Production and Consumption of Raw Milk - Southern 2010.pdf•CDC: 1998 - 2005 > 45 outbreaks,...

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Transcript of Production and Consumption of Raw Milk - Southern 2010.pdf•CDC: 1998 - 2005 > 45 outbreaks,...

  • Production and Consumption of Raw Milk

    Michael Payne DVM, PhD

    Western Institute for Food Safety and Security

    University of California - Davis

    Can science inform the debate pitting

    consumer choice and public health ?

  • A cornucopia of raw milk issues to

    be covered today

    Background on raw milk

    consumption in the U.S.

    How California became an

    epicenter in the debate.

    Common claims made by

    raw milk advocates.

    Extreme danger of retail

    raw milk sales.

    Can raw milk be made safer

    and if so how?

  • Raw Milk:

    Panacea or


    Less then 0.5% of U.S. milk is

    consumed unpasteurized.

    In spite of this raw milk and cheese

    result in approximately twice the

    outbreaks as conventional products.

    About half the states allow some

    method of legal raw milk sales.

    Instate shipment of raw milk for

    human consumption (except for

    processing first) is illegal.

    CDC: 1998 - 2005 > 45 outbreaks, 100

    illness, 2 deaths from raw milk or raw

    milk cheeses.

  • A partial list of health benefits attributed to raw

    milk consumption include prevention or cure of:








    infertility & impotence

    irritable bowel

    lactose intolerance

    tooth decay

    certain cancers

    various diseases of the

    heart, kidney and prostate.

  • raw milk is not only healthy but a safe food for all

    members of the family, even babies. To find raw milk

    in your area

  • State Regulations Regarding Raw Cow* Milk

    Sales For Human Consumption

    From the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (2008)

    * Excludes raw goat milk sales & regulations.

    States Which Allow Retail Raw Cow Milk Sales (11 + 1)

    AZ, CA, CT, ID, ME, MO, NV, NH, NM, PA, WA

    (UT only if the farmer owns the store)

    States Which Allow Raw Milk Sales Only On-Farm (11 + 3)

    CO*, IL, KS, MA, NE, NY, OK, SC, SD, TX, VT

    (*CO: Cow shares specifically legal)

    (MN & WI: incidental on-farm typically w/o advertizing )

    (OR: < 3 cow herd with 2 milking)

    States Dont Allow Raw Cow Milk Sales (24)

    AL, AK, AR, DE, FL, GA, HI, IN, IA, KY, LA, MD, MI, MS, MT,

    NJ, NC, ND, OH, RI, TN, VA, WV, WY

    States Which Specifically Prohibit Animal Shares (9)

    AK, FL, GA, HI, IA, MD, NC, UT, WV

    States That Allow Some Form of Routine Raw Cow Milk Sales (22)

  • 2006 E. coli / California raw milk outbreak

    5/6 children (4 , 2 average 8 yrs, range 6-18) w/ bloody diarrhea report

    consuming same Fresno dairy brand raw

    products (whole & skim milk, colostrum)

    within one week of symptoms, Sept. 5 -24.

    3 hospitalized, 2 with HUS.

    Control: 50 O157:H7 consecutive cases

    from October to June: no raw milk drank.

    5 fecals available: indistinguishable DNA

    patterns (genetic finger-prints) new to

    CDCs PulseNet database; different from

    spinach outbreak strain.

    No suspect product still available.

    Oct. 31 non-outbreak O157:H7 was

    isolated from 3 heifers.

    Colostrum had fecal coliforms ranging

    from 320,000 to 140,000,000 MPN/gram. Counties Involved

  • Bruce T. Clark Esq.

    IAFP Presentation 2009

  • Chris Martin California O157:H7 patient Courtesy: William Marler Esq.

    Marler-Clark Attorneys at Law

  • Other recent raw milk outbreaks 2007 - Campylobacter 8 ill. One

    available human fecal sample had

    same DNA finger-print as fecal from 4

    cows from the same Fresno dairy. No

    suspect product available for testing.

    2007 - Listeria recall from the same

    Fresno dairys raw cream. No illnesses


    2008 - Campylobacter recall Fresno

    dairys raw cream. No illnesses


    2008 Campylobacter 16 ill, one

    paralyzed with GBS from a illegal Del

    Norte cow share dairy.

    Also during 2008 there were 3

    outbreaks in PN, CT, WA and 7

    warnings or recalls in WA, NY, PN,

  • AB 1735 Implemented January 1, 2008

    AB 1735 mandated that raw milk for human

    consumption meet the same sanitary standards

    as pasteurized milk (esp. 10 coliforms / ml).

