Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite...

of 40 /40
Klaus S. Lackner Carbon Dioxide Separation from Coal and from Air Carbon Dioxide Separation from Coal and from Air Los Alamos National Laboratory May 2000

Transcript of Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite...

Page 1: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Klaus S. Lackner

Carbon DioxideSeparation from Coal and

from Air

Carbon DioxideSeparation from Coal and

from Air

Los Alamos National Laboratory

May 2000

Page 2: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Two Extreme ApproachesTwo Extreme Approaches

• Separate energy from carbon as early as possible• Central power plants and hydrogen plants

• Retrofitting is expensive

• CO2 disposal near energy consumers

• Collect equivalent amount of CO2 from air• Distributed and mobile sources of CO2

• Avoids costly changes to infrastructure

• CO2 disposal in optimal sites

Page 3: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

0 Gt

8,000 Gt

7,000 Gt

6,000 Gt

5,000 Gt

4,000 Gt

3,000 Gt

2,000 Gt

1,000 Gt

21stCentury’sEmissions

???

Atmo-sphere

Carbon ReservoirsCarbon Reservoirs

2000

OceanPlants

Coal

Oil, Gas,Tars &Shales

MethaneHydrates

• • • • • •

pHchange

lessthan 0.3

39,000 Gt 20thCentury

Next Century Mankind willOverwhelm Nature

100,000

Gt

???

Soil &Detritus

Preindustrial1800

100 years atcurrent rate

Page 4: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Doubling CO2?Doubling CO2?

• The per capita emission allowance of 10 billion peoplesharing into current emissions would be 10% of thecurrent US per capita output.

• Stabilizing CO2 at twice the pre-industrial level wouldrequire a factor of three reduction from today.

• Taken together this would imply a factor of 30 reduction.

• However, there is a 50 year buffer before doubling willoccur.

Page 5: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Both Methods Require CarbonDioxide Disposal Options

Both Methods Require CarbonDioxide Disposal Options

Constraints on Disposal• Safety

• Minimum Environmental Impact

• No Legacy for Future Generations

• Permanent and Complete Solution

• Economic Viability

Page 6: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

ForsteriteMgO

CaOAnorthite G lass

WollastoniteAnorthiteBruciteSerpentine

Carbon Dixoide

COFormic Acid

Carbon

SucroseGlucoseAnthracene

StarchXyloseCoal

BenzeneSynthesis Gas Formaldehyde UrethaneC+0.5H2

UreaCrude O ilDecane

AcetyleneC+H2

Ethylene OctaneHexaneEthanolIsobutaneMethanol Propane

Ethane

Methane

C + 2H2

-200

-100

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Enth

alpy

per

mol

e of

car

bon

(kJ)

Carbonates from Minerals

Carbon based fuels and feedstocks

Extracting Energy from Carbon makes CO2 or Carbonate

Page 7: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Consumption & Source BreakdownConsumption & Source Breakdown

0

200

400

600

Em

issio

ns

(MtC

)

Gas

Coal

Petroleum

Transportation

Buildings

Industry

1995 US Carbon Emissionsmillion metric tons of carbon equivalent (MtC)

A large fraction of all CO2 is generated by small or mobile sourcesfor which collection at the source is too difficult

Page 8: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

fossil carbonextraction

powerconsumption

CO2collection

CO2handling

oxidizedcarbon

disposal

refiningenergycarrier

CO2 emissions CO2 extractionfrom air

FOSSIL FUEL CYCLE

Page 9: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Carbonate Chemistry• Redesign Power Plant so that it provides a

concentrated stream of CO2CaO based CO2 acceptor process leads to an ultra-efficient power plant design

• Collect the CO2 directly from the airCO2 in air is a much more lucrative target than the kinetic energy harvested as wind energy

• Dispose of CO2 in a safe and permanent formMineral carbonates are permanent, stable and require no energy to form

Zero Emission Coal

Net Zero Emission fromTransportation Fuels

Take BackThe Empties

Page 10: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Power plants that capture their own CO2 need

to be optimized around this concept

Power plants that capture their own CO2 need

to be optimized around this concept

Avoid combustion of carbon with air

Revisit processes that looked uneconomicbecause they require pure oxygen or mustremove CO2 to complete the reaction

Generate a concentrated, pressurized stream of CO2

Page 11: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Optimize the overall processOptimize the overall process

The separation step should also contribute tothe energy production:

• Solid Oxide Fuel Cells separate oxygen from airwhile producing electricity.

• Membrane separation can remove CO2 from thereaction products while driving the hydrogenproduction forward.

• Absorbers, can remove CO2 while providing heatto perform steam reforming.

