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    Powering thefuture of ight

    The six easy steps to growing a

    viable aviation biofuels industry

    April 2011, web version

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    Case studyBORN IN HE USA

    Case studyPlAN dE vUElO HAcIAlOS BIOcOmBUSIBlESSUSENABlES dE AvIAcINEN mxIcO

    Case study

    WASE NO, WAN NOCase studyA mASSIvE OPPORUNIy lIESjUS O SHORE

    p.8

    p.10 p.12

    p.6INROdUcION

    HE EcONOmIccASE

    HE SIx EASy SEPSO gROWINg vIABlEAvIAION BIOUElSINdUSRy

    cONAcS ANdURHER REAdINg

    p.1

    p.3

    p.13

    p.17

    AcknowledgementsMany thanks t the lling peple and rganisatins h cntributed their time and epertise t this publicatin:

    Dr Alejandr Rs, Aerpuerts y Sericis AuiliaresPaul Nash and Flrence Massat, AirbusNancy Yung, Air Transprt Assciatin America

    Amy Bann, Darrin Mrgan, Dr Michael Lakeman, Terrance Sctt and Bill Gler, BeingJnathn Cunsell and Leigh Hudsn, British AiraysPressr Min Patel, Pressr Feargal Brennan and Ilze Lee, Craneld UniersityGuilherme Freire, EmbraerBrian Pearce and Thmas Rtger, Internatinal Air Transprt Assciatin

    And the Bard Directrs the Air Transprt Actin Grup

    Phtgraphs and images prided by: Sapphire Energy (page 2, 4 and 14), Slena (page 11), Aerpuerts y Sericis Auiliares

    (page 9), Being (page 16), KLM (page 15), Craneld Uniersity (page 12), British Airays (page 11).

    This is an Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) publication. ATAG is the only global organisation representing the entire commercial aviation

    sector through its Board o Directors, which includes: Airports Council International (ACI), Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Civil Air Navigation

    Services Organisation (CANSO), CFM International, Embraer, GE Aviation, Honeywell Aerospace, International Air Transport Association

    (IATA), Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. www.atag.org

    This publication is or inormation purposes only. While every eort has been made to ensure the quality and accuracy o inormation in this

    publication, it is made available without any warranty o any kind. All currency is in US Dollars.

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    Weoe tothe bioue ae o iht

    BYPaulSteele , ExECUTIvE DIRECToR oF THE AIR TRANSPoRT ACTIoN GRoUP

    We have given this publication a subtitle the six easy steps to growing

    a viable aviation biouels industry but o course this is not an easy task.

    What we set out to do, however, is illustrate the potential or sustainable

    aviation biouels to be produced in countries all over the world and provide

    concrete examples o how some countries and the aviation industry have

    already made substantial progress.

    PowERING THE FUTURE oF FLIGHT p.1

    we certainly hae cme a lng ay in a shrt

    time.

    It asnt many years ag that the idea using biuels r fight as dismissed ut hand n technical and saety grunds.Tday, e hae tested a range biuels infight, e hae made ur ay thrugh a erytugh technical standards prcess t ensurefight saety and e hae been rking hardt establish the crrect sustainability criteriar the uels e use.

    we are n getting ready t take the netsteps in the jurney alternatie aiatinuels: ramping up t get enugh thisl-carbn energy int ur uel supply.

    ess

    Glbally, aiatin prduces arund 2% man-made carbn diide (Co2), accrdingt the Intergernmental Panel n ClimateChange. But ith the recast grth indemand r air serices, these emissins illgr i e d nt take actin. In respnse,the aiatin industry has deelped a set ambitius targets aimed at limiting its climateimpact, hile enabling it t cntinue t pridea key ehicle r ecnmic grth. The targetsinclude: impring feet uel eciency by1.5% per year until 2020; capping net aiatinemissins rm 2020; and mst ambitiusly,t hale aiatin Co2 emissins by 2050,cmpared t 2005.

    These targets ere set ater careul analysisand ll the industrys track recrd measured prgress, hile als being ar-reaching. But they cannt be achieed bytechnlgy r peratinal imprements ithinthe aiatin industry alne. Gernments illhae t play their part in ensuring that e canperate in the mst ecient skies ith theneeded imprements in air trac cntrlinrastructure and management.

    one the biggest pprtunities t meet the2050 target lies in l-carbn, sustainableaiatin uels, particularly biuels. Theyare an essential cmpnent in meeting ur

    targets and a ital step t reducing aiatins

    climate impact. Aiatin has n alternatie tliquid uel r the reseeable uture, unlikegrund transprtatin r per generatinhich hae had a chice energy surcesr many years, een i they hae nt graspedthis pprtunity as quickly as they culd hae.Therere, aiatin must lk t replace ssiluels ith ler carbn alternaties andsecnd generatin biuels are a perect t.

