Printing Inks

28
Smart Formulating for Printing Inks

Transcript of Printing Inks

Page 1: Printing Inks

Smart Formulating for Printing Inks

2

Introduction

In the Chemicals Business Area Evonik Industries is among the worldwide leading companies in specialty chemicals It has several teams evalu ating and supporting products for printing inks and varnishes and are always in close dialogue with you our valued customers Evonik makes important contributions in many areas such as TEGOreg VariPlus products Carbon Black Pigments and silicas waxes and additives for wetting dispersing surface con-trol and defoaming to help you solve problems quickly

Our brochure is designed to help you obtain an overview of the products Evonik offers for printing inks and varnishes Its structure helps you focus on the requirements and problems of a specifi c printing ink system

Evonik Products 3

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks 8

Offset Printing Inks 17

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes 20

Overprint Varnishes 24

Contents

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

3

Evonik Products

Acrylic resinsMethacrylic resins have proved their suitability for many years as binders for formulating printing inks

They are noted in particular for their universal solubility excel-lent chemical resistance lightfastness and good compatibility with other coatings raw materials and pigments

They show good adhesion to various substrates such as plastics paper textiles and metal DEGALANreg has shown itself to be especially suitable for printing packaging materials

Carbon Black Pigments and Silicas SilicatesUsing various technologies Evonik produces fi ne-particle Carbon Black Pigments and silicas which perform a variety of functions in printing inks and printing auxiliaries Whereas the Carbon Black Pigments improve readability of printed matter the synthetic silicas and silicates promote properties such as fl owabil-ity ink water balance anti-misting and especially matting

Although the trend in recent years has been towards increased use of colored printing inks approx 150 000 t a of Carbon Black Pigments are used world wide in the manufacture of printing inks It is constructive to consider why Carbon Black Pigments are so important Their high effi ciency in combina tion with excellent fastness at relatively low cost benefi ts printing ink manufacturers Evonik can choose between three different process technologies (the furnace black gas black and lamp black processes) and can thus offer Carbon Black Pigments with properties which can be tailor-made for different aspects of printing ink formulation These products are supplied to printing ink manufacturers under the trade names PRINTEXreg HIBLACKreg NEROXreg and SPECIAL BLACK

ResinsTEGOreg VariPlus products are used very widely and in great variety due to their different and mutually complementary properties The manufacture of special resins with ketone alcohol acid and or urethane groups is based on ketone-aldehyde chemistry All products satisfy the requirements for labeling as environmentally compliant Moreover Evonik offers resins that are totally free of formaldehyde All resins are non-saponifi able neutral and hard Because of their high softening points TEGOreg VariPlus products do not form fi lms Low in molecular weight and almost color-less they are lightfast and exhibit good compatibility with other binders Due to their well-balanced polarity they are soluble in a wide range of solvents A waterborne dispersion with outstanding properties and stability free of organic solvents is also available

TEGOreg VariPlus products can be used as grinding resins or as auxiliary resins in the let-down stage They improve many of the properties of printing inks and overprint varnishes such as color strength and shade transparency gloss hardness ad hesion blocking resistance and resistance to solvents or chemicals They also increase solids content or decrease drying time Evonik offers different grades of TEGOreg VariPlus products for use in solvent-borne waterborne or radiation-curing printing inks

Products of the TEGOreg AddBond series are special tailor-made polyesters for improving the adhesion of printing inks to metallic and plastic substrates and the intercoat adhesion of multicoat for-mulations Gloss and fl exibility are demonstrably improved and moreover TEGOreg AddBond products are resistant to light weathering and saponifi cation There is a wide portfolio of prod-ucts for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formula-tions

TEGOreg AddBond products are widely used not only in printing inks but also in can coatings coil coatings automotive-OEM fi n-ishes industrial coatings and lacquers for corrosion protection

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The most important features are the size and structure of the pri-mary pigment particles and their agglomerates They defi ne the coloristic properties such as undertone optical density gloss and also the rheological effect of the Carbon Black Pigments and their dispersibility in the binders

Irrespective of the print technology simple relationships can be defi ned between the properties of the printing ink and the primary particle size and structure For fi lm thicknesses less than 10 microm typical for printing inks the following relationships are true

Carbon Black Pigments

The lower the primary particle size the higher the optical density of the ink fi lm

The lower the primary particle size the more brownish the undertone of the print

The lower the primary particle size the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better the dispersibility

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better thehold-out but also the lower the gloss of the ink fi lm

Another important property of the Carbon Black Pigment is the level of oxidation of the pigment surface which depends on the production process Products manufactured by the Evonik gas black

technology already possess a high proportion of volatile com-ponents which indicates a high level of oxidized surface groups Oxidized groups on the surface of a furnace black are the result of a special after-treatment process Such products are also part of Evonikrsquos portfolio of carbon blacks under the names NEROXreg

and SPECIAL BLACK The surface chemistry is important for the wetting of the carbon black by the binder so that this aspect also infl uences properties such as rheology and gloss of the printing ink

Synthetic silicas and silicates comprise the second group of fi ne-particled products manufactured by Evonik Products of major interest for the printing inks sector are manufactured not only by the AEROSILreg technology developed by Evonik but also by the precipitation process Both technologies lead to fi ne-sized amorphous materials with physico-chemical properties which can be altered by adjusting of production parameters

AEROSILreg SIPERNATreg and ACEMATTreg grades have been well-known for many years as products for optimizing the features of printing inks overprint varnishes and printing auxiliaries These products are not only advantageous for the production of printing inks and for their storage and printability but also for the fi nal print product

AEROSILreg fumed silicas are characterized by their very small primary particles and high specifi c surface area These are not isolated primary particles but aggregates and agglomerates that defi ne the typical application properties of AEROSILreg products The AEROSILreg particles are hydrophilic due to their silanol groups but for certain AEROSILreg grades these silanol groups are modifi ed by chemical reactions resulting in hydrophobic particles which are characterized by a very low moisture uptake

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

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The Evonik Ziegler polymerization of ethylene synthesizes both HDPE waxes and LLDPE waxes with a wide range of density (091ndash 096 g cm3) and molecular weight (1000 ndash 4000 Dalton)The well balanced ratio of amorphous and crystalline components of Evonik VESTOWAXreg A-grades (PE-waxes) combined with a high molecular weight leads to outstanding surface protection (rub- and scratch-resistance) high pigment loading (e g as a carrier for pigment concentrates) and high heat resistance in different applications

Enhancement of both product groups is accomplish ed by oxidation saponifi cation esterifi cation and compounding and leads to an extensive range of grades In combination with the different supply forms (from pellets to micro powders) these offer solutions to a multitude of applicational problems

Micronized waxes are especially suitable for improving the surface properties of printing ink formulations They can easily be incorporated directly by cold dispersion or by cold grinding It is unnecessary to heat the wax and solvent and the production pro-cess is thus simple and fast

Micronized VESTOWAXreg grades are available with either spherical (sprayed) or irregular (ground) particle shape Advantages of spherical particles are good slip high rub resistance and high gloss retention Irregular particles are used for good wetting and dispersion properties minimal agglomeration and high matting effect Furthermore VESTOWAXreg grades in pellet form can be used for the production of solventborne dispersions and pastes as well as for waterborne dispersions (emulsions) These disper-sions pastes and emulsions are produced for easy incorporation of waxes into printing ink formulations

With the ACEMATTreg products Evonik offers a complete port folio of silica-based matting agents whose profi le of properties such as particle size particle size distribution and surface modifi cation is ideal for the matting of printing inks The desired matt effect of the printing ink or overprint varnish can be achieved by suitable choice of product

