Principles and Practices for Online Courses That Engage Learners

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Principles and Practices for Online Courses That Engage Learners. Boston 2003. Campus Technology M02 July 25 2011. Judith V. Boettcher Designing for Learning University of Florida Guiding principles: Presence, Community and Personalization. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Principles and Practices for Online Courses That Engage Learners

Mo2.1 Campus Tech 2011. F1S

Principles and Practices for Online Courses That Engage LearnersCampus Technology M02July 25 2011Judith V. Boettcher Designing for LearningUniversity of Floridajudith@designingforlearning.org12011

Boston 2003Becoming Great online instructorsDeveloping expertise in any field takes time and is accomplished step by step, experience by experience, skill upon skill20112Where are you on the novice to expert scale of online teaching? What kind of engagement strategies do you find useful?Guiding principles: Presence, Community and Personalization

2Frequently-Asked Questions from online faculty How can peer review and collaboration work online? But wait, how will I lecture? How do I give tests? How do I know if they understand? How do I get to know my students if I never see them? What are the secrets for being a great online instructor?

What activities really engage my online students?Do I really need to be on my course site every day? What do I do when a student gets behind? 31. What is your top question/challenge in engaging your online students? 2. What Topic would you most like to discuss on keeping students focused and successful? Starting our thinking. Where are we now? 20114Directions: Get into groups of 2 or 3 based on proximity. Write your questions/challenges on a color stickie and also in your packet on p.3. Well post the stickies on the wall for sharing and for reference.

Social Media ResearchLearners are particularly engaged when they experience feelings of "autonomy, competence, and relatedness.Katherine Hayles, 2007Feelings enabled by web 2.0 3.0 applications Apps are more about creating, generating and organizing information and content rather than reading or listening to content


Foundational feelings for engagement An independent person who is developing skills while connected to othersEnvironment for Engagement 20116Who are the members of a course community? The learners and faculty mentor and any content assistants. Why does building a community support learners and learning? Shared experiences, overlapping goals, mutual support, trust and presence***Core Learning PrinciplesActive, involved, doing, zone of proximal development, personalizingOnline Best Practices Presence, balanced dialogue, core content, continuous assessment Grouping & Teaming StrategiesInformal small to medium groupings, collaborative work, peer reviewElements of community6Core Learning Principles and Best Practices That Matter and That Work20117

Neurons -P Z MyersA Selected Set for Today 8Sources of Ten Learning Principles and Ten PracticesInspired and derived from research, instructional design and theoryRussian psychologist Lev Vygotsky - My personal favoriteAlso inspired by J. Dewey, J. BrunerCurrent researchers, writers, such as Daniel Schacter (Memory)John Seely Brown (Cognitive apprenticeship)Roger Schank (Schema theory, knowledge structuresInstructional design theory and practiceFriends, colleagues, many faculty

Ten CLP2011

8Ten Core Learning Principles

99Ten Best Practicesfor Teaching Online


10Every structured learning experience has four elements with the learner at the centerCore Learning Principle 1 201111LEFramework stageSimplifying a complex process.only four elements of design

11 Learning ExperiencesFramework LearnerMentor-DirectorKnowledge-Content-ProblemEnvironment-Context

Inspired by Lev VygotskyAll the worlds a stage and learning happens on it. 201112 Going Deeper: Learner, Mentor, Knowledge and Environment

Core Learning Principles Two through Five (2-5)201113CLP LearnerWhen designing for engagement, need to consider all four elements of instructional experiences what is the role, function of learner, faculty, content and context? 13Learners bring their own personalized mental models, skills and attitudes to learning experiences

Core Learning Principle 2201114Learner's mind

What are learners baselines? Where are they coming from? Where do they want to go? 14Very Important Distinction In course design, we design for the probable, expected learner; in course delivery, we flex the design to the specific, particular learners within a course. 201115I didnt know that anyone cared. Impact on Learning and Engagement Learners will lean forward, step forward when they are reasonably confident that they can build on what they already knowLearners volunteer to lead, write, speak, if they have a reasonable expectation of success and not look stupidLearners ask questions if they feel safe within the atmosphere of trust and community201116Move from listening and reading to participating in the flow of action. 16Faculty are the directors of the learning experiences and mentors of the individual learners