Page 12: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Anaerobic Hydrogen Production (The CO2 Gas Acceptor Process)

Anaerobic Hydrogen Production (The CO2 Gas Acceptor Process)

• Based on old idea (early 1900’s)• 1970’s Pilot Plant in Rapid City, South Dakota (CONSOL)• Plan to modernize older idea using new technology

• Change emphasis and apply new concepts• Incorporate CO2 Capture• Increase the power generation efficiency• Incorporate Fuel Cells• Bury the CO2 permanently

Page 13: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

The Basic ReactionsThe Basic Reactions

CaO + CO2 ⇔ CaCO3 + 178.8 kJC + 2H2O ⇔ CO2 + 2H2 – 178.2 kJ

C + 2H2 ⇔ CH4 + 74.8 kJCH4 + 2H2O ⇔ CO2 + 4H2 – 253.0 kJ

C + O2 ⇔ CO2 + 393.5kJ2H2 + O2 ⇔ 2H2O + 571.7kJ_____________________________________

CaO + C + 2H2O ⇔ CaCO3 + 2H2 + 0.6kJ

Page 14: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000

1/2(CaO + C + 2H2O → CaCO3 + 2H2)

CaO +

H 2O →

Ca(O

H) 2

C + H2 O →

C + H2

1/2(C + 2H2O →

CO2 + 2H

2)1/2(2C + 2H2O → CO2 + CH4)

CO + H2O → CO 2 + H2ºC

ΔG

[kJ]

1 barFree Energies

of Reactions

Page 15: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000

1/2(CaO + C + 2H2O → CaCO3 + 2H2)

CaO + H 2O →

Ca(OH) 2

C + H2 O →

C + H2

1/2(C + 2H2O →

CO2 + 2H2)

1/2(2C + 2H2O → CO2 + CH4)

CO + H2O → CO 2 + H2

ºC

ΔG

[kJ]

30 barFree Energies

of Reactions

Page 16: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

CO2

H2OH2O H2O

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

CaCO3

CaO

H2H2

H2

CH4, H2O

Air

N2

CoalSlurry

Gasifier De-carbonizer Calciner Fuel

Cell

Gas Cleanup

Polishing StepAsh

Gasifier: C + 2H2 → CH4, H2O(l) → H2O(g)Decarbonizer: CH4+ 2H2O → CO2 + 4H2, CO2 + CaO → CaCO3

Calciner: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

Fuel Cell: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Hydrogencarries heat ofcombustion ofcoal plus heat ofcarbonation ofCaO to the fuelcell

This amounts to150% of the heatcontent of thecoal. Solid oxidfuel cell paysback the “energyloan” withthermo-dynamicallyunavoidablewaste heat.

Efficiency of fuelcell in terms ofheat content ofcoal is boostedby factor 1.5.Theoreticalefficiency is93%.

We expect lowestcost hydrogenavailable today.

ZERO EMISSION COAL POWER PLANT

Cleanup

Page 17: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Energy BalanceEnergy Balance

CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2

O2 + 2H2 → 2H2O + 571.7 kJ

CaO + C + 2H2O → 2H2 + CaCO3 + 0.6 kJ

C + O2 → CO2 + 393.5 kJ

Compare to392.9 kJOutput

178.8 kJ

Page 18: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Zero Emission CoalZero Emission CoalCO2

H2OH2O H2O

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

CaCO3

CaO

H2H2

H2

CH4, H2O

Air

N2

CoalSlurry

Gasifier De-carbonizer Calciner Fuel

Cell

Gas Cleanup

Polishing StepAsh

Cleanup

Page 19: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Anaerobic Hydrogen ProductionNo combustionEnergy neutral

ElectricityHydrogen

Coal/WaterSlurry

High TemperatureSolid Oxide Fuel Cell

NO EMISSIONSHIGH EFFICIENCY

Mineral CarbonationCalcination

Waste HeatCaCO3

CO2CaO

CaO

Coal to electricity with extremely high efficiency• Waste heat from fuel cell fully recycled• 50% less CO2 even without disposal• Capture all emission products

• No legacy issues• Truly permanent CO2 disposal• Common natural end products• Enough resources for all fossil

fuels

Zero Emission AnaerobicHydrogen/Electricity Production

Water

Page 20: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA)ZECA’s Long Term Goal:

Zero Emission for Sustainable Energy

Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA)ZECA’s Long Term Goal:

Zero Emission for Sustainable Energy

• Zero Emission• No CO2, SOX, NOX, no particulates, no mercury

• Permanent Disposal of CO2• Not a temporary patch that comes back to haunt us

• Match Future Energy Demand• Hundreds of years of fossil energy even at increased demand

• Minimal Environmental Impact

• Doubled Efficiency

• Economic Implementation

Page 21: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Strengths of the processStrengths of the process