As can be seen from this short introduction to the properties of carbon black and synthetic silica interaction of the various features has a marked effect on the printing ink Furthermore the choice of the right Carbon Black Pigment or silica is largely determined by the print technology and its special demands on printing ink properties such as rheology ink water balance matting or optical density

WaxesThe VESTOWAXreg range of synthetic waxes consists of two dif-ferent product groups Fischer-Tropsch waxes and Polyethylene waxes

Crude Fischer-Tropsch waxes are manufactured by polymerizing products obtained from natural gas into waxes (producer Shell Malaysia) Physical and chemical modifi cation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes at the Evonik wax plant leads to a variety of modifi ed waxes

Characteristic of Fischer-Tropsch waxes is the combination of low molecular weight narrow molecular weight distribution low vis-cosity straight chain structure and high drop point which results in good heat resistance low surface tension and high release and slip effects in many different applications

Tego AdditivesEvonikacutes comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production applica-tion and fi nal properties of the inks and varnishes

TEGOreg Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speed-up the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pig-ment surface They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in

shorter grinding times because of faster color development

higher color strength

higher transparency or lower hiding power

higher gloss

improved rheology and rheological stability

possibility of higher pigment loading

TEGOreg Dispers products are available for water borne solvent-borne and radiation-curing printing inks They are polymeric products based on different technologies all of them are APE and silicone-free The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin act primarily as surface tension reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various substrates Low energy substrates (e g polyolefi nes) and con-taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface

tension to ensure proper wetting This can be achieved by the use of organo-modifi ed polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGOreg Wet 2xx series)

For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGOreg Wet 5xx series)

Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGOreg Twin 40xx series)

In several applications combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benefi cial

TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad Surface Control Additives are siloxane-based They reduce surface tension promote wetting and fl ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish They also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss

During drying or curing of the ink slip additives migrate to the surface where they form a thin invisible liquid fi lm that acts as an effective lubricant on the dry fi lm Special TEGOreg Glide additives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or bondable

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FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

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TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

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Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 2: Printing Inks

2

Introduction

In the Chemicals Business Area Evonik Industries is among the worldwide leading companies in specialty chemicals It has several teams evalu ating and supporting products for printing inks and varnishes and are always in close dialogue with you our valued customers Evonik makes important contributions in many areas such as TEGOreg VariPlus products Carbon Black Pigments and silicas waxes and additives for wetting dispersing surface con-trol and defoaming to help you solve problems quickly

Our brochure is designed to help you obtain an overview of the products Evonik offers for printing inks and varnishes Its structure helps you focus on the requirements and problems of a specifi c printing ink system

Evonik Products 3

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks 8

Offset Printing Inks 17

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes 20

Overprint Varnishes 24

Contents

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

3

Evonik Products

Acrylic resinsMethacrylic resins have proved their suitability for many years as binders for formulating printing inks

They are noted in particular for their universal solubility excel-lent chemical resistance lightfastness and good compatibility with other coatings raw materials and pigments

They show good adhesion to various substrates such as plastics paper textiles and metal DEGALANreg has shown itself to be especially suitable for printing packaging materials

Carbon Black Pigments and Silicas SilicatesUsing various technologies Evonik produces fi ne-particle Carbon Black Pigments and silicas which perform a variety of functions in printing inks and printing auxiliaries Whereas the Carbon Black Pigments improve readability of printed matter the synthetic silicas and silicates promote properties such as fl owabil-ity ink water balance anti-misting and especially matting

Although the trend in recent years has been towards increased use of colored printing inks approx 150 000 t a of Carbon Black Pigments are used world wide in the manufacture of printing inks It is constructive to consider why Carbon Black Pigments are so important Their high effi ciency in combina tion with excellent fastness at relatively low cost benefi ts printing ink manufacturers Evonik can choose between three different process technologies (the furnace black gas black and lamp black processes) and can thus offer Carbon Black Pigments with properties which can be tailor-made for different aspects of printing ink formulation These products are supplied to printing ink manufacturers under the trade names PRINTEXreg HIBLACKreg NEROXreg and SPECIAL BLACK

ResinsTEGOreg VariPlus products are used very widely and in great variety due to their different and mutually complementary properties The manufacture of special resins with ketone alcohol acid and or urethane groups is based on ketone-aldehyde chemistry All products satisfy the requirements for labeling as environmentally compliant Moreover Evonik offers resins that are totally free of formaldehyde All resins are non-saponifi able neutral and hard Because of their high softening points TEGOreg VariPlus products do not form fi lms Low in molecular weight and almost color-less they are lightfast and exhibit good compatibility with other binders Due to their well-balanced polarity they are soluble in a wide range of solvents A waterborne dispersion with outstanding properties and stability free of organic solvents is also available

TEGOreg VariPlus products can be used as grinding resins or as auxiliary resins in the let-down stage They improve many of the properties of printing inks and overprint varnishes such as color strength and shade transparency gloss hardness ad hesion blocking resistance and resistance to solvents or chemicals They also increase solids content or decrease drying time Evonik offers different grades of TEGOreg VariPlus products for use in solvent-borne waterborne or radiation-curing printing inks

Products of the TEGOreg AddBond series are special tailor-made polyesters for improving the adhesion of printing inks to metallic and plastic substrates and the intercoat adhesion of multicoat for-mulations Gloss and fl exibility are demonstrably improved and moreover TEGOreg AddBond products are resistant to light weathering and saponifi cation There is a wide portfolio of prod-ucts for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formula-tions

TEGOreg AddBond products are widely used not only in printing inks but also in can coatings coil coatings automotive-OEM fi n-ishes industrial coatings and lacquers for corrosion protection

4

The most important features are the size and structure of the pri-mary pigment particles and their agglomerates They defi ne the coloristic properties such as undertone optical density gloss and also the rheological effect of the Carbon Black Pigments and their dispersibility in the binders

Irrespective of the print technology simple relationships can be defi ned between the properties of the printing ink and the primary particle size and structure For fi lm thicknesses less than 10 microm typical for printing inks the following relationships are true

Carbon Black Pigments

The lower the primary particle size the higher the optical density of the ink fi lm

The lower the primary particle size the more brownish the undertone of the print

The lower the primary particle size the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better the dispersibility

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better thehold-out but also the lower the gloss of the ink fi lm

Another important property of the Carbon Black Pigment is the level of oxidation of the pigment surface which depends on the production process Products manufactured by the Evonik gas black

technology already possess a high proportion of volatile com-ponents which indicates a high level of oxidized surface groups Oxidized groups on the surface of a furnace black are the result of a special after-treatment process Such products are also part of Evonikrsquos portfolio of carbon blacks under the names NEROXreg

and SPECIAL BLACK The surface chemistry is important for the wetting of the carbon black by the binder so that this aspect also infl uences properties such as rheology and gloss of the printing ink

Synthetic silicas and silicates comprise the second group of fi ne-particled products manufactured by Evonik Products of major interest for the printing inks sector are manufactured not only by the AEROSILreg technology developed by Evonik but also by the precipitation process Both technologies lead to fi ne-sized amorphous materials with physico-chemical properties which can be altered by adjusting of production parameters

AEROSILreg SIPERNATreg and ACEMATTreg grades have been well-known for many years as products for optimizing the features of printing inks overprint varnishes and printing auxiliaries These products are not only advantageous for the production of printing inks and for their storage and printability but also for the fi nal print product

AEROSILreg fumed silicas are characterized by their very small primary particles and high specifi c surface area These are not isolated primary particles but aggregates and agglomerates that defi ne the typical application properties of AEROSILreg products The AEROSILreg particles are hydrophilic due to their silanol groups but for certain AEROSILreg grades these silanol groups are modifi ed by chemical reactions resulting in hydrophobic particles which are characterized by a very low moisture uptake

