Preposition

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Transcript of Preposition

PREPOSITION Where is it?

The ball is in the box John's house

The ball is on the box. Jane's house

The ball is under the box. Bill's house

John's house is next toJane's house.

Jane's house isbetween Bill's and John's houses.

Bill's house is next toJane's house.

The man The climbers stood on top of the mountain. The man two enemies. The enemies other. The gardners pumpkins. stood next tothe the umbrellaover it. stoodbetween the stoodoppositeeach stood behindthe gopher and held

The man lookedthrough the telescope inhis hands.

The man wrote the address onthe package.

The man looked at the mail in the post box.

The man looked at the

The manager sat at his

clock on the wall. desk on his chair.

clause A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. A clause may be either a sentence (an independent clause) or a sentence-like construction within another sentence (a dependent clause). Types of Clauses:

Adjective Clause Adverbial Clause Comment Clause Comparative Clause Complement Clause

Conditional Clause Independent Clause Main Clause Matrix Clause Noun Clause

Relative Clause Subordinate Clause Verbless Clause

From the Latin, "the close of a sentence" Examples: 1.)"Life moves pretty fast. If you don't stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it." (Ferris Bueller's Day Off) (Note: "Life moves pretty fast" and "you could miss it" are independent clauses. "If you don't stop and look around once in a while" is an adverb clause.) 2.)"All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others." (George Orwell, Animal Farm) (Note: Orwell's sentence contains two independent clauses joined by the conjunction"and." This combination is called a compound sentence.) 3.)"A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." (Virginia Woolf, "A Room of Her Own") (Note: Woolf's sentence begins with an independent clause--"A woman must have money and a room of her own"--and ends with an adverb clause. This combination is called acomplex sentence.) 4.)"A man who won't die for something is not fit to live." (Martin Luther King, Jr.) (Note: In King's sentence, the independent clause--"A man is not fit to live"--is interrupted by an adjective clause. This is also a complex sentence.) 5.)"I was more independent than any farmer in Concord, for I was not anchored to a house or farm, but could follow the bent of my genius, which is a very crooked one, every moment." (Henry David Thoreau) (Note: Thoreau's sentence contains two independent clauses joined by the conjunction"for"; the second independent clause is interrupted by an adjective clause--"which is a very crooked one." This combination is called a compound-complex sentence.)

adjective clauses "There are two basic types of adjective clauses. "The first type is the nonrestrictive or nonessential adjective clause. This clause simply gives extra information about the noun. In the sentence, 'My older brother's car, which he bought two years ago, has already needed many repairs,' the adjective clause, 'which he bought two years ago,' is nonrestrictive or nonessential. It provides extra information. "The second type is the restrictive or essential adjective clause. It offers essential [information] and is needed to complete the sentence's thought. In the sentence, 'The room that you reserved for the meeting is not ready,' the adjective clause, 'that you reserved for the meeting,' is essential because it restricts which room." (Jack Umstatter, Got Grammar? Wiley, 2007) Examples: "He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead." (Albert Einstein)

adverbial clausesThe name "adverbial" suggests that adverbial clauses modify verbs; but they modify wholeclauses, as shown by the examples [below]. Their other key property is that they areadjuncts, since they are typically optional constituents in sentences. They are traditionally classified according to their meaning, for example adverbial clauses of reason, time, concession, manner or condition, as illustrated below. a. Reason Because Marianne loved Willoughby, she refused to believe that he had deserted her. b. Time When Fanny returned, she found Tom Bertram very ill. c. Concession Although Mr D'Arcy disliked Mrs Bennet he married Elizabeth. d. Manner Henry changed his plans as the mood took him. e. Condition If Emma had left Hartfield, Mr Woodhouse would have been unhappy. (Jim Miller, An Introduction to English Syntax. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2002) Examples: "This is the West, sir. When the legend becomes fact, print the legend." (newspaper editor to Senator Ransom Stoddart in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, 1962)

comment clauseA short word group (such as "you see" and "I think") that adds aparenthetical remark to another word group. 1.)"As you know, the concept of the suction pump is centuries old. Really that's all this is except that instead of sucking water, I'm sucking life." (Christopher Guest as Count Rugen in The Princess Bride, 1987) 2.)The presentation went quite well, I believe.