  • Hearings by Senate & Assembly Ag Committees

  • My oral and written

    testimony contained

    ten suggestions for

    making raw milk for

    human consumption

    safer while still


    consumer choice.

    A summary of these

    ten proposals


  • The Raw Milk Mantra 1) Raw milk products have never been shown conclusively to

    have made anyone sick.

    2) Cows raised on pastures dont have pathogens.

    3) Even if pathogens were present, the good coliforms present

    in raw milk would kill the bad pathogens.

    4) Raw milk causes far fewer illnesses then does pasteurized milk.

    5) The amount of illness caused by raw milk is far exceeded by

    the good it does by minimizing disease.

    Mark McAfee, owner of Organic Pastures Dairy

    Company, Fresno Ca.

    Melissa and Lauren Herzog

  • 2005 Washington & Oregon E. coli Outbreak E. coli cases identified among consumers

    participating in a unlicensed cow share

    program offered by Dee Creek Farm, a dairy

    with 5 milk cows in Woodland, WA.

    A court order made the shareholder list

    available to public health investigators

    allowing them to interview 43/45 families.

    Of 140 reporting consumption 18 became

    ill, (ave. 8 YO, range 1- 47 yrs), 5 patients

    age 1-9 yrs hospitalized, 4 with HUS (CDC).

    Relative risk increased with # of cups milk.

    O157:H7 PFGE patterns from 7 patients, 2

    milk samples and 7 environmental samples

    were indistinguishable. No O157:H7 was

    cultured from the 5 cows.

    June 08 owners pled guilty to distributing

    adulterated food. Judge refused to enforce

    one year probation plea agreement. Still

    operating but without raw milk. Dee Creek Farm website photo & owners Mike and Anita Puckett

  • Investigations into Dee Creek Outbreak

    No documentation for Bangs or TB testing.

    Beef cattle contact with wild elk.

    No water or waste water system in barn.

    No hand washing sinks.

    No bacteriological testing for farms well-water.

    Mud/manure/standing water at parlor entrance.

    Direct contact of milking bucket unclean surfaces.

    Multiple opportunities for X-contamination.

    Processing area & domestic kitchen not separate.

    No raw milk warning label on containers.

    Dee Creek Outbreak Investigation

    Washington State Requires

    License for production and processing.

    Separate production & processing facilities.

    Warning labels applied.

    TB, Brucellosis, Q fever testing.

    Only fluid milk & cream, no colostrum, no lattes.

    Cheese cured for 60 days.

    No food service, farmers markets, or free samples.

    Sanitary hand bottling is allowed.

    WSDA performs monthly pathogen testing.

  • Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 Associated with Raw Milk, Connecticut, 2008

    Connecticut Department of Public Health

  • 2) Cows raised on pastures dont have pathogens.

  • 3) Even if pathogens were present, the good coliforms present

    in raw milk would kill the bad pathogens.

  • Similar raw milk sponsored data for colostrum

    3) Even if pathogens were present, the good coliforms present

    in raw milk would kill the bad pathogens.

  • 4) Raw milk causes far few illnesses then does pasteurized milk.

    Courtesy: William Marler Esq.

    Marler-Clark Attorneys at Law

  • Making Raw Milk Saferor

    When Cooperative Extension Turns Into A Blood Sport

    American Veterinary Medical

    Association Annual MeetingJuly 11, 2009

    Michael Payne DVM, PhD

  • #1: Maintain Equal Sanitation Standards

    For Raw And Pasteurized Milk

    2007 Survey: Washington State (23 raw dairies) & and

    Maine (19 dairies) maintain both a 10 coliform/ ml limit and

    vibrant and robust raw milk industries.

  • #2: Require Recording Devices For

    Equipment Cleaning Of Raw Dairies

    Research performed by UC demonstrates that recording

    devices installed on Clean-In-Place (CIP) systems will

    reveal inadequate cleaning-sanitation procedures that

    are not always indicated by high bacterial counts.

    Sanitizer for CIP system

  • #3: Require Development Of A HACCP

    Plan For Each Raw Dairy

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is the most common

    and successful method food processing companies use to establish

    and document adherence to critical food safety procedures

    However there can be no functional HACCP without rigorous

    sanitation testing to verify compliance (i.e. tests to show that the

    HACCP program is actually working).

  • #4: Criminal Penalties For Out-sourcing

    From Non-licensed Dairies

    A California raw milk dairy reports it brings in dairy