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

5

The Evonik Ziegler polymerization of ethylene synthesizes both HDPE waxes and LLDPE waxes with a wide range of density (091ndash 096 g cm3) and molecular weight (1000 ndash 4000 Dalton)The well balanced ratio of amorphous and crystalline components of Evonik VESTOWAXreg A-grades (PE-waxes) combined with a high molecular weight leads to outstanding surface protection (rub- and scratch-resistance) high pigment loading (e g as a carrier for pigment concentrates) and high heat resistance in different applications

Enhancement of both product groups is accomplish ed by oxidation saponifi cation esterifi cation and compounding and leads to an extensive range of grades In combination with the different supply forms (from pellets to micro powders) these offer solutions to a multitude of applicational problems

Micronized waxes are especially suitable for improving the surface properties of printing ink formulations They can easily be incorporated directly by cold dispersion or by cold grinding It is unnecessary to heat the wax and solvent and the production pro-cess is thus simple and fast

Micronized VESTOWAXreg grades are available with either spherical (sprayed) or irregular (ground) particle shape Advantages of spherical particles are good slip high rub resistance and high gloss retention Irregular particles are used for good wetting and dispersion properties minimal agglomeration and high matting effect Furthermore VESTOWAXreg grades in pellet form can be used for the production of solventborne dispersions and pastes as well as for waterborne dispersions (emulsions) These disper-sions pastes and emulsions are produced for easy incorporation of waxes into printing ink formulations

With the ACEMATTreg products Evonik offers a complete port folio of silica-based matting agents whose profi le of properties such as particle size particle size distribution and surface modifi cation is ideal for the matting of printing inks The desired matt effect of the printing ink or overprint varnish can be achieved by suitable choice of product

As can be seen from this short introduction to the properties of carbon black and synthetic silica interaction of the various features has a marked effect on the printing ink Furthermore the choice of the right Carbon Black Pigment or silica is largely determined by the print technology and its special demands on printing ink properties such as rheology ink water balance matting or optical density

WaxesThe VESTOWAXreg range of synthetic waxes consists of two dif-ferent product groups Fischer-Tropsch waxes and Polyethylene waxes

Crude Fischer-Tropsch waxes are manufactured by polymerizing products obtained from natural gas into waxes (producer Shell Malaysia) Physical and chemical modifi cation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes at the Evonik wax plant leads to a variety of modifi ed waxes

Characteristic of Fischer-Tropsch waxes is the combination of low molecular weight narrow molecular weight distribution low vis-cosity straight chain structure and high drop point which results in good heat resistance low surface tension and high release and slip effects in many different applications

Tego AdditivesEvonikacutes comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production applica-tion and fi nal properties of the inks and varnishes

TEGOreg Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speed-up the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pig-ment surface They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in

shorter grinding times because of faster color development

higher color strength

higher transparency or lower hiding power

higher gloss

improved rheology and rheological stability

possibility of higher pigment loading

TEGOreg Dispers products are available for water borne solvent-borne and radiation-curing printing inks They are polymeric products based on different technologies all of them are APE and silicone-free The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin act primarily as surface tension reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various substrates Low energy substrates (e g polyolefi nes) and con-taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface

tension to ensure proper wetting This can be achieved by the use of organo-modifi ed polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGOreg Wet 2xx series)

For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGOreg Wet 5xx series)

Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGOreg Twin 40xx series)

In several applications combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benefi cial

TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad Surface Control Additives are siloxane-based They reduce surface tension promote wetting and fl ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish They also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss

During drying or curing of the ink slip additives migrate to the surface where they form a thin invisible liquid fi lm that acts as an effective lubricant on the dry fi lm Special TEGOreg Glide additives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or bondable

6

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

7

TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 3: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

3

Evonik Products

Acrylic resinsMethacrylic resins have proved their suitability for many years as binders for formulating printing inks

They are noted in particular for their universal solubility excel-lent chemical resistance lightfastness and good compatibility with other coatings raw materials and pigments

They show good adhesion to various substrates such as plastics paper textiles and metal DEGALANreg has shown itself to be especially suitable for printing packaging materials

Carbon Black Pigments and Silicas SilicatesUsing various technologies Evonik produces fi ne-particle Carbon Black Pigments and silicas which perform a variety of functions in printing inks and printing auxiliaries Whereas the Carbon Black Pigments improve readability of printed matter the synthetic silicas and silicates promote properties such as fl owabil-ity ink water balance anti-misting and especially matting

Although the trend in recent years has been towards increased use of colored printing inks approx 150 000 t a of Carbon Black Pigments are used world wide in the manufacture of printing inks It is constructive to consider why Carbon Black Pigments are so important Their high effi ciency in combina tion with excellent fastness at relatively low cost benefi ts printing ink manufacturers Evonik can choose between three different process technologies (the furnace black gas black and lamp black processes) and can thus offer Carbon Black Pigments with properties which can be tailor-made for different aspects of printing ink formulation These products are supplied to printing ink manufacturers under the trade names PRINTEXreg HIBLACKreg NEROXreg and SPECIAL BLACK

ResinsTEGOreg VariPlus products are used very widely and in great variety due to their different and mutually complementary properties The manufacture of special resins with ketone alcohol acid and or urethane groups is based on ketone-aldehyde chemistry All products satisfy the requirements for labeling as environmentally compliant Moreover Evonik offers resins that are totally free of formaldehyde All resins are non-saponifi able neutral and hard Because of their high softening points TEGOreg VariPlus products do not form fi lms Low in molecular weight and almost color-less they are lightfast and exhibit good compatibility with other binders Due to their well-balanced polarity they are soluble in a wide range of solvents A waterborne dispersion with outstanding properties and stability free of organic solvents is also available

TEGOreg VariPlus products can be used as grinding resins or as auxiliary resins in the let-down stage They improve many of the properties of printing inks and overprint varnishes such as color strength and shade transparency gloss hardness ad hesion blocking resistance and resistance to solvents or chemicals They also increase solids content or decrease drying time Evonik offers different grades of TEGOreg VariPlus products for use in solvent-borne waterborne or radiation-curing printing inks

Products of the TEGOreg AddBond series are special tailor-made polyesters for improving the adhesion of printing inks to metallic and plastic substrates and the intercoat adhesion of multicoat for-mulations Gloss and fl exibility are demonstrably improved and moreover TEGOreg AddBond products are resistant to light weathering and saponifi cation There is a wide portfolio of prod-ucts for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formula-tions

TEGOreg AddBond products are widely used not only in printing inks but also in can coatings coil coatings automotive-OEM fi n-ishes industrial coatings and lacquers for corrosion protection

4

The most important features are the size and structure of the pri-mary pigment particles and their agglomerates They defi ne the coloristic properties such as undertone optical density gloss and also the rheological effect of the Carbon Black Pigments and their dispersibility in the binders

Irrespective of the print technology simple relationships can be defi ned between the properties of the printing ink and the primary particle size and structure For fi lm thicknesses less than 10 microm typical for printing inks the following relationships are true

Carbon Black Pigments

The lower the primary particle size the higher the optical density of the ink fi lm

The lower the primary particle size the more brownish the undertone of the print

The lower the primary particle size the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better the dispersibility

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better thehold-out but also the lower the gloss of the ink fi lm

Another important property of the Carbon Black Pigment is the level of oxidation of the pigment surface which depends on the production process Products manufactured by the Evonik gas black

technology already possess a high proportion of volatile com-ponents which indicates a high level of oxidized surface groups Oxidized groups on the surface of a furnace black are the result of a special after-treatment process Such products are also part of Evonikrsquos portfolio of carbon blacks under the names NEROXreg

and SPECIAL BLACK The surface chemistry is important for the wetting of the carbon black by the binder so that this aspect also infl uences properties such as rheology and gloss of the printing ink