comparative clause A type of subordinate clause that follows the comparative form of an adjective or adverb and begins with as, than, or like.As the name suggests, a comparative clause expresses a comparison: "Shyla is smarter than I am. A comparative clause may contain ellipsis: "Shyla is smarter than I" (formal style) or "Shyla is smarter than me" (informal style). A construction in which the verb has been omitted by ellipsis is called a comparative phrase. Examples and Observations: 1."The reason people find it so hard to be happy is that they always see the past better thanit was, the present worse than it is, and the future less resolved than it will be. (Marcel Pagnol) 2."No other president ever enjoyed the presidency as I did." (Theodore Roosevelt) complement clause. A subordinate clause that serves to complete the meaning of anoun or verb in a sentence. Also known as a complement phrase(abbreviated as CP). Complement clauses are generally introduced by subordinating conjunctions (also known as complementizers) and contain the typical elements of clauses: a verb (always), a subject (usually), and direct and indirect objects (sometimes).

Examples and Observations: 1."In versions of grammar that use the concept of complement clause, it largely or entirely replaces the concept of nominal clause (or noun clause) referring to a clause that can occur in positions where noun phrases occur. For example, in I'd like to carry on, the infinitivecomplement clause is the object of the main clause, filling a position where a noun phrase could occur." (Geoffrey N. Leech, A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006) 2."Recently, linguists working in the influential theory known as 'generative grammar' have used the term 'complement' to refer to variously closely related kinds of subordinate clause, namely:

1. Subordinate clauses which on their own serve as the direct object of verbs such asbelieve, tell, say, know, and understand; the subordinate clauses are the complements of these verbs. 2. Subordinate clauses which modify various nouns such as story, rumour, and fact, andadjectives such as proud, happy, and sad; the subordinate clauses are the complements of these nouns and adjectives. 3. Subordinate clauses which on their own act as the subject of sentences with suchpredicates as be a pity, be a nuisance, be unfortunate, seem, and happen. These clauses are called 'subject complements' or 'subject complement clauses.'

. . . Sometimes the term 'complement clause' is extended to the adverbial type of subordinate clause as well." (James R. Hurford, Grammar: A Student's Guide. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994)

conditional clauseA type of adverbial clause that states a hypothesis or condition, real or imagined. A conditional clause may be introduced by the subordinating conjunction if or another conjunction, such as unless or in case of. Examples and Observations:1. "If you want a friend in Washington, get a dog." (Harry Truman) 2."If we had no winter, the spring would not be so pleasant; if we did not sometimes taste of adversity, prosperity would not be so welcome." (Anne Bradstreet, "Meditations Divine and Moral") 3."If I had only known, I would have been a locksmith." (Albert Einstein) --"Conditions deal with imagined situations: some are possible, some are unlikely, some are impossible. The speaker/writer imagines that something can or cannot happen or have happened, and then compares that situation with possible consequences or outcomes, or offers further logical conclusions about the situation." (R. Carter, Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006) --There are six main types of conditional sentence: 1.For example, the equilibrium between liquid and vapor is upset if the temperature is increased. (General rule, or law of nature: it always happens.) 2.If you start thinking about this game, it will drive you crazy. (Open future condition: it may or may not happen.)

independent clauseA group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence. By itself, an independent clause (also known as a main clause) is asimple sentence. Examples and Observations: 1.A clause is a group of words that [contains] a subject and a verb. There are two major types: independent clauses and dependent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, beginning with a capital letter and ending with terminal punctuation such as a period. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; instead it must be attached to an independent clause." (G. Lutz and D. Stevenson, The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference, 2005) 2."When liberty is taken away by force, it can be restored by