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Transcript of [PPT]Cell Structure & Function - TypePadsimpson.typepad.com/files/cell-structurewoyce2010.ppt ·...

  • Cell Structure & Function

    http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html

  • Microscope image: http://www.answers.com/topic/microscopeCork image: http://www.cortex.de/img_kork/cork_cells_big.jpg

    Hooke image: http://www.metaweb.com/wiki/upload/5/5c/Hookeyoungmtwb.jpg

    1665-

    ______________________

    used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork and saw little boxes

    He called them CELLS because they looked like the small rooms that monks lived in called Cells

    Robert Hooke

  • Microscope/Leeuwenhoek image: http://www.answers.com/topic/microscopeAnimation from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm

    1673-

    ___________________________________

    a Dutch microscope maker was the first to see LIVING ORGANISMS.

    Anton van Leeuwenhoek

  • Plant image: http://www.epa.gov/maia/images/classification.gifSchleiden image: http://web.visionlearning.com/events/Schleiden_Apr5_2005.htm

    1838-German botanist __________________________concluded that

    ALL PLANTS

    are made of cells

    Matthias Schleiden

  • Schwann image: http://home.tiscalinet.ch/biografien/biografien/schwann.htm

    Animals image: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.htm

    1839-German zoologist

    _________________________concluded that

    ALL ANIMALS ARE MADE OF CELLS

    Theodor Schwann

  • Virchow: http://www.parlament-berlin.de/Galeriecopy.nsf/0/8ABC720262898739C1256A480037F869?OpenDocument

    Mitosis: http://biology.dbs.umt.edu/biol101/labs/lab_6_images/sect01and06/Rebecca,%20tanner,%20and%20liam%20mitosis%20root%20tip.jpg

    1855-

    German

    medical doctor _____________________

    saw dividing cells

    in the microscope

    and reasoned that

    cells come from

    other cells

    Rudolph Virchow

  • CELL THEORY

    1. All living things are ________________________.

    2. Cells are the basic unit of

    ____________ & _____________ in an organism.

    (cell = basic unit of _____________)

    3. Cells come from the reproduction

    of ____________ cells

    Cell image: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer1a.htm

    MADE OF CELLS

    existing

    life

    STRUCTURE FUNCTION

  • All living things made of cells BUT organisms can be very different.

    UNICELLULAR

    MULTICELLULAR

    Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/bacsiz.GIF

    http://www.angelbabygifts.com/

    http://www.inclusive.co.uk/downloads/images/pics2/tree.gif

  • CELL SIZE

    Typical cells range from: 5 50 micrometers (microns) in diameter

    http://facstaff.bloomu.edu/gdavis/links%20100.htm

  • How big is a micron ( ) ?

    http://www.talentteacher.com/pics/005cb.jpg

    1 cm = 10,000 microns 1 = 25,000 microns

  • MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM dont just contain MANY CELLS.

    Image from: http://www.isscr.org/images/ES-cell-Fig-2.jpg

    They have different kinds of cells

    doing different jobs

  • Cells in a multi-cellular organism become SPECIALIZED by turning different genes on and off

    Image from: http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ls/graph/faculty_pictures/whole_time/SLC/SLC_lab-1.jpg

    Cell Specialization =DIFFERENTIATION

  • SPECIALIZED ANIMAL CELLS

    Muscle cells

    Red blood cells

    http://www.biologycorner.com/bio3/images/bloodcells3D.jpg

    http://www.mlms.logan.k12.ut.us/~ajohnson/Cells.html

    Cheek cells

  • Specialized Plant cells

    Guard cells

    Xylem cells

    Pollen

    Guard cells: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/img/Botany_130/Diversity/Bryophytes/Anthoceros/Guard_cells.jpg

    Xylem: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/130/Secondary_Growth/Woody_Stems/Tilia_Stem/Secondary_Growth/One_Year_Stem/Primary_xylem_MC.jpg

    Pollen: http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/pollen.jpg

  • ________ __________ ___________

    ATOMS

    MOLECULES

    ORGANELLES

    IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide

  • ____________ ____________

    CELLS

    TISSUES

    IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide

    Similar cells working together

  • The cell

    The basic unit of structure and function in all _________ things.

  • Cell Theory

    All living things are made up of cells. (Schleiden and Schwann)Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. (S/S)All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division. (Virchow)

  • Examples of Cells

    Amoeba Proteus

    Plant Stem

    Red Blood Cell

    Nerve Cell

    Bacteria

  • Two Types of Cells

    ProkaryoticEukaryotic

  • Prokaryotic

    Do not have structures surrounded by membranesFew internal structuresOne-celled organisms, Bacteria

    http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html

  • Eukaryotic

    Contain organelles surrounded by membranesMost living organisms

    Plant

    Animal

    http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html

  • Typical Animal Cell

    http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif

  • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif

    Typical Plant Cell

  • Cell Parts

    Organelles

  • Surrounding the Cell

  • Cell Wall/ Cell Membrane

  • Entering (and exiting) the cell

    CELL WALL

    A stiff wall that surrounds the cell membrane, giving the cell a rigid boxlike shapeFunction: protection & supportThis structure is only on the plant cell

    CELL MEMBRANE

    Forms the outside boundary that separates the cell from its environmentFunction: controls what comes in and out of the cell

  • Cell Membrane

    Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cellDouble layer

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Cell Wall

    Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteriaSupports & protects cells

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Inside the Cell

  • Nucleus

    Acts as the brain of the cell or the control centerDirects all of the cells activitiesWhere DNA is found

  • Nucleus

    Cells without a nucleus: ______________Cells with a nucleus: ________________

    ___________________________ ___________________________

  • Nucleus

    Directs cell activitiesSeparated from cytoplasm by nuclear membraneContains genetic material - DNA

  • Nucleus

    The nucleus of the cell contains the genetic information (DNA)

  • Nuclear Membrane

    Surrounds nucleusMade of two layersOpenings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Nucleolus

    Inside nucleusContains RNA to build proteins

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Chromosomes

    In nucleusMade of DNAContain instructions for traits & characteristics

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Cytoplasm

    Gel-like mixtureSurrounded by cell membraneContains hereditary material

  • Cytoplasm

    A gel-like fluid found throughout the entire cell wherein the organelles are found.It is constantly moving so the cell does not need to propel itself.

  • Mitochondria

    The powerhouse of the cellProduces energy for the cell

  • Proteins in the cell

    Endoplasmic ReticulumCarry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to anotherRibosomesFactories that produce proteins

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Moves materials around in cellSmooth type: lacks ribosomesRough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Ribosomes

    Each cell contains thousandsMake proteinsFound on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum & Ribosomes

  • Golgi Bodies

    The cells mailroomReceives proteins and other materials from the ER, packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell.

  • Lysosomes

    Cells cleanup crewBreaks down old cell parts and releases the substances so they can be used again.

  • Vacuoles

    Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removalContains water solutionHelp plants maintain shape

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Plant CellsAnimal Cells

    Larger vacuolesChloroplastCell wallCells have definite shape

    Smaller vacuoles, some have no vacuolesNo cell wall and no chloroplastMore lysosomesMore mitochondria

  • VACUOLES

    Storage area of the cellStores food and waterPlants have one large vacuole for waterSome animal cells have them & others do not

  • Chloroplasts

    Capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cellFound only in the plant cell

  • Chloroplast

    Usually found in plant cellsContains green chlorophyllWhere photosynthesis takes place

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html