Synthetic silicas and silicates comprise the second group of fi ne-particled products manufactured by Evonik Products of major interest for the printing inks sector are manufactured not only by the AEROSILreg technology developed by Evonik but also by the precipitation process Both technologies lead to fi ne-sized amorphous materials with physico-chemical properties which can be altered by adjusting of production parameters

AEROSILreg SIPERNATreg and ACEMATTreg grades have been well-known for many years as products for optimizing the features of printing inks overprint varnishes and printing auxiliaries These products are not only advantageous for the production of printing inks and for their storage and printability but also for the fi nal print product

AEROSILreg fumed silicas are characterized by their very small primary particles and high specifi c surface area These are not isolated primary particles but aggregates and agglomerates that defi ne the typical application properties of AEROSILreg products The AEROSILreg particles are hydrophilic due to their silanol groups but for certain AEROSILreg grades these silanol groups are modifi ed by chemical reactions resulting in hydrophobic particles which are characterized by a very low moisture uptake

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

5

The Evonik Ziegler polymerization of ethylene synthesizes both HDPE waxes and LLDPE waxes with a wide range of density (091ndash 096 g cm3) and molecular weight (1000 ndash 4000 Dalton)The well balanced ratio of amorphous and crystalline components of Evonik VESTOWAXreg A-grades (PE-waxes) combined with a high molecular weight leads to outstanding surface protection (rub- and scratch-resistance) high pigment loading (e g as a carrier for pigment concentrates) and high heat resistance in different applications

Enhancement of both product groups is accomplish ed by oxidation saponifi cation esterifi cation and compounding and leads to an extensive range of grades In combination with the different supply forms (from pellets to micro powders) these offer solutions to a multitude of applicational problems

Micronized waxes are especially suitable for improving the surface properties of printing ink formulations They can easily be incorporated directly by cold dispersion or by cold grinding It is unnecessary to heat the wax and solvent and the production pro-cess is thus simple and fast

Micronized VESTOWAXreg grades are available with either spherical (sprayed) or irregular (ground) particle shape Advantages of spherical particles are good slip high rub resistance and high gloss retention Irregular particles are used for good wetting and dispersion properties minimal agglomeration and high matting effect Furthermore VESTOWAXreg grades in pellet form can be used for the production of solventborne dispersions and pastes as well as for waterborne dispersions (emulsions) These disper-sions pastes and emulsions are produced for easy incorporation of waxes into printing ink formulations

With the ACEMATTreg products Evonik offers a complete port folio of silica-based matting agents whose profi le of properties such as particle size particle size distribution and surface modifi cation is ideal for the matting of printing inks The desired matt effect of the printing ink or overprint varnish can be achieved by suitable choice of product

As can be seen from this short introduction to the properties of carbon black and synthetic silica interaction of the various features has a marked effect on the printing ink Furthermore the choice of the right Carbon Black Pigment or silica is largely determined by the print technology and its special demands on printing ink properties such as rheology ink water balance matting or optical density

WaxesThe VESTOWAXreg range of synthetic waxes consists of two dif-ferent product groups Fischer-Tropsch waxes and Polyethylene waxes

Crude Fischer-Tropsch waxes are manufactured by polymerizing products obtained from natural gas into waxes (producer Shell Malaysia) Physical and chemical modifi cation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes at the Evonik wax plant leads to a variety of modifi ed waxes

Characteristic of Fischer-Tropsch waxes is the combination of low molecular weight narrow molecular weight distribution low vis-cosity straight chain structure and high drop point which results in good heat resistance low surface tension and high release and slip effects in many different applications

Tego AdditivesEvonikacutes comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production applica-tion and fi nal properties of the inks and varnishes

TEGOreg Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speed-up the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pig-ment surface They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in

shorter grinding times because of faster color development

higher color strength

higher transparency or lower hiding power

higher gloss

improved rheology and rheological stability

possibility of higher pigment loading

TEGOreg Dispers products are available for water borne solvent-borne and radiation-curing printing inks They are polymeric products based on different technologies all of them are APE and silicone-free The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin act primarily as surface tension reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various substrates Low energy substrates (e g polyolefi nes) and con-taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface

tension to ensure proper wetting This can be achieved by the use of organo-modifi ed polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGOreg Wet 2xx series)

For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGOreg Wet 5xx series)

Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGOreg Twin 40xx series)

In several applications combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benefi cial

TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad Surface Control Additives are siloxane-based They reduce surface tension promote wetting and fl ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish They also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss

During drying or curing of the ink slip additives migrate to the surface where they form a thin invisible liquid fi lm that acts as an effective lubricant on the dry fi lm Special TEGOreg Glide additives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or bondable

6

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

7

TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 4: Printing Inks

4

The most important features are the size and structure of the pri-mary pigment particles and their agglomerates They defi ne the coloristic properties such as undertone optical density gloss and also the rheological effect of the Carbon Black Pigments and their dispersibility in the binders

Irrespective of the print technology simple relationships can be defi ned between the properties of the printing ink and the primary particle size and structure For fi lm thicknesses less than 10 microm typical for printing inks the following relationships are true

Carbon Black Pigments

The lower the primary particle size the higher the optical density of the ink fi lm

The lower the primary particle size the more brownish the undertone of the print

The lower the primary particle size the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the higher the increase in viscosity of the printing ink

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better the dispersibility

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment the better thehold-out but also the lower the gloss of the ink fi lm

Another important property of the Carbon Black Pigment is the level of oxidation of the pigment surface which depends on the production process Products manufactured by the Evonik gas black

technology already possess a high proportion of volatile com-ponents which indicates a high level of oxidized surface groups Oxidized groups on the surface of a furnace black are the result of a special after-treatment process Such products are also part of Evonikrsquos portfolio of carbon blacks under the names NEROXreg

and SPECIAL BLACK The surface chemistry is important for the wetting of the carbon black by the binder so that this aspect also infl uences properties such as rheology and gloss of the printing ink

Synthetic silicas and silicates comprise the second group of fi ne-particled products manufactured by Evonik Products of major interest for the printing inks sector are manufactured not only by the AEROSILreg technology developed by Evonik but also by the precipitation process Both technologies lead to fi ne-sized amorphous materials with physico-chemical properties which can be altered by adjusting of production parameters

AEROSILreg SIPERNATreg and ACEMATTreg grades have been well-known for many years as products for optimizing the features of printing inks overprint varnishes and printing auxiliaries These products are not only advantageous for the production of printing inks and for their storage and printability but also for the fi nal print product

AEROSILreg fumed silicas are characterized by their very small primary particles and high specifi c surface area These are not isolated primary particles but aggregates and agglomerates that defi ne the typical application properties of AEROSILreg products The AEROSILreg particles are hydrophilic due to their silanol groups but for certain AEROSILreg grades these silanol groups are modifi ed by chemical reactions resulting in hydrophobic particles which are characterized by a very low moisture uptake

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

5

The Evonik Ziegler polymerization of ethylene synthesizes both HDPE waxes and LLDPE waxes with a wide range of density (091ndash 096 g cm3) and molecular weight (1000 ndash 4000 Dalton)The well balanced ratio of amorphous and crystalline components of Evonik VESTOWAXreg A-grades (PE-waxes) combined with a high molecular weight leads to outstanding surface protection (rub- and scratch-resistance) high pigment loading (e g as a carrier for pigment concentrates) and high heat resistance in different applications

Enhancement of both product groups is accomplish ed by oxidation saponifi cation esterifi cation and compounding and leads to an extensive range of grades In combination with the different supply forms (from pellets to micro powders) these offer solutions to a multitude of applicational problems

