Instruction Training: JIT consists of four basicsteps: (a) Preparing the trainees by telling them about thejob and overcoming their uncertainties (b) Presenting theinstruction, giving essential information in a clearmanner;(c) Having the trainees try out the job todemonstrate their understanding; and (d) Placing theworkers into the job, on their own, with a designatedresource person to call upon should they need assistance.

    2) Off the job: Off-the-job training covers a number oftechniques classroom lectures, films, demonstrations,case studies and other simulation exercises, and

    programmed instruction. The facilities needed for each ofthese techniques vary from a small make shift classroom

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    to an elaborate development centre with large lecturehalls, supplemented by small conference rooms withsophisticated audio visual equipment, two-way mirrors,

    and all the frills.(i) Classroom lectures/conferences: The lecture orconference approach is well adapted to conveyingspecific information rules, procedures, or methods. Theuse of audio visuals or demonstrations can often make aformal classroom presentation more interesting whileincreasing retention and offering a vehicle for more

    interesting while increasing retention and offering avehicle for clarifying more difficult points. The lecturesliabilities include possible lack of feedback and the lackof active involvement by the trainees.(ii) Simulation exercises: Any training activity thatexplicitly places the trainee in an artificial environmentthat closely mirrors actual working conditions can beconsidered a simulation. Simulation activities includecase exercises, experimental exercises, complexcomputer modelling, and vestibule training.(iii)Vestibule training: In vestibule training, employeeslearn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, butthe learning is conducted away from the actual workfloor. In the 1980s many large retail chains train cashierson their new computer cash registers which are much

    more complex because they control inventory andperform other functions in addition to ringing up orders in specially created vestibule labs that simulated theactual checkout-counter environment. Training, as a process of long term learning is essentially adevelopmental tool. By effectively utilizing this tool, the

    organization expects to achieve career objectives.

    Contribute towards the career progressions of the

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    employees by importing knowledge of an additional orreinforcing nature, developing skills and bringing aboutdesired attitudinal changes among them. This would not

    merely prove effective in assisting them to achieveorganizational goals but also enable enhancement of theirself-esteem and self-confidences to face external

    challenges. Ours is a changing and dynamicorganization which has to pay considerable emphasis ontraining and retraining its employees to enable them to becompetent, committed and has the capacity to change

    according to the external and internal demands and pressures. Training of employees is not merely theresponsibility of the management or the training cellalone, but the responsibility of department managers aswell. The human resource department must enable theinvolvement of the department managers in the processof employee training and development.


    There are five steps towards the assessment and analysisof training and development ofthe organization.

    Collection of information through interviewing anddiscussing with key personnel both inside and outside theorganization or specific departments; observing the work place, working conditions, processes and outcomes;examining records, other written information and annualemployee appraisal.

    Compare performances of each department and eachemployee against objectives, targets and standards set for

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    them and keeping in mind future work requirements inthe organization.

    Identify cause of problems faced by the organizationto enable the management to train the employees inhandling the problems as well as solving the problem in asatisfactory manner.

    Segregate identified problems into problems requiringstaff development action such as training and into

    problems requiring other management actions, so thatthese problems are accurately addressed.

    Prioritize training actions in accordance to where thetraining need is more urgent.


    Entry training involving new recruits and employeesrequired to take a new job.

    Problem resolution training to meet a shortfall or

    deficiency in job performance.

    Training for change to prepare employees for jobidentified in near future.

    Development to equip employees to meetorganizational changes in future.

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    Training in Global Business World

    With the expansion of the organization, Human Resource

    job in no longer limited to their native country but hasextended worldwide. Localization is a key to successfulexpansion that helps in improving upon workforceconnections, doing the work effectively and efficiently,and reducing global turnover. As the organizations areexpanding globally, training has become quite anessential ingredient to improve performance. However,

    unavailability of budget necessary to achieve goalsresults the training function to be at the bottom ofpriority list. Besides that, managers do not fully adaptaccording to the local environment for the transfer oftraining. Very often, managers use minimum of locallysuitable resources or the most critical material likeemployee hand books. Training success in variouscountries requires cross cultural literacy i.e.understanding of how cultural differences across nationscan affect the way training is given. At the same time,different cultures may or may not be supportive in thetransfer of training, in the sense that cultural factor maylower or raise the cost of training.

    Case Study A very brilliant marketing professional

    went to Arab for the sale of his Companys soft drink.But he came back with no results. When asked about thefailure of the mission, he answered that he prepared threecartoons. Cartoon-1- Displaying a man lookingexhausted and tired, is walking in desert in scorchingheat. Cartoon-2- Displaying the same man opening bottleand drinking the soft drink. Cartoon-3- Displaying the

    man feeling alive and refresh again. Though, his strategy

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    was good, unfortunately fails because he was unawarethat Arab people read from right to left. Moral here islocalization is a key to success. There are some major

    barriers in the transfer of training when it comes togiving training in other countries.


