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### Transcript of Procedural Animation CSE169: Computer Animation Instructor: Steve Rotenberg UCSD, Winter 2004

• Slide 1
• Procedural Animation CSE169: Computer Animation Instructor: Steve Rotenberg UCSD, Winter 2004
• Slide 2
• Project 4
• Slide 3
• Goal Do something cool It should relate to computer animation Suggestions: Fancy particle system Cloth simulation Inverse kinematics (Jacobian or CCD) Locomotion (simple IK & some gaits) Rigid body physics
• Slide 4
• Fancy Particle System Make a particle system that demonstrates several cool features, such as: Dynamic creation & destruction Gravity Aerodynamic drag Collisions with static objects (triangles) Elasticity & Friction Dynamic properties (color, rotation, size) Fireworks effects (recursive creation) Well talk about particles on Tuesday
• Slide 5
• Cloth Simulation Cloth is basically a particle system, with some different emphasis The cloth simulation could include features such as: Elasticity & damping Collisions with ground plane (y=0) Aerodynamic interaction (Bernoulli) If you are really ambitious, try: Triangular elements Tearing, damage Implicit integration Self collisions Well talk about this the week after next
• Slide 6
• Inverse Kinematics Implement the basic Jacobian transpose IK scheme with a 3-DOF end effector If youre feeling lucky, try to add one or more of the following: Multiple goals & tree structures 6-DOF goals (orientation) Cyclic Coordinate Descent (alternate method) Pseudo-Inverse
• Slide 7
• Locomotion Implement a locomotion demo that works with N-legged creatures It can be similar to the demo I showed in class You can use the simple analytical 3-DOF IK scheme I showed Support various biped, quadruped, and other gaits
• Slide 8
• Rigid Body Physics Get a simple rigid body demo running that has multiple rigid objects colliding It can use simple dynamic collisions and doesnt need to support any sophisticated static contact modes Well talk about rigid bodies the week after next
• Slide 9
• Choose your own Subject Choose your own subject! It should be related to computer animation, but could be a topic outside of what we go over in class Please talk to me before next Friday to get approval Feel free to ask me for help in choosing a topic, and I can also point you to some good references and give some pointers Some ideas: Flock of birds, school of fish Snake simulation Deformable terrain Rippling water Vehicle simulation
• Slide 10
• Procedural Animation
• Slide 11
• Although its a strange term, procedural animation refers to generation of motion based on some sort of procedure (rather than being pre-recorded) Of course, thats a pretty vague description, but usually it refers more to something that could be better described as motion synthesis All together, its a pretty huge subject and contains many different techniques In some ways, procedural animation is a bag of tricks, and one must mix and match techniques to solve individual problems I think of procedural animation as involving more than just keyframing, motion capture, and animation blending
• Slide 12
• Kinematics Forward and inverse kinematics are standard tools for character animation Advanced systems allow complex skeleton layouts, multiple arbitrary constraints, kinematic loops Many approaches to procedural animation can be constructed on top of an underlying kinematics system
• Slide 13
• Dynamics Dynamics refers to the use of physics to generate motion Forward dynamics computes the simulation of objects responding to internal forces, external forces, and user applied forces In other words, it computes motion resulting from forces Advanced forward dynamic systems can simulate particles, rigid bodies, deformable bodies, fracture, fluids, and more Inverse dynamics refers to the opposite problem of computing forces required to generate a desired motion. This is useful in robotics and in animation methods where we want to control an forward dynamic system
• Slide 14
• Motion Capture Motion capture is a very powerful tool for recording real human motion and the motion of some (cooperative) animals Motion capture technology was very primitive only 10 years ago, but has become quite evolved and is used extensively in the computer animation and video game industries Earlier research on motion capture focused on design of accurate & cost effective hardware, plus algorithms for optical calibration and tracking of many 3D points with several cameras Modern research focuses on dynamic adaptation and manipulation of recorded animations
• Slide 15
• Motion Capture Most high end motion capture systems use some form of optical technology (cameras or scanners) Popular commercial systems may have as many as 20 high resolution cameras arranged around a large room. They can track numerous (100s) of small reflective styrofoam balls that can be attached to actors Each camera has a resolution in the 1000x1000 range and can capture at 120 frames per second These systems tend to start at \$100,000
• Slide 16
• Motion Capture Cheaper systems or systems requiring realtime capture or better portability can use magnetic technology These systems are pretty good but have some issues with accuracy Motion capture is also used to capture hand and face movement
• Slide 17
• Motion Retargeting An important subject in animation that has developed over the last 10 years is that of motion retargeting The idea is to take an animation clip designed for one particular character and adapt it to play on a different character Characters may differ: Proportionally (same skeleton layout but with different offsets) Topologically (different skeleton topology and different offsets) This is a difficult subject because there isnt always a correct solution, and so heuristics must be used
• Slide 18
• Motion Warping & Blending Related to retargeting is the subject of motion warping or blending. This takes the blending we talked about in lecture 8 a lot further Modern approaches to blending do more sophisticated analysis of the motion to identify important similarities and differences
• Slide 19
• Locomotion As we saw in the last lecture, locomotion is an important part of character animation Legged locomotion is very important to many common animals (including humans, of course), but other forms of locomotion have been studied and used in computer animation Climbing, brachiation Swimming Gliding, flying Slithering, snakes, worms Some modern locomotion systems use motion warping and motion analysis techniques to allow one to input some motion capture of a person walking and then automatically adapt their style to different gaits
• Slide 20
• Sequencing & Scripting State machines and scripting languages are popular methods for controlling the behaviors of characters over longer periods of time Some modern state machine approaches can take a bunch of uncorrelated motion captured clips and automatically construct an appropriate state machine For example, one can motion capture a bunch of generic moves: walk, run, turn, walk & turn, climb steps, walk backward, hop up, hop down The system then determines which moves could connect up based on various metrics The actual motion can then be refined with sophisticated warping & blending schemes
• Slide 21
• Genetic Algorithms Several researchers have experimented with genetic algorithms to train characters to behave in certain ways or to optimize some motion Using this approach, synthetic characters have been trained to walk, swim, ride horses, and more There are even some off-the-shelf tools that use this technology, and some of it was used in the Lord of the Rings movies
• Slide 22
• Artificial Intelligence AI is used more and more for complex animation control It is often used to control large numbers of background characters Obviously, there are numerous AI techniques, and it is an entire subject itself
• Slide 23
• Related Subjects Anatomy Biomechanics Robotics Physics Traditional animation Paleontology, entomology Psychology, perception, linguistics Acting Dance, choreography Kinesiology, ergonomics