ï‚‍Pï‚‍Parts of the skeletal system â€Bâ€Bones...

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Transcript of ï‚‍Pï‚‍Parts of the skeletal system â€Bâ€Bones...

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  • PParts of the skeletal system BBones (skeleton) JJoints CCartilages LLigaments DDivided into two divisions AAxial skeleton AAppendicular skeleton
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  • SSupport of the body PProtection of soft organs MMovement due to attached skeletal muscles SStorage of minerals and fats BBlood cell formation
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  • The adult skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Figure 5.2b
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  • Figure 5.1
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  • Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus
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  • SShort bones GGenerally cube-shape CContain mostly spongy bone EExamples: Carpals, tarsals
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  • Flat bones Thin/flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: skull ribs sternum
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  • Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip
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  • Figure 5.1
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  • Diaphysis Shaft Composed of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a
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  • Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c
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  • Articular cartilage Covers the external surface of the epiphyses Made of hyaline cartilage Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a
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  • Medullary cavity Cavity of the shaft Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a
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  • SSurface features of bones SSites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments PPassages for nerves and blood vessels CCategories of bone markings PProjections and processes grow out from the bone surface DDepressions or cavities indentations
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  • Osteon (Haversian System) A unit of bone Central (Haversian) canal Opening in the center of an osteon Carries blood vessels and nerves Perforating (Volkmans) canal Canal perpendicular to the central canal Carries blood vessels and nerves
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  • Figure 5.3
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  • Lacunae Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) Arranged in concentric rings Lamellae Rings around the central canal Sites of lacunae Detail of Figure 5.3
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  • Canaliculi Tiny canals Radiate from the central canal to lacunae Form a transport system Detail of Figure 5.3
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  • In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Joints
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  • Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood New cartilage is continuously formed Older cartilage becomes ossified Cartilage is broken down Bone replaces cartilage
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  • Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops Bones change shape somewhat Bones grow in width
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  • Figure 5.4a
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  • Figure 5.4b
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  • Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
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  • A break in a bone Types of bone fractures Complete vs. Incomplete: whether bone is separated or still partially connected Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone Immobilization can be internal or external
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  • Table 5.2
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  • Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
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  • Figure 5.5
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  • The first x-ray was taken right after a fracture. The second was 2 months later, showing some callus. Notice that the leg is now in a cast, so the entire bone looks a little more dense and fuzzy. The last x-ray was 4 months after the fracture, showing a good callus. The bone now can bear weight, but it will take many months to remodel the area and complete the repair.