Powering the Future Final Project_Team Ardra-Devleena

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    Waste management at

    Ashoka UniversityEmpowering the future

    Final Project

    YIF 14

    Project By,

    Ardra Venugopal.

    Devleena Chatterji.

    Garima Rathore

    Lavanya Julaniya

    Monisha Dhingra

    Sabarathinam Selvaraj

    Sonal Jain

    Surbhi Borar

    Rahat Kulshreshtha

    Rajat Nayyar.

    1EMPOWERING THE FUTURE

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    Executive Summary

    Hotels, restaurants and universities are one of the largest contributors of waste in this

    ecosystem. About 1 lakh tonnes of municipal solid waste is generated in India everyday andaround 40% of the waste generated is organic and the rest is distributed between plastic,

    metal, paper, glass and other waste like ash, grit etc. In India, the Urban local bodies spend

    around Rs. 500 to Rs. 1500 per tonne on solid waste for collection, transportation, treatment

    and disposal. And even though urban local bodies invest in waste management, the average

    efficiency of waste collection in India is about 50-60% , which is abysmal.1

    However, the problem we are looking at is not the lack of efficient waste disposal. We wish to

    address the energy-inefficient way of using" waste. A lot of energy, labour, soil, water and

    other inputs used to produce and distribute these goods are lost with each kilogram that is

    thrown away. There are ways to actually ensure that waste is used in a useful manner2

    especially if it is managed and segregated carefully. For example, numerous technologies like

    biogas plants enable the energy and nutrient potential within food-waste to be recovered.

    Systems of this type are most efficacious when food is separated from other waste streams at

    source .3

    Being the last cohort of Young India Fellowship that is based out of the Aurobindo Campus,

    the Young India Fellows are aware of the key developments and initiatives that have gone intolaunching Ashoka University. Moreover, since the Young India Fellowship is a residential

    fellowship, we are attuned and sensitised to the amount of waste generation in the hostel. We,

    as a team, believe that the waste generated could be used to create alternate sources of

    electricity, livelihood for rural settlements around Sonepat and active change-agents" for the

    future. This project is a step towards the same. It aims at laying down the basic research work

    required to check the feasibility of options like a biogas plant at Ashoka, a waste segregation

    system and ways to integrate students and community members to this process.

    2EMPOWERING THE FUTURE

    http://indiatogether.org/environment/articles/wastefact.htm1

    https://www.academia.edu/3167777/2

    Sorting_it_Out_Food_waste_separation_in_large_New_Zealand_hotels_-_Barriers_and_Incentives_FULL_

    ibid.3

    http://indiatogether.org/environment/articles/wastefact.htmhttps://www.academia.edu/3167777/Sorting_it_Out_Food_waste_separation_in_large_New_Zealand_hotels_-_Barriers_and_Incentives_FULL_
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    Research Methodology

    In order to check for the feasibility of our project it was important for us to have a complete

    understanding of the generation of waste and waste management in a educational setting.Since, this would be the first year of Ashoka University, there is no way to look into past data

    for this and hence to estimate the waste we have used YIF as a prototype. We estimated the

    waste generated in the hostel as well as the campus by taking a three day sample and

    measuring the food, paper, plastic and glass waste produced by the hostel and the campus. For

    this we spoke to the cleaning staff and the catering staff involved. We also measured the

    newspaper subscriptions in the hostel, the amount of paper purchased and utilised for

    administrative purposes and the amount of waste paper recycled in the hostel (We have a

    paper recycling system in place).

    We are aware of the fact that this could lead to a convenience bias and hence a fallacious

    estimate due to the difference in environment, amenities offered and the location. Therefore,

    the estimate of waste has been adjusted accordingly. For example, we may say that due to

    location of campus and lack of fast-food options along with the inclusion of themed cafs in

    the campus there is possibility of generation of more waste; we have thus estimated around

    5% more for every 100 people in Sonepat as opposed to the 100 people in Katwaria Sarai

    (local residents would be forced to staying on campus there, unlike now).

