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Transcript of Production of Ethanol from cassava wastes in Nigeria ... Garri Fufu Cassava flour Cassava starch...

  • 1Ogbonna, J. C., 1Ndubuisi I. A., 2Murata, Y., 2Omae, H. 1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

    2 Japan International Centre for Agricultural Sciences

    Production of Ethanol from Cassava Processing Wastes in Nigeria

  • Top ten cassava producers in the world

    (2013)

    Country Production (t/year)

    Nigeria 47,406,770

    Thailand 30,227,542

    Indonesia 23,936,920

    Brazil 21,484,218

    Angola 16,411,674

    Ghana 15,989,940

    DR Congo 14,611,911

    Viet Nam 9,757,681

    Cambodia 7,572,344

    India 7,236,600

    Total world production = 268,000,000

    Production of fresh cassava tubers in Nigeria

    Year tonnes

    2007 43,410,000

    2008 44,582,000

    2009 36,822,248

    2010 42,533,180

    2011 46,190,248

    2012 50,950,292

    2013 47,406,770

    2014 56.328,480

    2015 57,643,271

    2016 57,134,478

    Source: FAOSTAT

  • Major products from cassava in Nigeria

    Garri

    Fufu

    Cassava Flour

    Cassava starch

  • Garri

    Fufu

    Cassava flour

    Cassava starch

    Family/cottage processors

    Wastes are scattered and

    used for animal feed

    Many cassava flour and cassava

    starch companies. Many with

    capacity of more than 5 t/day

    and generate average of 495kg

    wastes per tonne

    These wastes can be economically

    converted to bio-ethanol

  • Cassava Processing Wastes

    Peels 250-300 kg/t

    Dust 30 kg/t

    Fibers 20~40 kg

    Cassava flour

    Cassava starch

    Peels 250~300 kg/t

    Pulp 400 kg/t

  • Partially decayed and infested parts are also good

    substrate for bio-ethanol production

  • In order to develop a process for efficient conversion

    of the cassava processing wastes to ethanol, we:

    1. Screened for thermo-tolerant strains of yeast

    2. Optimized their ethanol production from cassava

    processed wastes in flask cultures

    3. Produced ethanol from the wastes using a 5-L jar

    fermentor

  • 0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    P83 S67 P27 P71 S26 S65 S2 S86 S1 P5

    E th

    a n

    o l

    co n

    ce n

    tr a

    ti o

    n (

    % )

    Isolates

    42°C

    45°C

    Ethanol production by the 10 best isolates from

    Nigeria at 42°C and 45°C.

  • Kluyveromyces marxianus.KC544512

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KF646170

    Isolate11

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.JQ425346

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KC544513

    12 34

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KP132325

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KP132326

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KR089884

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KR089890

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KP132326(2)

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KM279376

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KM279377

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KM279378

    14 5

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KR150710

    Kluyveromyces marxianus.KR150711

    Pichia kudriavzevii.KJ706460

    Pichia kudriavzevii.JQ726607

    Pichia kudriavzevii.KJ706301

    Pichia kudriavzevii.KJ706937

    Pichia kudriavzevii.KJ706619

    S26

    S27

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans.JN585718

    70

    70

    66

    35

    99

    44

    18

    17

    8

    67

    90

    69

    56

    100

    42

    48

    0.2

    Phylogenetic tree for the isolates

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    5

    30 40 42 Et

    h an

    o l (

    % v/

    v) Temperature

    Cassava peel

    Cassava pulp

    Effect of temperature on simultaneous

    saccharification and ethanol production from

    cassava pulp and peel.

  • 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    pH3 pH4 pH5 pH6 pH7 Et

    h an

    o l (

    % )

    pH values

    Effects of pH on the maximum ethanol

    concentration produced from 20%

    cassava pulp.

  • 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    YEAST

    EXTRACT

    PEPTONE MALT

    EXTRACT

    AMMONIA

    NITRATE

    UREA SODIUM

    NITRATE

    CONTROL

    PULP

    PEEL

    Effect of nitrogen source on ethanol production from cassava pulp and peel

    Nitrogen source

    E th

    a n

    o l

    co n

    ce n

    tr a ti

    o n

    ( g /l

    )

  • 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    0 24 48 72 E

    th a

    n o

    l (%

    )

    Time (h)

    Cpeel

    Cpulp

    Time courses of ethanol production from

    20% cassava peel and pulp in flask cules

  • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

    0 7 24 48 72

    E th

    a n

    o l

    (% )

    Time (h)

    Fermentation of Cassava pulp using a 5 L jar fermentor

  • Large scale Re-distillation,

    Rectification and

    Dehydration Company

    Petroleum Refinery Industry

    Gasohol

    Gasoline Retailers

    99.5% Ethanol

    40~60% Ethanol

    Small scale

    ethanol production

    Companies

    Yeast seed

    culture

    Companies

    Crude

    enzyme

    companies

    Crude

    amylase

    Yeast paste

    or broth

    Cassava peels/pulp

    Small scale cassava processors

    Industrial cluster model for commercial fuel ethanol production

  • In Nigeria

    57 MT

    Cassava

    tubers

    Processed

    rotten

    Peel

    pulp

    (495kg/t) Wastes

    28.22 MT

    60%

    (16.93 MT) 40%

    (11.29 MT)

    2.032 x 109 L

    Ethanol

    (180L/t)

    Garri

    Fufu

    Flour

    Starch

    Animal feed

    Organic manure

    Summary

  • Conclusion According to National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria

    consumed 54.3 million liters of PMS daily within the first

    quarter of 2017. This requires 5,430,000 L of ethanol per

    day to make E10 gasohol (90% gasoline with 10%

    ethanol), amounting to 1,981,950,000 liters of ethanol per

    year. This can be supplied by converting wastes from

    40% of the annual 57 million tones of cassava to ethanol.

    Currently, Nigerian local refineries are producing only

    about 8 million liters of PMS per day. This requires only

    800,000 liters of ethanol per day (292,000,000 L per

    annum) and can be supplied by converting wastes from

    only 5.84% of cassava produced in Nigeria.

  • THANKS I hereby express my gratitude to IRENA for

    inviting me to participate in this meeting and

    thank all of you for listening.