    1. Values and Norms2. Attitude

    3. Age, Gender, and Professional Status

    Language1. Spoken2. Unspoken

    Social Structure1. Individual2. Assumptions3. Group

    Culture - Factor in Global Training Program

    Communicating the information to different people from

    different cultures and different nationalities can give riseto many problems. Many simple things that seem simpleand straightforward to communicate become difficultwhen it comes to communicating in differentenvironment. Giving training in ones own culture isquite different from giving training in different culture.Being a good trainer is not the only requirement but

    understanding socio-economic and cultural backgrounds

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    have now become an important part. Values, norms,attitude are the building blocks of culture. Values meanswhat a group of people believes to be good, bad, right, or

    wrong. Norms means the social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behaviour. Attitude disposes a person to act in a certain way toward something incertain situation. A trainer giving training in differentculture has to keep these things in mind before deliveringcontent. Instances: A good case that concerns attitudetowards time in different cities: People are very punctual

    in United States. People from US tend to come littleearly for any meeting, or when invited for dinner, partyto someones home because in their culture it isconsidered to be polite to arrive on time. In Great Britain,people tend to come late for any appointment. If called at5 P.M., that means come at 5.30 or 6 P.M. Even forArgentineans, coming on exact time is far too early. Forinstance, In US, if the trainer gets late for a scheduledtraining session it is treated as a breach of etiquette. Andit may result in loss of trainers respect and failure intransfer of training. Age, Gender, and Professional Status Different cultures give different regard to age, gender,and professional qualification. For example, in Japan,people give high regard to older people. Older people areregarded as having greater knowledge, skills, wisdom,

    and abilities. Respect in the sense that people are morewilling to listen to and seriously consider theinformation. In such a culture, a young trainer mighthave to work harder to gain attention and face problemsin executing the program and transfer of training.Similarly, some countries are also biased about thegender. Like in Gulf countries, womens role is limited

    to households only. In such a culture, it is not possible

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    for women trainers to undergo training programs becausepeople will not be as receptive as in other culture. Sameis with high professional status- the higher the

    qualification of the trainer, the more will be theimportance attached to the information.

    Language Problem in International Training andDevelopment Programs

    Language comprises of both spoken and unspoken means

    of communication. Bestest of the best training programwill fail if trainer is not well versed in communicatingtrainees language. Language is one of the mostimportant ingredients of culture.

    Spoken Language

    Trainees receiving training prefers to speak in their ownlanguage and trainer being able to speak the locallanguage can help establishing rapport among trainees,which may be very important for the transfer of training.Language is one of the major barriers when it comes togiving training in cross-cultural environment. Chinese isthe mother tongue of the largest number of people(shown below), followed by English and Hindi.

    Percentage of the people speaking their first language

    Unspoken Language

    It means non-verbal communication, a very importantpart of communication. It is a communication that usesbody movements and gestures such as, raising eyebrows,

    smiling, hand movements, facial expressions, etc. A

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    failure to understand unspoken language can lead to afailure of communication because body language is notthe same in every culture. For instance, raising eyebrows

    is a sign of recognition in most cultures, but in somecultures, its not. Similarly, making a circle with thethumb and forefinger is a friendly gesture in the US, butit is obscene invitation in Turkey and Greece. Also,thumbs-up gesture is used to indicate that its fine in theUS and Europe, but it is vulgar gesture in Greece.Another case of unspoken language is the amount of

    distance between the persons talking to each other. InLatin America, the distance adopted by parties in abusiness discussion is 3 to 5 feet while in the US, it is 5to 8 feet. In the training context, if the trainer givestraining in Latin America and maintains a much largerdistance than desired in their culture, then in turn, it mayresult in a regrettable lack of rapport between the trainerand the trainee. Therefore, using the right body languageis very important in cross-cultural training. GlobalTraining Class Social Structure Social Structure refersto basic social organization. It consists of many aspectssuch as, the degree to which the social organization laidemphasis on the individual, as opposed to the group.IndividualismSome countries emphasizes on individualachievement. Western countries emphasize on individual

    performance, this in turn, leads to high level of creativity,high degree of managerial mobility, entrepreneurialactivity, etc. On the other hand, encouragingindividualism also make it difficult to work in teams. Itmay be difficult for them to co-operate which may serveas an obstruction in smooth flow of training. Group Inmost of the countries, group is the primary unit of

    organizations. Like in Japan, the social status of an

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    individual is determined as much as in by standing of thegroup. This may lead to better cooperation; on the otherhand it suppresses entrepreneurial activity, individual

    creativity, etc. This in turn, may result, in loss ofrecognition of individual achievement at work aftertraining. Therefore, trainer has to keep in mind the factorof the individual and the group while giving training because encouraging a particular individual in Japanmight be considered as impolite or

    34 Assumptions We all make assumptions every day. Itmay be positive or negative, good or bad. Assumptionsinfluence our attitudes, perceptions. Most people seewhat they want to see and believe what they want tobelieve. It sometimes leads to coinciding and sometimeclashes. This tendency to make assumptions and formingattitudes regarding certain things can be a big problem ina cross-cultural training. Differences in assumptions cansometimes are very problematic. As an example, trainermay believe that if the trainees do not question, theyunderstand the content. On the other hand, trainees maybelieve that if they will ask question, the trainer mightthink they are dull. Presumptions can sometimes result indisrespect, distrust or resistance to change behaviourafter training. For instance, trainees might misi