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Transcript of [PPT]‚¹ƒ©‚¤ƒ‰ 1 viewMeasurement of Integrated...

  • Measurement of Integrated PA-to-LNA Isolation on Si CMOS Chip

    Ryo MinamiJeeYoung Hong

    Kenichi Okadaand Akira Matsuzawa

    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

    *

    *

    Outline

    Tx leakage and problemEvaluation of Tx leakageTx leakage pathsMeasurement and Simulation methodResultConclusion

    *

    Background

    MeritHigh frequency characteristicHigh supply voltageDemeritChip area and cost

    CMOS transistors can provide a sufficient performance for PA design.

    The level of Tx leakage increases.

    To investigate Tx leakage paths.

    Conventionally, Power Amplifier (PA) has been implemented by compound semiconductors.

    CMOS technology has been developed.

    CMOSCMOSPA

    PA

    Tx

    Tx

    *

    Tx leakage and problem

    FDD system

    The large transmitted signal leaks to Rx input side. Tx leakage causes IM and degrades demodulation quality.

    Tx

    FDD

    Tx

    Tx

    TxTx3

    Tx

    *

    Tx leakage paths

    substrate coupling

    inductor coupling

    wire coupling (Vdd, GND)

    conventional

    single-chip

    The integration of the PA with other blocks increases many coupling paths.

    Txone-chip

    one-chip

    Tx

    *

    Dicing

    Substrate coupling and inductor coupling are generated because PA and LNA are integrated on the same chip.

    Substrate coupling is blocked by physically separating the PA and LNA[1].

    [1] J.Y. Hong et al., IEICE society Conference, 2009.

    *

    Measurement method

    substrate coupling inductor coupling

    inductor coupling

    After dicing, the distance between PA and LNA is 0.74mm, 1.55mm, 2.37mm, 3.20mm.

    *

    Specification of the designed PA and LNA

    PALNATechnology0.18 mm CMOS processFrequency5 GHzVDD3.3 V1.8 VGain at 5 GHz5.5 dB15.1 dBNF at 5 GHz2.7 dBArea1.01mm1.01mm0.70mm1.01mm

    *

    Simulation method

    Magnetic coupling simulation by HFSS (an electromagnetic field simulator)

    Circuit simulation with magnetic coupling effect by goldengate

    *

    Simulation result

    Gain of PA and LNA are shown at 5 GHz S21 depends on the distance between PA and LNA

    *

    Measurement result

    Under 3 GHzThermal noise from the resistance of LNANoise floor of the network analyzerAround 5 GHzNoise floor of the network analyzer with gainOver 8 GHzProbe coupling exists.

    Assume

    *

    Noise floor and probe coupling

    Noise floor

    Probe coupling

    *

    Probe coupling problem

    The case of measuring chip

    The case of measuring probe coupling

    Signal flows into the chip.

    This is the worst case of probe coupling.

    *

    Thermal noise from the resistance of LNA

    : noise calculation point

    k: 1.38*10-23 [J/K]

    T: 300 [K]

    B: 10 [Hz]

    Cable loss:2 [dB]

    *

    Result of error analysis (higher and lower side)

    Under 3 GHzNoise floor of the network analyzerOver 8 GHzProbe coupling exists.

    *

    Result of error analysis (middle section)

    Around 5 GHzNoise floor of network analyzer with gain

    *

    Comparison of coupling data at 5 GHz

    The isolation value of inductor coupling is affected by the noise floor of the NA over 1.8mm distance between PA and LNA.

    Total isolation value becomes smaller than that of the duplexer over 0.4mm Substrate coupling is the most dominant factor in Tx leakage.

    *

    Conclusion

    Substrate coupling is the most dominant factor in Tx leakage for Si substrate.Total isolation value becomes smaller than that of the duplexer over 0.4mm distance between PA and LNA.Error sources in measurement are noise floor of the network analyzer and probe coupling.

    *

    Thank you for your attention!

    *

    probe coupling

    The distance between inductor is blue line.

    The distance between probe is red line.

    *

    Comparison at 5 GHz

    *

    Neumanns formula

    The mutual inductance is given by the double integral Neumann formula.

    M : Mutual inductanced : distance

    Graph4

    -78.9888653296-68.717

    -90.7128729769-70.123

    -102.028992757-71.529

    -113.6501304966-72.935

    -74.341

    -75.747

    -77.153

    -78.559

    -79.965

    -81.371

    -82.777

    -84.183

    -85.589

    -86.995

    -88.401

    -89.807

    -91.213

    -92.619

    -94.025

    -95.431

    -96.837

    -98.243

    -99.649

    -101.055

    -102.461

    -103.867

    -105.273

    -106.679

    -108.085

    -109.491

    -110.897

    -112.303

    -113.709

    -115.115

    -116.521

    -117.927

    -119.333

    Simulation

    simul

    distance [mm]

    Isolation [dB]

    Sheet1

    5GHzGoldengate

    [mm]s(2,1)[dB]-totaldiced

    0.74-55.2888653296-78.9888653296-14.47408351520.74-79.4-13.3333333333

    1.55-67.0128729769-90.7128729769-13.80014607331.55-90.2-9.756097561

    2.37-78.328992757-102.028992757-14.00137077052.37-98.2-1.3253012048

    3.2-89.9501304966-113.65013049663.2-99.3

    Measured[dB]Simulated[dB]-87.5722788319

    PA Gain5.66.9

    LNA Gain15.116.8

    total20.723.7

    (non-diced)(dpt)(non-diced)-B

    0.54-57.7-52.4-76.30940.0012941221-57.76049482290.0012941608-57.760235512

    1.35-84.5-64.2631668323-87.6980.0000418223-87.57183376420.0000430013-87.3303772489

