Processing Tomato Research Update - Ridgetown Winter Wheat...

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Transcript of Processing Tomato Research Update - Ridgetown Winter Wheat...

  • Processing Tomato Research Update

    Laura L. Van Eerd lvaneerd@ridgetownc.uoguelph.ca

    University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

    mailto:lvaneerd@ridgetownc.uoguelph.ca�

  • Winter Wheat – Tomato Rotation

    Winter wheat management practices: 1) no treatment - leaving the straw in the field 2) removing straw after wheat harvest 3) leaving the straw in the field plus fall nitrogen

    fertilizer at 30 lb N/ac

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Methods

     Tomato N treatments  1) no nitrogen fertilizer applied  2) N applied at recommended rate Ridgetown: preplant broadcast incorporated

    CAN 130 lb N/ac Leamington: preplant and split application

    100 + 100 lb N/ac 110 + 77 lb N/ac

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Tomato – Wheat Residue

    At Ridgetown site, wheat residue on 6 June 2008 in a) no treatment – straw left in field, b) straw + fall N, and c) straw removed.

    Highest

    Low

    High

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Soil Moisture and Temperature

    It is doubtful that these differences would have a large impact on planting operations

    Wheat residue treatment Ridgetown 2008 Leamington 2009

    Moisture Temperature Temperature

    Straw left in field 17.6 a 12.9 a 15.45 a Straw removed 15.4 b 13.1 b 15.34 b

    Straw left + fall N 17.5 a 12.9 a 15.42 a

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Nitrogen Dynamics (3 site-years)

    Treatment N in

    shoots at harvest

    N in fruit at harvest (Crop

    N removal) Soil nitrate-N from 0-30 cm (ppm)

    --------- lb N/ac --------- fall planting early July harvest

    Control treatment – straw left in field 30.0 113

    5.3

    8.4 17.1 4.6

    Straw removed 28.8 105 8.3 14.5 5.4 Straw + fall N 30.3 112 8.7 14.5 4.8 Tomato N rate

    N fertilized 36 a 135 a - -

    21.9 a 5.4 a

    No N 24 b 89 b 10.7 b 4.5 b

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Soybeans as previous crop

     2008-09 season only – soybeans plots along with the wheat plots at Ridgetown  No differences in yield or quality between

    soybeans and all wheat plots

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Yield – Quality

    Wheat residue treatment

    Quality parameters

    Agtron Soluble solids pH

    No treatment – straw left in field 21.8 5.0 4.3 Straw removed 21.2 5.1 4.3 Straw left + fall N 21.6 5.1 4.3

    P= 0.4874 0.4358 0.5742 Tomato N rate

    N fertilized 20.7 a 5.2 a 4.3 No N fertilizer 22.3 b 5.0 b 4.3

    P= 0.0004

  • 0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    No treatment – straw left in field

    Straw removed Straw + fall N

    Wheat straw treatment

    M ar

    ke ta

    bl e

    yi el

    d (to

    n/ ac

    )

    Ridgetown Leamington

    Yield - Marketable

    a b

    ab

    A A A

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Days

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

    % R

    el ea

    se

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Type I Type II Type III

    Days

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

    % R

    el ea

    se

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Ammonium Nitrate Environmentally Safe Nitrogen Sulfur coated urea

    Slow Release Nitrogen

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Nitrogen and ECONOMICS pea – cover crops – sweet corn

    May 2007 October 2007

    OSR+Rye No Cover Rye Oat OSR Oat OSR+Rye No Cover Rye

    3 rotations: 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Nitrogen and Cover Crops

     Oats, cereal rye, oilseed radish and mix of OSR+Rye  All covers conserve N over the winter and

    fall  Cover crops gave NO nitrogen credit or

    debit to following sweet corn crop  Need legume (most over-wintering) for

    nitrogen credit

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • 0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    Oats + N fertilizer

    Rye + N fertilizer

    Oilseed radish + rye +

    N fertilizer

    No cover crop + N fertilizer

    Oats + 0N Oilseed radish + rye +

    0N

    No cover crop + 0N

    Rye + 0N

    cover crop

    pr of

    it m

    ar gi

    ns ($

    /h a)

    Economics Bothwell-2007

    a

    b b b bc

    cd

    de e

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • 0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    7,000

    Oilseed radish +

    N fertilizer

    Rye + N fertilizer

    Oilseed radish +

    0N

    Oilseed radish + rye + N fertilizer

    Oilseed radish + rye + 0N

    No cover crop + N fertilizer

    Oats + N fertilizer

    Rye + 0N No cover crop + 0N

    Oats + 0N

    cover crop

    pr of

    it m

    ar gi

    ns ($

    /h a)

    Economics Ridgetown-2008

    a a a ab abc

    abc bc cd

    cd d

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Economics Ridgetown-2009

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    Rye + N fertil izer

    Oilseed radish +

    N fertil izer

    Oilseed radish +

    0N

    Oilseed radish + rye + N

    fertil izer

    Oilseed radish + rye + 0N

    Oats + N ferti l izer

    Rye + 0N No cover crop + N fertil izer

    Oats + 0N

    No cover crop +

    0N

    cover crop

    p ro

    fi t

    m ar

    gi n

    s $

    /h a

    a a aa a a

    ab ab

    b

    ab

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Cover crop – sweet corn – cover crop – spring wheat

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Cover crops – Spring wheat

    0 5

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

    Oats No cover crop

    OSR-rye Oilseed radish (OSR)

    Rye

    cover crop

    W he

    at y

    ie ld

    (b u/

    ac )

    a ab

    bc bc

    c

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Cover crops – cucumbers

    Early planted -1st week in August Late planted -1st week in September

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Cover crops – cucumbers

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    No cover crop

    WITH N

    Oats 0N OSR 0N Peas 0N Vetch 0N No Cover 0N

    Rye 0N Rye biomass removed

    0N cover crops

    in co

    m e

    $/ ha

    a

    ab ab

    bc bc

    d

    cd cd

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Cover Crops & Tomatoes?

     New project starting 2010  Literature:  Many in organic production with legumes as N

    source  Yield and quality not compromised with

    sorghum-sudangrass in Florida (Wang et al. 2005)

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Conclusions

     Removing wheat straw or fall applied N are not recommended management practices  Potential added expense  No yield benefit

     Slow release may be too slow  Economic benefits to planting cover crops  Need to study cover crops in tomatoes

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

  • Acknowledgements

    Technical expertise of Mike Zink  Funding by:  Ontario Tomato Research Institute  OMAFRA

     Tomato transplants from:  CanGro

     In-kind soil and plant analysis by:  Agri-Food Laboratories Ltd.  A&L Laboratories

    L.L. Van Eerd. 2010. Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph

    Processing Tomato Research Update � Winter Wheat – Tomato Rotation Methods Tomato – Wheat Residue Soil Moisture and Temperature Nitrogen Dynamics (3 site-years) Soybeans as previous crop Yield – Quality Yield - Marketable Slow Release Nitrogen Nitrogen and ECONOMICS �pea – cover crops – sweet corn � Nitrogen and Cover Crops Economics Bothwell-2007 Economics Ridgetown-2008 Economics Ridgetown-2009 Cover crop – sweet corn – cover crop – spring wheat Cover crops – Spring wheat Cover crops – cucumbers Cover crops – cucumbers Cover Crops & Tomatoes? Conclusions Acknowledgements