Micronized waxes are especially suitable for improving the surface properties of printing ink formulations They can easily be incorporated directly by cold dispersion or by cold grinding It is unnecessary to heat the wax and solvent and the production pro-cess is thus simple and fast

Micronized VESTOWAXreg grades are available with either spherical (sprayed) or irregular (ground) particle shape Advantages of spherical particles are good slip high rub resistance and high gloss retention Irregular particles are used for good wetting and dispersion properties minimal agglomeration and high matting effect Furthermore VESTOWAXreg grades in pellet form can be used for the production of solventborne dispersions and pastes as well as for waterborne dispersions (emulsions) These disper-sions pastes and emulsions are produced for easy incorporation of waxes into printing ink formulations

With the ACEMATTreg products Evonik offers a complete port folio of silica-based matting agents whose profi le of properties such as particle size particle size distribution and surface modifi cation is ideal for the matting of printing inks The desired matt effect of the printing ink or overprint varnish can be achieved by suitable choice of product

As can be seen from this short introduction to the properties of carbon black and synthetic silica interaction of the various features has a marked effect on the printing ink Furthermore the choice of the right Carbon Black Pigment or silica is largely determined by the print technology and its special demands on printing ink properties such as rheology ink water balance matting or optical density

WaxesThe VESTOWAXreg range of synthetic waxes consists of two dif-ferent product groups Fischer-Tropsch waxes and Polyethylene waxes

Crude Fischer-Tropsch waxes are manufactured by polymerizing products obtained from natural gas into waxes (producer Shell Malaysia) Physical and chemical modifi cation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes at the Evonik wax plant leads to a variety of modifi ed waxes

Characteristic of Fischer-Tropsch waxes is the combination of low molecular weight narrow molecular weight distribution low vis-cosity straight chain structure and high drop point which results in good heat resistance low surface tension and high release and slip effects in many different applications

Tego AdditivesEvonikacutes comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production applica-tion and fi nal properties of the inks and varnishes

TEGOreg Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speed-up the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pig-ment surface They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in

shorter grinding times because of faster color development

higher color strength

higher transparency or lower hiding power

higher gloss

improved rheology and rheological stability

possibility of higher pigment loading

TEGOreg Dispers products are available for water borne solvent-borne and radiation-curing printing inks They are polymeric products based on different technologies all of them are APE and silicone-free The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin act primarily as surface tension reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various substrates Low energy substrates (e g polyolefi nes) and con-taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface

tension to ensure proper wetting This can be achieved by the use of organo-modifi ed polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGOreg Wet 2xx series)

For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGOreg Wet 5xx series)

Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGOreg Twin 40xx series)

In several applications combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benefi cial

TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad Surface Control Additives are siloxane-based They reduce surface tension promote wetting and fl ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish They also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss

During drying or curing of the ink slip additives migrate to the surface where they form a thin invisible liquid fi lm that acts as an effective lubricant on the dry fi lm Special TEGOreg Glide additives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or bondable

6

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

7

TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 5: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

5

The Evonik Ziegler polymerization of ethylene synthesizes both HDPE waxes and LLDPE waxes with a wide range of density (091ndash 096 g cm3) and molecular weight (1000 ndash 4000 Dalton)The well balanced ratio of amorphous and crystalline components of Evonik VESTOWAXreg A-grades (PE-waxes) combined with a high molecular weight leads to outstanding surface protection (rub- and scratch-resistance) high pigment loading (e g as a carrier for pigment concentrates) and high heat resistance in different applications

Enhancement of both product groups is accomplish ed by oxidation saponifi cation esterifi cation and compounding and leads to an extensive range of grades In combination with the different supply forms (from pellets to micro powders) these offer solutions to a multitude of applicational problems

Micronized waxes are especially suitable for improving the surface properties of printing ink formulations They can easily be incorporated directly by cold dispersion or by cold grinding It is unnecessary to heat the wax and solvent and the production pro-cess is thus simple and fast

Micronized VESTOWAXreg grades are available with either spherical (sprayed) or irregular (ground) particle shape Advantages of spherical particles are good slip high rub resistance and high gloss retention Irregular particles are used for good wetting and dispersion properties minimal agglomeration and high matting effect Furthermore VESTOWAXreg grades in pellet form can be used for the production of solventborne dispersions and pastes as well as for waterborne dispersions (emulsions) These disper-sions pastes and emulsions are produced for easy incorporation of waxes into printing ink formulations

With the ACEMATTreg products Evonik offers a complete port folio of silica-based matting agents whose profi le of properties such as particle size particle size distribution and surface modifi cation is ideal for the matting of printing inks The desired matt effect of the printing ink or overprint varnish can be achieved by suitable choice of product

As can be seen from this short introduction to the properties of carbon black and synthetic silica interaction of the various features has a marked effect on the printing ink Furthermore the choice of the right Carbon Black Pigment or silica is largely determined by the print technology and its special demands on printing ink properties such as rheology ink water balance matting or optical density

WaxesThe VESTOWAXreg range of synthetic waxes consists of two dif-ferent product groups Fischer-Tropsch waxes and Polyethylene waxes

Crude Fischer-Tropsch waxes are manufactured by polymerizing products obtained from natural gas into waxes (producer Shell Malaysia) Physical and chemical modifi cation of Fischer-Tropsch waxes at the Evonik wax plant leads to a variety of modifi ed waxes

Characteristic of Fischer-Tropsch waxes is the combination of low molecular weight narrow molecular weight distribution low vis-cosity straight chain structure and high drop point which results in good heat resistance low surface tension and high release and slip effects in many different applications

Tego AdditivesEvonikacutes comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production applica-tion and fi nal properties of the inks and varnishes

TEGOreg Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speed-up the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pig-ment surface They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in

shorter grinding times because of faster color development

higher color strength

higher transparency or lower hiding power

higher gloss

improved rheology and rheological stability

possibility of higher pigment loading

TEGOreg Dispers products are available for water borne solvent-borne and radiation-curing printing inks They are polymeric products based on different technologies all of them are APE and silicone-free The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin act primarily as surface tension reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various substrates Low energy substrates (e g polyolefi nes) and con-taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface

tension to ensure proper wetting This can be achieved by the use of organo-modifi ed polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGOreg Wet 2xx series)

For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGOreg Wet 5xx series)

Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGOreg Twin 40xx series)

In several applications combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benefi cial

TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad Surface Control Additives are siloxane-based They reduce surface tension promote wetting and fl ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish They also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss

During drying or curing of the ink slip additives migrate to the surface where they form a thin invisible liquid fi lm that acts as an effective lubricant on the dry fi lm Special TEGOreg Glide additives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or bondable

6

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

7

TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

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9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

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FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 6: Printing Inks

Tego AdditivesEvonikacutes comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production applica-tion and fi nal properties of the inks and varnishes

TEGOreg Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speed-up the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pig-ment surface They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in

shorter grinding times because of faster color development

higher color strength

higher transparency or lower hiding power

higher gloss

improved rheology and rheological stability

possibility of higher pigment loading

TEGOreg Dispers products are available for water borne solvent-borne and radiation-curing printing inks They are polymeric products based on different technologies all of them are APE and silicone-free The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin act primarily as surface tension reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various substrates Low energy substrates (e g polyolefi nes) and con-taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface

tension to ensure proper wetting This can be achieved by the use of organo-modifi ed polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGOreg Wet 2xx series)

For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGOreg Wet 5xx series)

Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGOreg Twin 40xx series)

In several applications combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benefi cial

TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad Surface Control Additives are siloxane-based They reduce surface tension promote wetting and fl ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish They also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss

During drying or curing of the ink slip additives migrate to the surface where they form a thin invisible liquid fi lm that acts as an effective lubricant on the dry fi lm Special TEGOreg Glide additives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or bondable

6

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

7

TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

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9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

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11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

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15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

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17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

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19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 7: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

The cross-linkable TEGOreg Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations Their use minimizes extractables creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties

TEGOreg Foamex and TEGOreg Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incom-patibility They are effi cient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air and break down and release foam once it has been generated They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation com ponent especially in waterborne and radiation-curing inks and varnishes for many years TEGOreg Foamex and

7

TEGOreg Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products Maximum effi ciency is ob tain ed by the use of siloxane-based prod ucts For waterborne inks different kinds of products are available concentrates mainly for the grinding stage solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the let-down stage or into clears

Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate- polyurethane- fatty-acid derivative- and polether-chemistries Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil Tegorsquos in-depth expertise in organo-modifi ed siloxanes stretches back over many years The production process used by Evonik en -sures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 8: Printing Inks

Solventborne

Introduction

Solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized The most diverse print stock requires quick and effi cient wetting drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders Wax additives in solventborne fl exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signifi cantly affecting gloss

The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to non-absorbent paper or fi lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA) polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB) When choos-ing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks

8

correct combination of binders Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose the compati bility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining fi nal printing ink properties The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signifi cantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents Typically they make up 20 to 40 (occasionally up to 50 ) of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or during grind-ing Usually no dispersing aid is required

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Good pigment wetting good color strength improved glossimproved adhesion e g in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion high hardness fast drying high transpar-ency good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high gloss excellent adhesion outstanding hardness and drying good flexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in toluene-free NC PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film could be metallised Metal adhesion given

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on BMA Could be used as grinding resin excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear transparent film wide compatibility to other resins Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates

DEGALANreg N 742 Methacrylate polymer based on EMA Could be used as grinding vehicles Good pigment wetting and good color strength clear transparent film Ethanol solubility is given

DEGALANreg P 24 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting and good color strength Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments Use-able for cigarette packaging Proven depolymerisation behav-iour for ceramic transfer laquers

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 9: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

9

Recommended Carbon Black Pigments

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type used for packaging inks Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured furnace black of LCF type oxidized used for packaging inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness good compatibility with PU- PVB- and NC-based packag-ing inks

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type used in packaging and gravure inks

Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

TEGOreg VariPlus provides higher gloss excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade jetness anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness blocking resistance and heat stability good adhesion on plastics and paper better transparency and resistance towards yellowing color deterioration solvents and chemicals The main TEGOreg VariPlus products for solvent-borne fl exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8 TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde

Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for sol-ventborne fl exographic and gravure printing inks They are also used in hot stamping foil applications Typically they make up 20 to 50 of the whole binder They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic paper and metal

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds neces-sitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink The use of low-structured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes such as PRINTEXreg 25 and PRINTEXreg 35 permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent cover-age optical density and gloss The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester

Depending on the specifi c binder combination and require-ments of the ink oxidized furnace blacks non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used In practice densifi ed or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products Recom-mended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

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11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

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15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

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17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

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19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

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21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 10: Printing Inks

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formu-lations is usually straightforward micronized waxes are mainly used For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect Further improve-ment of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch micro powder Wax products are tabulated below

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly effi cient additives that ensure optimum performance

The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGOreg Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks High pigment levels and excellent

compatibility with various binders can be achieved Highly effi cient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds Slip and scratch resistance combined with anti-blocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGOreg Glide A 115 The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives

Waterborne

Introduction

In recent years waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important The intensive work of ink formulators and raw materi-al suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications

The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the fi nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties

10

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Very strong deaeration and defoaming

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive free of secondary amino groups

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide A 115 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Superior scratch resistance slip and anti-blocking

Wax products

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub-resistant gravure inks medium low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub-resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistancelow influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 11: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

11

wetting properties and improves several ink properties A combi-nation of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive such as TEGOreg Dispers 750 W or TEGOreg Dispers 760 W leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength transpar-ency and stable viscosity It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks organic or inorganic pigments

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments color strength transparency gloss hardness chemical resistance blocking resistance and adhesion Its characteristics are summa-rized in the following table

In the manufacture of waterborne inks for fl exographic and gra-vure printing the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne fl exo-graphic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip and improve-ment of water repellency

Products

If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution the use of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is recommended This disper-sion in water free of organic solvents exhibits excellent pigment

Characteristics of TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Very good pigment wetting high color strength high gloss improved adhesion excellent hardness very fast dryingflexibility scratch and chemical resistance e g in acrylic inks

Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 60 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor -b ent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology very good hold out and therefore high jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absor-bent paper

Moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper

High jetness achievable

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and non-absorbent paper

Good rheology adjustment smooth matting effect

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Rheology adjustment improved hold out

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEXreg 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates Nevertheless the infl uence of these pigments on the fl ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account Low structured grades e g PRINTEXreg 45 give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or fi lms These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates SIPERNATreg 320 DS is a fi ller while SIPERNATreg 820 A is recommended for use as a pig-ment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas silicates are summarized in the table below

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

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19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 12: Printing Inks

12

Characteristics of appropriate waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very low influ-ence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip good rub resistance low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion in water with TEGOreg Dispers 650)

VESTOWAXreg AO 3533 Oxidized PE-wax pellets Ease of incorporation reasonable rub resistance negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via emulsion)

Various TEGOreg Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGOreg Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGOreg Dispers 760 W)

Defoaming fl exographic and gravure inks becomes increas-ingly diffi cult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades TEGOreg Foamex defoamers effi ciently prevent foam build-up ensure rapid foam collapse are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage TEGOreg

Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage whereas TEGOreg Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and effi cient wetting on diverse print stock The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic perfor-mance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGOreg Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming propertiesAppropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table

As stated previously the use of waxes in waterborne fl exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance slip and water repellency Due to their very low surface tension micronized Fischer-Tropsch or even better micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are very effective As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micron-ized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (ldquowax emulsionsrdquo) of hard oxidized PE waxes The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

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SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 13: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

13

Appropriate Tego additives

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Dispers 651 Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 750 W Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Good pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabiliza-tion Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resin-free pigment grinds

TEGOreg Dispers 760 W Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive APE and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 810 Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and broad compatibility ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for the let-down stage even for inks on film

TEGOreg Foamex 842 Siloxane-based defoamer solution Excellent defoaming good long term effect ideal for the grinding stage

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for the let-down stage

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined

TEGOreg Wet 500 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free Foam inhibiting improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles excellent dynamic performance

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 14: Printing Inks

14

Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationi-cally cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss improved hardnessreduced shrinkage improved adhesion improved reactivity

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks

Good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkageimproved adhesion

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Free of formaldehyde solid ketone condensation co-binder Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Free of formaldehyde solid and hard polyol co-binder Excellent pigment wetting high gloss high hardness reduced shrinkage

DEGALANreg PQ 611 Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss and levelling reduced shrinkage improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Good pigment wetting effect improved gloss reduced shrink-age improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Cost efficient good pigment wetting improved gloss reduced shrinkage

Radiation-curing

Introduction

Radiation-curing fl exographic screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area In addition to pigment wetting and gloss adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage especially during radical polymerization Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplemen-tary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties

Products

TEGOreg VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGOreg AddBond LTH provide good adhesion reduced volume shrinkage good hardness pig-ment wetting and gloss TEGOreg VariPlus AP and TEGOreg VariPlus SK provide good adhesion high hardness high gloss high solids content and better pigment wetting The table below lists Meth-acrylic Resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks

DEGALANreg PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based sub-strates Improve color strength development leads to higher and better levelling