    2.17-92-75.6667419918-99.2272000.000022616-92.9117004442

    2.98-92.7-86.7442529683-110.61580.0000122752-98.21944555860.0000229859-92.7707517352

    3.8-91.4-98.4642791115-122.1450.000022716-92.87334890060.000026904-91.4036598838

    testtest

    -76.72820.0012949913-57.7546631433

    -87.52550.0000421932-87.495152927

    -96.58610.000020285-93.8565143051

    -99.63860.0000206967-93.6819696427

    Perr00-99.97360.0000249765-92.0493637104

    0.0000000004-93.5851140852

    0.0000000001-98.6084725722

    0.0000000001-99.3029310369

    -97.1655058981tt0.0000587208-84.624158787

    FloorNoise

    -100

    test

    0-68.7170.0003667005-68.7137691057-64.3980.0006027813-64.3968045689

    0.5-75.7470.0001634798-75.7307194142-74.840650.0001813963-74.8274313163

    0.54-76.30940.0001532697-76.290873318-75.596716560.0001663223-75.5809887108

    1-82.7770.0000733208-82.6954543779-83.44660.000067986-83.3516082115

    1.35-87.6980.0000424149-87.4496258357-88.37792850.0000394056-88.0888324373

    1.5-89.8070.0000338444-89.4102684518-90.215850.0000324271-89.7818510593

    1.6-91.2130.0000292628-90.6736884533-91.3492960.0000288608-90.7938454253

    1.7-92.6190.000025439-91.8900045854-92.4092740.0000259656-91.7120323596

    1.8-94.0250.0000222671-93.0467415037-93.3957840.0000236121-92.5373009766

    1.9-95.4310.0000196558-94.1301699885-94.3088260.0000216975-93.2718112918

    2-96.8370.0000175259-95.1263932183-95.14840.0000201396-93.9189704314

    2.1-98.2430.0000158071-96.0229470446-95.9145060.0000188728-94.4832746493

    2.17-99.22720.0000148147-96.5861333053-96.407066740.0000181305-94.8318139762

    2.2-99.6490.0000144367-96.8106549982-96.6071440.0000178442-94.9700432833

    2.3-101.0550.0000133579-97.4852430693-97.2263140.0000170116-95.3850891742

    2.4-102.4610.0000125196-98.0481629552

    2.5-103.8670.0000118764-98.5063073987

    2.6-105.2730.0000113884-98.870729496

    2.7-106.6790.0000110219-99.1548359494

    2.8-108.0850.000010749-99.3726104797

    2.9-109.4910.0000105472-99.5372550965

    2.98-110.61580.0000104249-99.6385833421

    3-110.8970.0000103987-99.6603804519

    3.1-112.3030.00001029-99.7516814153

    3.2-113.7090.0000102106-99.8189492512

    3.3-115.1150.0000101528-99.8682710543

    3.4-116.5210.0000101108-99.9043046668

    3.5-117.9270.0000100803-99.9305603215

    3.6-119.3330.0000100581-99.9496540452

    3.7-120.7390.0000100421-99.9635196483

    3.8-122.1450.0000100305-99.9735781909

    3.9-123.5510.000010022-99.980869451

    4-124.9570.000010016-99.9861518512

    Simuldiced(non)diced-1

    0-68.717-19.317-12.653-69.530.108180238-19.317041351

    0.1-70.123-28.09069874-23.05101614-70.8630.0393961329-28.0909281253

    0.2-71.529-36.04842224-32.44843424-72.1960.0157589094-36.0494768194

    0.3-72.935-43.24314414-40.90883534-73.5290.0068808071-43.2472123384

    0.4-74.341-49.72601504-48.49383584-74.8620.0032586125-49.7393457162

    0.5-75.747-55.5463625-55.2630875-76.1950.0016626604-55.5839287218

    0.54-76.3094-57.6996971874-57.7553664156-76.72820.001295037-57.7543564954

    0.6-77.153-60.75169104-61.27427744-77.5280.0009074134-60.8438962624

    0.7-78.559-65.38768214-66.58312814-78.8610.0005255698-65.587392116

    0.8-79.965-69.49819424-71.24339744-80.1940.0003204456-69.8849138951

    0.9-81.371-73.12526274-75.30687854-81.5270.0002041035-73.8029923853

    1-82.777-76.3091-78.8234-82.860.0001349709-77.3951953221

    1.1-84.183-79.08809534-81.84082574-84.1930.0000923495-80.6913087818

    1.2-85.589-81.49881504-84.40505504-85.5260.0000654204-83.6857355716

    1.3-86.995-83.57600234-86.56002254-86.8590.0000482519-86.329720588

    1.35-87.698-84.499880115-87.4972254838-87.52550.0000421943-87.4949139951

    1.4-88.401-85.35257744-88.34769824-88.1920.0000374078-88.5407544804

    1.5-89.807-86.8596375-89.8080875-89.5250.0000307445-90.2446536677

    1.55-90.51-90.2001285125-87.521318765-90.4275141838-90.19150.000028508-90.9006546042

    1.6-91.213-90.8116816-88.12645664-90.979231040.0000261362-91.6551581536

    1.7-92.619-91.9984943-89.18048594-91.897204940.0000236757-92.5139589669

    1.8-94.025-93.1309912-90.04735344-92.596120640.0000222111-93.0685927754

    1.9-95.431-94.2020629-90.75086414-93.108124940.0000213278-93.4210708477

    2-96.837-95.2046-91.313-93.46340.0000207831-93.6457922475

    2.1-98.243-96.1314931-91.75391994-93.690163340.000020442-93.7895255234

    2.17-99.