Core Learning Principle 3201117Faculty functions

17Roles and Responsibilities of Mentors/Directors Designing and structuring the course experiences Can often be accomplished with a team of faculty and designers for tutorsDirecting and supporting learners through the instructional events Absolutely! Assessing and certifying student learning outcomesNormally the caseRobots (automated systems) and rubrics can help Also integrate and leverage peer and expert reviews18201118Impact on Learning and Engagement Faculty time is best invested in designing, teaching presence, mentoring, coaching and guidingAs a mentor, they step back and let learning happen, step in when appropriateWatch for difficultiesWatch for frustrationWatch for success and innovationSupport thinking, assess with focus on growth and success20111919All learners do not need to learn all course content /knowledge; all learners do need to learn the core concepts

Core Learning Principle 420112020Core Concepts and PrinciplesCore Concepts and PrinciplesApplying Core ConceptsProblem Analysis and SolvingFour Layers of ContentCustomized and Personalized212011Content: Impact on Learning and Engagement Provide core content experiences as basis of shared experiencesProvide range of choices for initial applications and problem sets, scenariosDesign personalized, customized experiences allowing for wide range of content choices and exploration of wide-ranging content201122Shift from knowing about things to knowing how to be John Seely Brown and others 22EVery learning experience occurs within a context or an environment in which the learner interacts with the knowledge, content or problem

Core Learning Principle 5 201123Context Examples23Core Learning Principle 5 - EnvironmentDesign for the when, where, with whom and with what resourcesAll of these elements make up the environment within which learning occurs 201124Holodeck

2425The Holodeck Rapid Learning and Entertainment

Reflection2011For authentic, situated learning

Dr. Christoph Sensen in the CAVE2526Reflection Engaging Possibilities Stop and think Putting the learner at the center of the designConsider learner as independent, competent, member of community Identify one or two impacts of these principles for your thinking? For your colleagues?Find a colleague right next to you(Pair up )Share ideasactions

2011Lets think 2627CLP #6 ZoneThe Reflection Process Sharing the ideas and actions 2011Be sure to use your voice 27

Core Learning Principle 6A very core, very basic idea from Lev Vygotsky (1978) Enhanced by later work on situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship by John Seely Brown and others (2006)Extended by research on embodied cognition (Shapiro, 2010) 201128

Every learner has a zone of proximal development that defines the space that a learner is ready to develop into useful knowledge

Core Learning Principle 6201129ZPD Definition

29 30Using the Zone in Design A students zone of proximal development is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers Vygotsky, 1968 Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development201130Implications of ZPD for Design Concept of ZPD is similar to readiness principleSuggests the likelihood of a fairly narrow window of opportunity or teaching moment What kinds of problems can students solve independently? Or with help? What is the "task model" that produces the evidence that demonstrates proficiency?When can you design in choices and options so natural learning can meet requirements? How is guidance provided?Just enough help so that students feel as if they did it all by themselves. 201131Stages of the zone When learners are ready they want to do it themselves 31Stages of a Zone201132Assistance provided by more capable "others

Teachers, experts, peers, coachesAssistance provided by the selfFrom R. Gallimore and R. Tharp, 1992Internalization, AutomatizationFossilizationDe-automatizationRecursiveness through prior stagesContinued assistance can be disruptive and irritatingStage 1Stage 2Stage 3Stage 4Using references, job aids, automonous3233Growing New ConceptsImportant what you know nowthese are receptor cellsGrowing flowers, bushes, thickets, with sticky stuffMore you know, the more you can knowMaybe fast learners are fast because they have ready templates and receptor cellsSimilar to mind melds

Fish is Fish by Leo Lionni201133Concepts, Mental Models and Learning Zones

Customizing learning means designing learning experiences for the learner. To do this we need to know the learner and what the learner knows and thinks 201134Each brain is its own world (Adapted Mexican Proverb)Getting to Know Learners How do you do it? How do I know my learners? What is your favorite strategy for finding out what learners know? Automated quizzesPretests at course beginningsOpen d