DEGALANreg P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates espe-cially on plastics reduce volume shrinkage enhance pigment wetting and gloss

DEGALANreg LP 64 12 provides adhesion improvement on vari-ous substrates Limited infl uence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 15: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

15

Methacrylic Resins TEGOreg VariPlus and TEGOreg AddBond products are used as co-binders They can be dissolved in vari-ous reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks TEGOreg AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically cross-linkable formulations The relatively low viscosity of the TEGOreg

VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an addi-tional advantage

The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorp-tion of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by

Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

SPECIAL BLACK 350 Low structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cureand high jetness

NEROXreg 505 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

NEROXreg 305 Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg A 616 XF Sprayed PE-wax Rub resistant flexographic inks little influence on gloss (quanti-ties to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip anti-blocking reasonable rub resistance very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion 30 in TPGDA)

the incorporation of particles The concept of radiation-curing (i e mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for fl exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match SPECIAL BLACK 250 a low structured oxidized furnace black is Evonikrsquos answer to these demands Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology Additionally printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties Suitable Carbon Black Pig-ment and silica products are shown in the following table

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 16: Printing Inks

16

Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility overprintable

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Glide 435 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip non-foaming

TEGOreg Rad 2100 Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling excellent compatibility also in clears overprintable

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration especially for pigmented inks

TEGOreg Wet 270 Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive solvent-free

Improves substrate wetting and flow overprintable in low dosages

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting flow and leveling additive solvent-free

Improves flow and leveling aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers overprintable

The VESTOWAXreg product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e g TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles

Effi cient foam prevention and air release is obtained by silicone-free deaerators such as TEGOreg Airex 920 which is highly com-patible and easily overprintable For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGOreg Airex 900 is recommended

The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used Special high

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing fl exographic inks

The newly developed TEGOreg Dispers 685 provides these proper-ties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks For inorganic pigments TEGOreg Dispers 655 is the fi rst choice

The surface characteristics of fl exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products They ensure wetting and fl ow during the printing process On the cured print they provide slip and anti-blocking Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 17: Printing Inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

17

Offset Printing Inks

Relevant Evonik products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg G High structured furnace black of LCF type Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties

PRINTEXreg 30 High structured furnace black of RCF type All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness

PRINTEXreg 300 Medium structured furnace black of RCF type High jetness achievable Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses

PRINTEXreg ES 22 Oil-beaded high structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness Acceptable influence on the rheology

PRINTEXreg ES 34 Oil-beaded medium structured furnace black of RCF type Easily dispersible grade Good jetness combined with bluish undertone moderate influence on the rheology

Coldset

Introduction

The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates

Products

Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the fi xation to the substrate Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well fi xed and increase the rub resistance Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the fi nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments

An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automat-ed production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good fl ow properties Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEXreg 30 and PRINTEXreg 300

To combine good handling with very good dispersing proper-ties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEXreg ES 22 and PRINTEXreg ES 34 The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products

Heatset

Introduction

This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers The formulation of the printing inks including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality

Due to the low fi lm thickness heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance slip and anti-block-ing properties They are added in the form of micronized waxes whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incor-poration step

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent gloss Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow

PRINTEXreg 55 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties and excellent gloss Excellent print-ing sharpness combined with good flow

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming

PE waxes VESTOWAXreg A 118

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg X 4118 Ground modified PE-wax Rub resistance overprintability medium influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg A 616 SF Sprayed ground PE-wax Rub resistance little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation)

VESTOWAXreg A 118(+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616)overprintability low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 1ndash2 via pre-dispersion approx 30 in solvent binder)

Products

PRINTEXreg 55 should be particularly men-tioned here Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities The low structure of PRINTEXreg 55 results in little infl uence on printing ink rheology thus giving good fl ow AEROSILreg fumed silica is well known for providing excel-lent control of the fl ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties The pseudoplastic fl ow behav-ior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting Measure-

ment of the ink water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSILreg grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsifi cation The appropri-ate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table

In sheetfed printing inks high density micronized PE waxes or for wax disper-sions VESTOWAXreg A 118 with a balanced com position of easily-dispersible amor-phous and rub-resistant crystalline compo-nents are used These products are listed in the table below

Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes

20

Co-binders for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg AddBond LTH Solid hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg AddBond LTW Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Improved adhesion on metals plastics and minerals improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Good pigment wetting good color strength improved gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Polyol co-resin Very good pigment wetting high color strength high glosshigh hardness

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol co-resin Excellent pigment wetting high color strength high glossexcellent hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA MMA Good pigment wetting good color strength clear transparent film Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal

DEGALANreg P 28 Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Excellent pigment wetting high color strength clear and transparent film Wide compatibility improve adhesion espe-cially on plastic substrates

DEGALANreg M 912 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and transpar-ent film High hardness and blocking resistance

DEGALANreg VP 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Good pigment wetting and color strength clear and trans-parent film Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance Useable for IMD screen inks

Introduction

Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied fi lm thickness both of which infl uence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clearsThe higher applied fi lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed The optical density under-tone and the level of gloss are high and the fl ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application

In screen printing inks slip and release are the very desirable sur-face properties contributed by waxes Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important

Various drying methods such as absorption oxidation evaporation chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins particularly on deaerating additives in such appli-cations The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of fi nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink fi lm as micro-foam The relatively high fi lm thickness and the rather high viscosity ndash sometimes even combined with thixotropy ndash of the inks and varnishes make it diffi cult to release the foam Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic metal and glass and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

21

Products

TEGOreg AddBond LTH TEGOreg AddBond LTW TEGOreg VariPlus SK and TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg PM 381 PM 381 and DEGALANreg P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic fi lms metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink Ink and varnish properties such as gloss pigment wetting hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGOreg VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties Methacrylic resins TEGOreg AddBond and TEGOreg VariPlus prod-ucts for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20

Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solvent borne or radiation-curing SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excel-lent optical density and gloss As this kind of printing ink pig-mented or clear needs very good rheology control the AEROSILreg

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks

Product name Characteristics Effects

SPECIAL BLACK 4 Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology

SPECIAL BLACK 250 Lowest structured oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control additive

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Very little influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated product for radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks

Good matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 820 A Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks

Good rheology adjustment recommended as filler and pigment extender

grades are benefi cial They give a defi ned pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modifi ed product AEROSILreg R 9200

ACEMATTreg products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes ACEMATTreg TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly effi cient matting combined with excellent transparency

SIPERNATreg 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titani-um dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen print-ing ink Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below

22

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below

Micronized VESTOWAXreg Fischer-Tropsch grades

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip release very little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXregVESTOWAXregVESTOWAX FM 1012 Ground FT-waxPTFE-modified

Outstanding slip and release little influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

High-performance TEGOreg Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGOreg Dispers grades used

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an effi cient wetting of the most diffi cult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink These products are summarized in the following table

for screen printing inks

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGOreg Wet Twin Glide and Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 900 Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks

TEGOreg Airex 901 W Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations

Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility ideal for clears Overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Airex 931 Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Dispers 655 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radia tion-curing for-mulations

Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction ideal for inorganic pigments fillers and matting agents

TEGOreg Dispers 685 Pigment wetting and dispersing additive liquid and solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Outstanding pigment wetting viscosity reduction and color strength development ideal for organic and carbon black pigments

TEGOreg Dispers 710 PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations

Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology

TEGOreg Foamex N Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations

Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks ideal for rotary screen application

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low-foaming and excellent compatibility in clears

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2500 Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of powerful slip scratch resistance and deaeration additional ldquomarker-resistancerdquo and release effect

TEGOreg Rad 2700 Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiation-curing formulations

Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks additional deaerating effect

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming flow and substrate wetting Especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 505 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Foam inhibiting and deaerating improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles excellent dynamic perform ance in waterborne formulations

23

242424

Overprint Varnishes

Introduction

Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations As in a number of other areas fl ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or fl ow or causing cloudiness Special surface effects such as scratch resistance anti-blocking and release properties excellent sealability and bondability are also required These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases

Products

Overprint varnishes benefi t noticeably from the use of TEGOreg VariPlus products and Meth acrylic Resins as co-binders TEGOreg

VariPlus CA TEGOreg VariPlus SK TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALANreg M 912 and DEGALANreg VP 1018F are highly

high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature fi lms with high hardness anti-blocking mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page

Incorporation of AEROSILreg fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties pro-ducing pseudoplastic behavior that guar-antees good dot sharpness and reduced setting Due to the very small particles the transparency of the dried ink fi lm is not affected The hydrophilic grade AEROSILreg

200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSILreg

R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks

SIPERNATreg 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally controlthe rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes

recommended for solventborne applica-tions Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGOreg VariPlus products the fl ow properties are improved Substrate wetting of plastic fi lms paper cardboard and aluminum is very good High gloss varnishes can be achieved High soften-ing and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Bonding strength and fl exibility may also be increased Excellent seal ability can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF

For radiation-curing overprint varnishes these improvements in fl ow substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGOreg VariPlus SK or TEGOreg

VariPlus EP-1201 TF In waterborne var-nishes TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss hardness and resis-tance properties

Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates They show

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

25

Methacrylic resins and TEGOreg VariPlus products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

Solventborne

TEGOreg VariPlus CA Ketone condensationco-resin with alcohol groups

Better flow and substrate wetting improved gloss better resistance properties improved flexibility

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Hard polyol co-resin Better adhesion high gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

TEGOreg VariPlus EP-1201 TF Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Better adhesion excellent gloss better resistance propertiesimproved flexibility higher bonding strength and sealability

DEGALANreg M 914 Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss improved hardness

DEGALANreg VN 1018F Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Clear transparent film high gloss excellent hardness and anti-blocking effect

Waterborne

TEGOreg VariPlus DS 50 Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin

Higher gloss improved hardness and resistance properties

UV

TEGOreg VariPlus AP Solid ketone condensation co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting higher gloss

TEGOreg VariPlus SK Solid and hard polyolco-binder

Better flow and substrate wetting improved surface effects higher gloss improved hardness and bonding strength

The ACEMATTreg grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of over-print varnish ACEMATTreg OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal infl uence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below

26

Appropriate AEROSILreg ACEMATTreg and SIPERNATreg products for overprint varnishes

Product name Characteristics Effects

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Introduces strong pseudoplasticity rheology control

AEROSILreg R 9200 Hydrophobic structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes

Minimal influence on rheology improved scratch resistance

ACEMATTreg TS 100 Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 412 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology

ACEMATTreg OK 520 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency and good transparency

ACEMATTreg OK 607 Silica-based aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes

High matting efficiency

ACEMATTreg 3300 Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print var-nishes

Highest matting efficiency

SIPERNATreg 320 DS Very fine sized hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes

Rheology adjustment Recommended as extender

TEGOreg Wet and TEGOreg Twin effi ciently re duce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization

TEGOreg Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide effi cient foam prevention TEGOreg Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGOreg Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum TEGOreg Airex 920 is an effi cient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes

A comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad products is available to fulfi ll specifi c requirements and these are included in the table on the right

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

27

Comprehensive selection of TEGOreg Glide and TEGOreg Rad

Product name Characteristics Effects

TEGOreg Airex 920 Silicone-free deaerator concentrate solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility minimizes risk of turbidity and defects overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Foamex 805 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum

TEGOreg Foamex 822 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect ideal for lower viscosity varnishes

TEGOreg Foamex 845 Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formula-tions

Powerful defoaming good long term effect ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content

TEGOreg Foamex K7 Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formula-tions

Good defoaming and compatibility suitable for the grind and the let-down stage

TEGOreg Glide 100 Siloxane-based glide additive solvent-free for solventborne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Flow leveling and moderate slip overprintable and bondable

TEGOreg Glide 410 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Powerful slip flow and anti-crater effect

TEGOreg Glide 432 Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming and excellent compatibility

TEGOreg Glide 450 Siloxane-based slip additive solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations

Effective slip flow and leveling with excellent compatibility highly suitable for varnishes

TEGOreg Glide 482 Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations

Outstanding slip effect scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties Additionally improves the water resistance of the print

TEGOreg Rad 2300 Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations

Unique combination of substrate wetting flow and slip low foaming

TEGOreg Twin 4000 Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant solvent-free for solvent-borne waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks especially powerful in waterborne formulations

TEGOreg Wet 510 Silicone-free substrate wetting additive solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Improves wetting flow and leveling without foam stabilization enhances gloss Excellent dynamic performance

TEGOreg

Evonik Tego Chemie GmbHGoldschmidtstrasse 10045127 EssenGermany

phone +49 201 173-2222fax +49 201 173-1939

info-tegoevonikcomwww tegode

ACEMATTreg

COLOUR BLACKNEROXreg

PRINTEXreg

SPECIAL BLACKSIPERNATreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2613fax +49 69 218-2853

inorganic-materialsevonikcom

AEROSILreg

Dynasylanreg

Evonik Degussa GmbHInorganic MaterialsWeissfrauenstraszlige 960287 Frankfurt am MainGermany

phone +49 69 218-2532fax +49 69 218-2533

aerosilevonikcom

DEGALANreg

Evonik Roumlhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany

phone +49 6151 18-4784

degalanevonikcom

Evonik Industries AG

www smartformulatingcom

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience However it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights especially patent rights In particular no warranty whether express or implied or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation nor does it imply that similar products could not be used

(april 2008)

Page 18: Printing Inks

18

For the heatset printing method with its fast running machinery products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or for best performance micronized PTFE-modifi ed Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable These are tabulated below

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes

Product name Characteristics Effects

VESTOWAXreg SH 112 Ground FT-wax Slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg H 2050 SF Sprayed FT-wax Slip very low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

VESTOWAXreg FM 1012 Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Outstanding slip low influence on gloss(quantities to be added 1ndash2 )

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg products

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type High end color properties with moderate flow Excellent jetness

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Low influence on the rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 25 Low structured furnace black of LCF type Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels Best bluish undertone

AEROSILreg 200 Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity

Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers Reduced misting and dusting

AEROSILreg R 972 Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Improved ink water balance therefore preventing scumming Improved rub resistance

Products

The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEXreg 45 PRINTEXreg 35 and PRINTEXreg 25 All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good fl ow properties of the heatset printing inks PRINTEXreg 45 with the smallest primary particle size of the three gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEXreg 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone PRINTEXreg

25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity

Pseudoplastic fl ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers This can be achieved by using AEROSILreg and results in good dot sharpness and optimum glossAppropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSILreg prod-ucts are listed in the following table

EVONIK PRODUCTS

FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS

OFFSET PRINTING INKS

SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES

OVERPRINT VARNISHES

19

Sheetfed

Introduction

Printed matter produced with this tech-nique is often high end requiring or ustify-ing coated papers High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demand-ed For the production of such high quality printing inks low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice

In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and often overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties This is why polyethylene waxes are added here either as micronized powders or in form of sol-ventborne dispersions pastes

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas

Product name Characteristics Effects

PRINTEXreg 35 Low structured furnace black of LCF type High jetness combined with a bluish undertone Little influ-ence on rheology high pigment loading

PRINTEXreg 45 Low structured furnace black of RCF type Good color properties and excellent