Principles of Management
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PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
FOR DIPLOMA IN HOTEL MANAGEMENT & CATERING TECHNLOLGYCOMPILED
BY SANGESH SYLLABUS
UNIT I INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF THE TERM MGT NATURE OF MGT MGT VS ADMINISTRATION LEVELS OF MGT AREAS OF MGT PRODUCTION MGT INVENTORY MGT FIFO,LIFO FINANCIAL MGT MARKETING MGT PERSONAL MGT PERSONNEL MGT SKILL OF MANAGER HUMAN SKILL TECHNICAL SKILL CONCEPTUAL SKILLS ROLE OF MANAGER Distinguish between managers & Executive.
UNIT II EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT PIONEERS OF MGT FREDERICK, WINSLOW, TAYLOR, HENRY FAYOL. PROCESS OF MGT PLANNING, ORGANIZING, STAFFING, DIRECTING AND CONTROLLING. UNIT III PLANNING (MEANING) IMP OF PLANNING STEPS IN PLANNING MBO PROCESS & BENEFITS. ORGANIZING (DEFINITION) PROCESS PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION SCALAR PRINCIPLE DEPARTMENTATION UNITY OF COMMAND SPAN OF CONTROL UNIT V COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND TYPES BARRIERS DECISION MAKING PHASE PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE DEVELOPMENT TEST AND REVIEW
UNIT IV MOTIVATION THEORIES LEADERSHIP STYLES OF LEADER AND LEADERSHIP QUALITES. FORMAL & INFORMAL LEADERS. THEORIES CONTROLLING PROCESS OF CONTROL MGT OF EXCEPTION
WHY WE STUDY MANAGEMENT? To enhance the understanding of events/ activities, challenges and skills that will give Meaning to our future work experience and careers as managers or other professional careers we may choose. Make us become effective manager who will be able to help the organization achieve a high level of performance through the utilization of its human and material resources. Equip ourselves with effective management theories and practices that can be applied to all types of
organization and any occupational settings we may choose to be in the future. Make us to become effective managers who will be able to detect and locate problems to be solve,
thus making good decision about appropriate solution and utilizing organizational resources effectively to implement these solutions. Enable us to assess the future, make plans for it, thus acting as good planners. To be responsible and accountable for employees to be in the same track towards accomplishment of
organizational goals. DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENTS, ORGANIZATION AND MANAGERS. a) MANAGEMENT: Earlier definition by Mary Parker Follet Management scholar as: The art of getting things done through people Stoner The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of an organization member and of using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goal. Holt The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling resources in an organization. Management is merging quality and variety with cost that is providing unlimited variety of goods, better quality and at lowest price level to the customers. Management is defined as a process of identifying problems and threats and taking care of these problems and threats in such manner that ultimately these turn out into opportunities which could benefit the organization in accomplishment of its objectives.
Meaning of management at glance: (i) As an activity: getting things done through others being with them. (ii) As a process: a series of interrelated functions performed in all organizational. (iii) As a discipline: a subject of study drawing upon knowledge of others disciplines. A young and growing discipline. (iv) As a group: a body of persons who perform the task of managing organization. An elite group in the society. Nature or Characteristics of management: 1. Goal oriented. 2. Universal. 3. Integrated process 4. Social process 5. Activity based 6. Group activity 7. Art as well as science 8. Multi disciplinary 9. Intangible 10. Optimum co-ordination between human and material resources. 11. The combination of multiple functions 12. Management is a distinct entity. 13. Management is a profession 14. Management based on authorities 15. It is needed at all level 16. It is a social responsibilities 17. Purposeful 18. It is an executive function 19. It is a coordinating force 20. Dynamic in nature 21. Management principles are relative not absolute ---- it means that management results are according to the situation. 22. Management is creative and innovative formulate creativity; creativity is the process of developing new ideas. After a careful study of definitions we embark upon such features, which illustrate the nature of management. Such features are as follows: 1. It is a process: process means a systematic method of doing some work. Management is recognized as a continuous process. It is that process in which work is done with others or it is got done from them. In order to achieve the pre-determined objective a manager performs the work of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. A manager did these works in a continuous order. So, it is a process. 2. Group efforts: management always efforts to group efforts and does not apply to an individuals. A group rather than an individual can easily and effectively attain management of an enterprise.
3. It is a social process: management is called a social activity because it is connected with the people working in a human group and which requires organizing their efforts. Any activity, which is connected with the people living in society, is called a social activity. In this context management is also described as a social activity. 4. Attainment of pre-determined objectives: group efforts in management are always directed towards the achievement of some pre-determined objectives; with out objectives management would be difficult if not impossible. 5. Management has a distinct entity: in view of the widening scope of business it is not possible for an owner to perform all functions himself. We can say that specially qualified experts are needed for managing the company. 6. Management is a universal activity: it is clear that management is not only connected with business but also with non-business activities also, which is also important. Management is everywhere. 7. Management as a profession: when we have recognized the distinct entity of management, there should not be any doubt or hesitation to call it a profession. The quality of a profession is that he must posses some special qualifications or ability for which he is paid remuneration. The knowledge of management is also a qualification and managers also get their remuneration for it. Hence, management is considered a profession. 8. Management is an intangible force: management is a force, which is not visible. It can only be feeling or realized on the basis of the success of an organization. 9. It is a combination of multiple functions: the basic function of management is to achieve the objectives of the organization successfully. That is why a manager has to perform various function like planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling etc. hence management does not mean one particular job but it happens to be a combination of various jobs. Conclusion: Management fulfills several essentials of a profession but like other professions management does not restrict entry into managerial jobs, to people with a special academic degree.
Objectives of management at a glance Securing maximum results with minimum efforts. Maximum prosperity for employer and employee. Human better mere Elimination of all types of waste Economic growth Social justice Importance of management at glance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Achievement of group goals Optimum utilization of resources Minimization of cost Survival and growth of business Generation of employment National development
MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION On the basis of different opinions of the experts over the world management and administration, there are three prevalent concepts: (i) American concepts: Administration is a higher-level activity or system and management is lower. English concepts: management is the higher-level system and it has more power than administration. Modern concepts: According to it, management and administration are synonymous. In the modern scientific age of management this is the most prevalent and accepted concept of management and it makes no difference between management and administration.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Basis of Administration difference Meaning Purpose Nature Decisions Scope Usage It means the determination of objectives, plans and policies of an enterprise. Administration aims at determining the objectives. Administration is a decision making function. Administration decides what is to be done and when it is to be done. The term administration is applicable at the top level of management. The term administration is generally used from business organizations like govt., offices, colleges, universities etc. Administration decisions are influenced by govt. policies, social and political circumstances and economic additions. Administration is related mainly with the owner and top-level managers. It is a determinative or thinking function. It is concerned with determination of major object and policies. It is mainly top-level function. Its services are influenced mainly by public opinion and other outside forces. It is not directly concerned with direction of human efforts. Planning and controlling are the main functions involved in it. Conceptual and human skills used eagerly in govt. and public sector. Minister, Commander, Commissioner, Registrar, Vice Chancellor, Governor etc. Management Management is to translate threats into opportunities. Management aims at achieving predetermined objectives. Management is an execution or doing function. Management decides who will do the function and how he will do it, where he will do it. The term management is more applicable at middle level and lower level of