    After estimating the waste we also spoke to a waste management consultant in order to get a

    right estimate of the possible costs that the University will incur in establishing a biogas plant.

    Waste segregation would be an important part of this project and hence there was a lot of

    research was done in the kinds of waste the hostel generates and ways to implement pro-

    environmental changes in student behaviour. This was done by reading a case studies of

    successful waste management in Indian as well as foreign universities. We also tried to come

    up with a few innovative behavioural change techniques that could be effective.

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    ESTIMATION OF WASTE GENERATED BASED

    ON YIF.

    A survey of the different types of waste generated on an average in the YIF hostel led us to

    the categorization of waste as follows:

    Paper waste- The amount of paper that is discarded as waste on a day to day basis

    is enormous. Newspapers, printout sheets, food packets etc fall into this category. The

    consumption of paper is extensive which in turn generates proportionately high amounts of

    paper waste.

    Plastic and Glass waste- Polythene waste, use and throw glasses/plates, beverage

    containers etc account for this category of waste which is non-biodegradable and takes a lotof time to be get decomposed even after it has undergone treatment.

    Food waste- This is the category of waste which can be classified as organic. The

    food waste that is generated over breakfast, lunch and dinner meals are collected separately in

    a container kept in the hostel mess and is not mixed with any other form of waste. This waste

    is organic in nature and gets decomposed easily as compared to other forms of non

    biodegradable waste.

    Table 1:Waste generation in YIF

    Source: Self-compiled

    4EMPOWERING THE FUTURE

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    Food Waste is 20 Kgs a day. The dustbin is cleared three times each day. ( Around 80% of

    the 10 kg dustbin is full when cleared). This includes all the used food, vegetable peels etc.

    The left-over food is consumed by the guards, maids and if there is something still left, they

    take it for their families. And of course, this varies on holidays and weekends because the food

    cooked then is less in quantity.

    In Ashoka, the number of students (including those enrolled at YIF) will be around 350, as

    informed by the admin team. Plus we add the staff and their families who will be living on

    campus, therefore, around 500 people in total. Hence the waste in Ashoka can be

    estimated to be nearly 5 times the waste in YIF.

    Paper wastefrom the hostel is 50 Kgs in 2 months. This includes all the A4 sheets,

    pamphlets, newspaper subscriptions..Also around 30 packets of 500 A4 paper are used every

    year by the admin office, as informed by the accountant. This means that around 15000papers per year i.e 1000 papers per month approx. are used in YIF itself.

    Plastic waste: 7 to 10 1 litre bottles per day, per floor. And packets is about 30 packets per

    floor. The maid said that there is about 1 kg of plastic waste per floor per day including

    bottles, packets etc. So that is 4 kilos a day from the entire hostel.

    Obviously in Ashoka this may vary depending on the rules on plastic bags and the

    accessibility to shops and junk foods et al.

    Glass: Mostly alcohol bottles. 20*1 litre bottles per week is found in the hostel. This estimate

    for Ashoka has also been 5 times the waste generated in YIF.

    5EMPOWERING THE FUTURE

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    "RE-USING" WASTEWet Waste management

    The largest amount of waste generated at YIF is food waste. This can be treated eitherthrough composting or biogas generation.Composting is a cheap method of managing waste.

    However, its only output is manure, which would be too large a quantity to be fully used at

    the campus.

    Biogas treatment yields both manure as well as usable energy. This requires space and the

    installation of a plant, which can yield cooking fuel or electricity. The biogas plant installation

    can be determined by the amount of waste generated and the budget. The plants themselves

    vary according to its technology, materials used, design and consequently the energyefficiency.

    A simple biogas plant could have the following specifications.

    # Table 2:Biogas Plant specifications

    Source: Centre for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies, NIE.

    According to our conversations with the consultant working at Reap Benefit, the installation

    cost of such a biogas plant would be ~ INR 50,000. It requires some const