    Vb

    Frm a standing start just a e years ag,the aiatin industry has embraced the cncept biuels ith enthusiasm and has alreadycmpleted much the technical rk neededt start cmmercial fights. Rigrus testing,

    bth n the grund and in the air, has shnthat biuels can delier equal (and smetimesbetter) perrmance than the current uel.

    The biggest challenge n lies in ensuring asteady, reliable, cst-eectie and sustainablesupply this ne energy surce. The ssiluel industry has had a century t deelp itsuel surces, supply chains and distributinnetrks. Nt t mentin its prt margins.The fedgling aiatin biuels industry illneed t catch up and this ill require capitalrm the inestment cmmunity and start-upincenties rm gernments.

    As a number cuntries lk t the greenecnmy r grth in jbs and ecnmic

    adantage, the stering a sustainableaiatin biuel industry ill pride a dublebenet building green industry and makingthe ital turist and business cnnectinsecnmically and enirnmentally iable.

    Ssb

    There has rightly been a lt unease abutthe impact that the rst-generatin biuelshas had n bth peple and enirnments.Fd price issues, land and ater use andpllutin hae all been great cncern.In beginning the prcess lking at peringthe uture fight thrugh biuels, theaiatin industry has been etremely careult try and aid the mistakes made in the past.

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    Te steps may not beeasy, but we can assureyou the result will beworth it.

    Powering the future of flightp.2

    In many ays, e are rtunate that aiatinis technically unable t use many thserst-generatin uels. Bidiesel reezes at thehigh altitudes at hich e fy, r eample,and ethanl desnt carry the required energydensity. S in aiatin e hae been lkingat a ide range nn-d crps andsurces biuel. we ant t ensure thathere crps are grn r aiatin biuels,that they are nt taking the place dcrps. The industry has been rking ithrganisatins such as the Rundtable nSustainable Biuels t put in place the rightsustainability criteria r aiatin biuels.

    C

    withut a dubt, aiatin biuels ill haea big impact n the erall emissins theaiatin industry. Full liecycle assessments just sme the biuel surces that haebeen eplred s ar sh in ecess an80% imprement n the ssil uel currentlyused. while the industry is making sme erysignicant steps in impring the eciency aircrat since the rst jets fe in theearly 1960s, there has been a mre than 70%imprement in uel eciency technlgycan nly take us s ar. Ne uels ill helpus achiee the targets e hae set.

    Pcc

    The secnd-generatin biuels that aiatinis inestigating are special hen rened,they are irtually identical t the Jet A-1 uele currently use. This means that e cansimply drp them int the current uel supply.

    N ne engines, n ne aircrat and nseparate uel deliery systems are neededat airprts. It is the mst practical slutin.Mre biuel can be added t the systemas it cmes n stream. we are striing tpractically replace 6% ur uel in 2020 ithbiuel. we hpe this gure can be higher.

    The supply uel t the cmmercial aiatinindustry is als n a relatiely smaller scaleand less cmple than r ther rms transprt. Fr eample, there are er 160,000retail gas statins in the United States alne.This cmpares t a relatiely smaller number

    airprt uel depts: 1,679 airprts handlemre than 95% the rlds passengers.Fr this reasn, it is anticipated that it ill beeasier t ully implement the use sustainablebiuels in aiatin than in ther transprtsystems.

    It is als imprtant t nte that aiatin is ntlking at just ne surce biuel e areinestigating a range alternaties as yu illsee rm this publicatin. This ill mean ecan benet rm the mst suitable eedstckin any gien lcatin and spread the surcesr better security supply.

    It is clear that aiatin is ready t becmea majr custmer in the sustainable biuel

    market. It is ital r ur uture and it is animprtant step in reducing carbn emissins.This publicatin, e hpe, ill pride smeinspiratin and ideas based n rk alreadyunderay. It is nt a cmprehensie dcument there are a great number prjectsunderay arund the rld t prducesustainable biuels r aiatin but it despride a e eamples dierent ays thechallenge is being met. At the back, yu illnd sme the key steps e think need t bemade in rder t get the industry n the rightfightpath t sustainable grth.

    The steps may nt be easy, but e can assureyu the result ill be rth it.

    Collaboration

    SsbWyoavFs

    degyoavo(SWaFea)

    This investigation o alternative aviation

    uels easibility and impacts rom the

    European Commissions Directorate

    General or Transport and Energy is

    being conducted by an alliance o

    parties, representing all stakeholders

    rom both biouel and conventional uel

    production up to aviation end-users.

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    Te eonoi aseor biouesBiouels or aviation have a number o benefts, the most important o which

    is the reduction in greenhouse