• No costly oxygen separation

• No high temperature membrane gas separation

• Ultra-high efficiency

• No air processing, minimal NOx

• Concentrated stream of CO2 ready for disposal

• All potential emissions handled at once

Page 22: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Permanent CO2 Sequestration throughAccelerated Rock Weathering

Permanent CO2 Sequestration throughAccelerated Rock Weathering

• Simple acid-base reaction binds CO2

• Magnesium silicates provide the base

• Process speeds up natural geologic reactions

• Process is exothermic

• CO2 is sequestered permanently in inert form

Page 23: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

ALBANY’S BREAKTHROUGHALBANY’S BREAKTHROUGH

200,000 years reduced to 3 hours

W.K. O’Conner, D.C. Dahlin, D. N. Nilsen, R. P. Walters & P.C. Turner

Albany Research Center, Albany OR

Suggests simple cost-effective implementation

Mg3Si2O5(OH)4+3CO2(g) → 3MgCO3+2SiO2+2H2O(l)

Page 24: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

1 GW Electricity1 GW Electricity

~31 ktons/day

Mineral Disposal of CO2Mineral Disposal of CO2

~1.2 ktons/day Fe~0.2 ktons/day Ni, Cr, Mn

3.8 ktons/day

Heat

Coal

Sand & Magnesite

Open Pit Serpentine MineOpen Pit Serpentine Mine

CO2

10 ktons/day

Coal Strip MineCoal Strip Mine

Zero Emission CoalPower Plant

80% Efficiency

Zero Emission CoalZero Emission CoalPower PlantPower Plant

80% EfficiencyEarth Moving ~40 ktons/day Mineral Carbonation PlantMineral Carbonation PlantMineral Carbonation Plant

25 ktons/day36% MgO

Mining, Crushing & Grinding Cost: $7/t of CO2 Chemical Processing Cost $10/t of CO2 No credits for byproducts

Page 25: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

CO2 Extraction from AirCO2 Extraction from Air

• Decouple CO2 production and sequestration• Optimize disposal and power generation separately

• Atmosphere acts as carbon conveyor belt

• Atmosphere is a huge buffer/storage reservoir that cansmooth out variations in emission

Page 26: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Biomass takes CO2 from AirBiomass takes CO2 from Air

• Biomass is rate limited not by CO2, but sunlight• Rate is limited at 1-3% of conversion efficiency

• Biomass is not CO2 but energy recycling• Life time biomass is too short for storage

• Energy is returned to the carbon molecule for reuse

Page 27: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

CO2

1 m3of Air

40 moles of gas, 1.16 kg

wind speed 10 m/s

0.015 moles of CO2

produced by 10,000 J ofgasoline

J602

2

=mv

Volumes are drawn to scale

Page 28: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Biomass

3 W/m2

Sunshine

200 W/m2

Wind Energyv = 10m/s600 W/m2

Extraction from AirPower Equivalent

from gasoline

v = 3 m/s

30kW/m2

Areas are drawn to scale

Page 29: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Air Flow

Ca(OH)2 solution

CO2 diffusion

CO2 mass transfer is limited by diffusion in air boundary layer

Ca(OH)2 as an absorbent

CaCO3 precipitate

D = 1.39×10-5m2/sL is boundary thicknessρ is density of CO2

Flux = Dρ/L

Page 30: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Diffusion LimitDiffusion Limit• CO2 diffusion through air limits uptake• Flux = Dρ/L

• D = 1.39×10-5m2/s, diffusion coefficient

• L is boundary thickness• ρ is density of CO2

• For a tube of 2.5 mm in diameter,

CO2 will be removed after 6 cm.

Page 31: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

15 km3/day of air

Aselectricityproducerthe towergenerates3-4MWe

Aselectricityproducerthe towergenerates3-4MWe

15 km3/day of air

9,500t ofCO2 passthrough thetower daily.

Half of itcould becollected

9,500t ofCO2 passthrough thetower daily.

Half of itcould becollected

300m

115m

Cross section10,000 m2

air fall velocity~15m/s

Water sprayedinto the air atthe top of thetower coolsthe air andgenerates adowndraft.

