Problem Based Learning: A Case Study Presented by: Deana Halonen Ph.D. Candidate, M.S.W., H.B.S.W...

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Transcript of Problem Based Learning: A Case Study Presented by: Deana Halonen Ph.D. Candidate, M.S.W., H.B.S.W...

  • Slide 1
  • Problem Based Learning: A Case Study Presented by: Deana Halonen Ph.D. Candidate, M.S.W., H.B.S.W halonen@cc.umanitoba.ca
  • Slide 2
  • Agenda Problem Based Learning (PBL) Characteristics Basic Steps Advantages Limitations The Case Study Major Findings Students Perceptions
  • Slide 3
  • Problem Based Learning (PBL) Began in 1950s as a movement to restructure medical education at McMaster University (Canada) Unlike traditional instruction that culminates in a problem after basic instruction on facts and skills (sometimes in the form of a test or exam), PBL begins with a problem, teaching facts and skills in a relevant context
  • Slide 4
  • Characteristics of Problem Based Learning Requires students to solve authentic, real- life open-ended problems with many correct answers possible Authentic problems are those real-life issues faced by doctors, nurses, social workers, police officers, lawyers, engineers, business administrators, pilots, etc., etc., etc.
  • Slide 5
  • Characteristics of PBL Emphasizes students pre-existing knowledge; start with what you know Students actively participate by helping plan, organize, and evaluate the problem solving process Interdisciplinary connections stressed Students undertake authentic roles
  • Slide 6
  • Basic Steps of Problem Based Learning Students divided into groups Real problem is presented and discussed Students identify What is known in relation to the problem What information is needed What strategies or next steps to take in order to learn the information/knowledge/skills needed Individuals research different issues, gather resources
  • Slide 7
  • Basic Steps of PBL (cont) Resources evaluated in group and new information/knowledge/skills shared/taught to rest of the group Cycle repeats until students feel that problem has been framed adequately and all issues have been addressed Possible actions, recommendations, solutions or hypotheses are generated Tutor groups conduct peer/self assessments
  • Slide 8
  • Facilitators and Problem Based Learning Teachers are seen as the facilitator and are key to these learning environments Model higher-order process skills Probe for student understanding Never identify issues or state an opinion while students are framing the problems
  • Slide 9
  • Advantages of Problem Based Learning Greater retention and recall of knowledge Interdisciplinary: can require accessing and using information from a variety of subject domains; Better integration of knowledge Integration of classroom & field Development of life-long learning skills How to research How to communicate in groups How to handle problems
  • Slide 10
  • Advantages of PBL Learning environment that is Active Cooperative Self & peer assessed Student centred Highly effective Learning environment that provides Prompt feedback Opportunities to account for personal learning preferences & multiple intelligences Opportunities to allow for a variety of levels of learning
  • Slide 11
  • Advantages of PBL Learning environment that enhances critical thinking and problem solving skills Greatest strength of PBL is: Increased motivation Increased student satisfaction Increased Student-student interaction Increased Student-instructor interaction
  • Slide 12
  • Limitations of Problem Based Learning Requires significant pre-planning and development of Authentic problems, cases, situations Resources available for students Literature Resource people Professionals in the field Requires an authentic commitment and willingness to honor the knowledge, experience & skills that students bring to the learning experience
  • Slide 13
  • Limitations of PBL Requires a change of Paradigms A shift of focus from what faculty teach to what students learn A view of the Instructor as facilitator of the learning as opposed to the one expert whose role is to bank knowledge (Friere) through lectures or classroom demonstrations
  • Slide 14
  • Resources & References Problem-based learning, especially in the context of large classes Available online at http://www.chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm http://www.chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm Stepien, Senn & Stepien (2000) The Internet and Problem-Based Learning: Developing Solutions through the web Rankin (1999) Handbook on Problem-Based Learning Challis Resource Centre Duch, Groh & Allen (2001) The Power of Problem-based Learning: A practical how to for teaching undergraduate courses in any discipline
  • Slide 15
  • The Problem Imagine you are at the end of a phone line with a group of students who are situated throughout a region, province, Canada, possibly beyond. It is a 3 hour class and you know that while students can hear you, they cant see you or each other. You have no idea if someone is chatting, has gone to the washroom, is reading the newspaper, making the weekly shopping list, or even left class for the day. You want to ensure that students are connecting with the material, connecting with you (the Instructor), connecting with each other and connecting with the institution. You know that students report general dissatisfaction with distance education and learning at a distance from their instructors.
  • Slide 16
  • The Case Study How does Problem Based Teaching affect student satisfaction in Social Work courses delivered through virtual audioconferenced Distance Education classrooms?
  • Slide 17
  • Problem Based Learning Social Work Education Distance Education
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  • Methodology Within a group of students enrolled in a 2 year dual diploma program, Instructor/Researcher taught 4 (3 credit hour) courses: 2 for 1 st year students: 1 using PBL & 1 using Lecture Based Teaching 2 for 2 nd year student: 1 using PBL & 1 using Lecture Based Teaching
  • Slide 19
  • Data Throughout the term, all students were required to maintain a journal and reflect on: What they were learning How they were learning it How they knew they were learning it How would they demonstrate that they were learning it
  • Slide 20
  • Data (2) Some classes were audio-taped Some classes were video-taped In the first of the course In the second of the course Instructor/Researcher maintained a journal recording the classroom learning activities that students engaged in Researcher/Instructor maintained a journal recording students reactions and levels of participation in the classroom learning activities
  • Slide 21
  • Data (3) At the beginning of the term, all students were provided with an explanation about the research and asked to complete a sheet of paper and indicate whether or not they would participate in the research project. The sheet of paper was then placed in a sealed envelope and mailed to an independent third party Since all students filled in the form, no one was able to tell who chose to participate and who chose not to participate, including the Instructor/Researcher Once all evaluation was completed and Final Grades were submitted to the Registrar, the Independent third party released the signed sheets of paper to the Researcher/Instructor
  • Slide 22
  • Data (4) One to one or focus group interviews were held with those students who had consented to participate in the research project Data was gathered on: The students experience and their perception of: Level of learning in PBL & Lecture courses Level of satisfaction with PBL & Lecture courses Level of participation in PBL & Lecture courses What they were doing differently in PBL & Lecture courses
  • Slide 23
  • Findings The Students 59 in 4 courses >19 Year 1 & 22 Year 2 > 14 agreed to participate 12 of the sample were female & 2 were male Physically located in 8 different communities 7 in Northwestern Ontario 1 in Northeastern Ontario Grade Point Average ranged from 2.96 to 4.0 with average being 3.4
  • Slide 24
  • Final Grades (cf) CfLB 1 st yrPBL 1 st LB 2 nd yrPBL 2 nd 0 493101 50 591101 60 6910504 70 796433 80 893469 90 100831311 TOTAL31182229
  • Slide 25
  • Major Findings Retention Rate was 100% Actively engaged Satisfaction Participation Collaboration Learning Construction of Knowledge Application of knowledge Retain Knowledge
  • Slide 26
  • Students Perceptions Stimulating Humane Challenging Exchange with others Resources
  • Slide 27
  • Students Perceptions What were they doing differently?