Page 32: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Wind Energy vs. CO2 CollectionWind Energy vs. CO2 Collection

Wind Energy• Convection tower,

Wind Mill etc.• Extract kinetic energy• Wind Turbines• 30% extraction efficiency• Throughput

130W/m2 @ 6m/s wind• Cost

$0.05/kWh

CO2 Collection• Convection tower,

absorbing “leaves”, etc.• Extract CO2

• Sorbent Filters• 30+% extraction efficiency• Throughput

3.8g/(s�m2) @ 6m/s wind• Cost by analogy

$0.50/ton of CO2

Additional Cost inSorbent Recovery

Page 33: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Cost is in Sorbent RecoveryCost is in Sorbent Recovery

• ENERGY COST• Recovery of the absorbent (CaO)

• 179kJ/mole or 0.14 tons of coal per ton of CO2

• Assume four times the cost for capital and operation

$11/ton of CO2

Page 34: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Cost ComparisonCost Comparison

$10/ton of CO2≈ 0.9¢/kWh for a coal fired power plant (33%eff.)

≈ 0.4 ¢/kWh for a gas turbine plant (45%eff.)

≈ pipelining cost for one ton of CO2 for 1,000 km

≈ 8 ¢/gallon of gas

Page 35: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

System can be designed to:

Slow the rate of CO2 increase

Plateau CO2 level by CO2 removal equal to production

Return CO2 levels to those of earlier times

Page 36: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Magnesium resources that far exceed worldfossil fuel supplies

Peridotite and Serpentinite Ore Bodies

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Page 37: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

Trading Carbon DioxideTrading Carbon Dioxide

• All countries can participate in the permanentremoval of excess carbon through air extractionand subsequent carbon dioxide disposal

Page 38: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

15 km3/day of air

Aselectricityproducerthe towergenerates3-4MWe

Aselectricityproducerthe towergenerates3-4MWe

15 km3/day of air

9,500t ofCO2 passthrough thetower daily.

Half of itcould becollected

9,500t ofCO2 passthrough thetower daily.

Half of itcould becollected

300m

115m

Cross section10,000 m2

air fall velocity~15m/s

Water sprayedinto the air atthe top of thetower coolsthe air andgenerates adowndraft.

Contacting the air is cheap• Less than $1 per ton of CO2

Main cost is in the absorber cycle• Cement manufacturing suggests $10-15/t of CO2• $10 pro Tonne entspricht 8¢/gallon

Need to find better absorbers

Contacting the air is cheap• Less than $1 per ton of CO2

Main cost is in the absorber cycle• Cement manufacturing suggests $10-15/t of CO2• $10 pro Tonne entspricht 8¢/gallon

Need to find better absorbers

CostsI. CO2 Extraction from Air

CostsI. CO2 Extraction from Air

Page 39: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

CO2

H2OH2O H2O

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

CaCO3

CaO

H2H2

H2

CH4, H2O

Air

N2

CoalSlurry

Gasifier De-carbonizer Calciner Fuel

Cell

Gas Cleanup

Polishing StepAsh

Economic ConsiderationsII. Acceptor Process

Economic ConsiderationsII. Acceptor Process

• Makes use of a variety of coals

• Unit cost of three beds is likely small

• Fuel cell cost is uncertain,• but turbine costs are low

• Eliminate all emissions in a single step

• Lowest cost hydrogen available

• Competitive with other modern designs

• Makes use of a variety of coals

• Unit cost of three beds is likely small

• Fuel cell cost is uncertain,• but turbine costs are low

• Eliminate all emissions in a single step

• Lowest cost hydrogen available

• Competitive with other modern designs

Page 40: Powerpoint Presentation: Carbon Dioxide …...MgO CaO Anorthite G lass Brucite Anorthite Wollastonite Serpentine Carbon Dixoide CO Formic Acid Carbon Glucose Sucrose Anthracene Coal

~1.2 ktons/day Fe~0.2 ktons/day Ni, Cr, Mn

3.8 ktons/day

Heat

Coal

Sand & Magnesite

Open Pit Serpentine MineOpen Pit Serpentine Mine

CO2

10 ktons/day

Coal Strip MineCoal Strip MinePower Plant80% EfficiencyPower Plant80% Efficiency

Earth Moving ~40 ktons/day Carbonation Plant

25 ktons/day36% MgO

Disposal Costs for a Zero Emission Coal Plant• Mining cost is well understood, 0.3¢/kWhe

• Transportation costs are well understood• shipping coal is 0.1¢/kWhe

• Chemical processing cost needs to be proven• simple processes are cost effective, $0.4¢/kWhe

0.8¢/kW is equivalent to $20/t of CO2

This cost would be covered by PM 2.5

Disposal Costs for a Zero Emission Coal Plant• Mining cost is well understood, 0.3¢/kWhe

• Transportation costs are well understood• shipping coal is 0.1¢/kWhe

• Chemical processing cost needs to be proven• simple processes are cost effective, $0.4¢/kWhe

0.8¢/kW is equivalent to $20/t of CO2

This cost would be covered by PM 2.5

EconomicsIII. Mineral Carbonate Disposal

EconomicsIII. Mineral Carbonate Disposal