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  • Stroke Research and Treatment

    Poststroke Outcomes

    Guest Editors: Bruce Ovbiagele, Steve Kautz, Wayne Feng, and DeAnna L. Adkins

  • Poststroke Outcomes

  • Stroke Research and Treatment

    Poststroke Outcomes

    Guest Editors: Bruce Ovbiagele, Steve Kautz, Wayne Feng, and DeAnna L. Adkins

  • Copyright © 2014 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

    This is a special issue published in “Stroke Research and Treatment.” All articles are open access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • Editorial Board

    Alison E. Baird, USA Daniel Bereczki, Hungary Raymond T. Cheung, Hong Kong Geoffrey A. Donnan, Australia Valery Feigin, New Zealand Masayuki Fujioka, Japan Alexander Geurts, The Netherlands Graeme Hankey, Australia

    Cathy Helgason, USA Tauheed Ishrat, USA Scott Kasner, USA Chelsea Kidwell, USA David S. Liebeskind, USA Christopher S. Ogilvy, USA Bruce Ovbiagele, USA David Reutens, Australia

    David Russell, Norway Stefan Schwab, Germany Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Israel Veronika Skvortsova, Russia Helmuth Steinmetz, Germany Wai-Kwong Tang, Hong Kong David Vaudry, France Osama O. Zaidat, USA

  • Contents

    Poststroke Outcomes, Bruce Ovbiagele, Steve Kautz, Wayne Feng, and DeAnna L. Adkins Volume 2014, Article ID 828435, 2 pages

    Sex, Diastolic Blood Pressure, and Outcome afterThrombolysis for Ischemic Stroke, David Nathanson, Cesare Patrone, Thomas Nyström, and Mia von Euler Volume 2014, Article ID 747458, 7 pages

    Walking Adaptability after a Stroke and Its Assessment in Clinical Settings, Chitralakshmi K. Balasubramanian, David J. Clark, and Emily J. Fox Volume 2014, Article ID 591013, 21 pages

    Does Inhibitory Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Augment Functional Task Practice to Improve Arm Recovery in Chronic Stroke?, Dorian K. Rose, Carolynn Patten, Theresa E. McGuirk, Xiaomin Lu, and William J. Triggs Volume 2014, Article ID 305236, 10 pages

    Rasch Analysis of a New Hierarchical Scoring System for Evaluating Hand Function on the Motor Assessment Scale for Stroke, Joyce S. Sabari, Michelle Woodbury, and Craig A. Velozo Volume 2014, Article ID 730298, 10 pages

    TheAdverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model, S. R. Belagaje, C. Lindsell, C. J. Moomaw, K. Alwell, M. L. Flaherty, D. Woo, K. Dunning, P. Khatri, O. Adeoye, D. Kleindorfer, J. Broderick, and B. Kissela Volume 2014, Article ID 696089, 5 pages

    Differences in Plantar Flexor Fascicle Length and Pennation Angle between Healthy and Poststroke Individuals and Implications for Poststroke Plantar Flexor Force Contributions, John W. Ramsay, Thomas S. Buchanan, and Jill S. Higginson Volume 2014, Article ID 919486, 6 pages

    Poststroke Muscle Architectural Parameters of the Tibialis Anterior and the Potential Implications for Rehabilitation of Foot Drop, John W. Ramsay, Molly A. Wessel, Thomas S. Buchanan, and Jill S. Higginson Volume 2014, Article ID 948475, 5 pages

    Do Improvements in Balance Relate to Improvements in Long-DistanceWalking Function after Stroke?, Louis N. Awad, Darcy S. Reisman, and Stuart A. Binder-Macleod Volume 2014, Article ID 646230, 6 pages

    Autologous Bone MarrowMononuclear Cells Intrathecal Transplantation in Chronic Stroke, Alok Sharma, Hemangi Sane, Nandini Gokulchandran, Dipti Khopkar, Amruta Paranjape, Jyothi Sundaram, Sushant Gandhi, and Prerna Badhe Volume 2014, Article ID 234095, 9 pages

    Functional Brain Correlates of Upper Limb Spasticity and Its Mitigation following Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Survivors, Svetlana Pundik, Adam D. Falchook, Jessica McCabe, Krisanne Litinas, and Janis J. Daly Volume 2014, Article ID 306325, 8 pages

  • Changes in Predicted Muscle Coordination with Subject-Specific Muscle Parameters for Individuals after Stroke, Brian A. Knarr, Darcy S. Reisman, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod, and Jill S. Higginson Volume 2014, Article ID 321747, 7 pages

    Racial/Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Rehabilitation Outcomes, Charles Ellis, Hyacinth I. Hyacinth, Jamie Beckett, Wuwei Feng, Marc Chimowitz, Bruce Ovbiagele, Dan Lackland, and Robert Adams Volume 2014, Article ID 950746, 12 pages

    Surface Electrical Stimulation for Treating Swallowing Disorders after Stroke: A Review of the Stimulation Intensity Levels and the Electrode Placements, Marziyeh Poorjavad, Saeed Talebian Moghadam, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, and Mostafa Daemi Volume 2014, Article ID 918057, 7 pages

    Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation, Brittany Hand, Stephen J. Page, and Susan White Volume 2014, Article ID 462681, 6 pages

  • Editorial Poststroke Outcomes

    Bruce Ovbiagele,1 Steve Kautz,2,3 Wayne Feng,1,2 and DeAnna L. Adkins2,4

    1 Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA 2Department of Health Science & Research, College of Health Professions, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA

    3 Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29425, USA 4Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA

    Correspondence should be addressed to Wayne Feng; feng@musc.edu

    Received 18 September 2014; Accepted 18 September 2014; Published 14 October 2014

    Copyright © 2014 Bruce Ovbiagele et al.This is an open access article distributed under theCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability [1, 2]. While strokemortality rates are decreasing due to improvedmedical treatment of the complications caused by acute stroke, the number of individuals living with the residual effects of stroke is rising [3]. Currently, over 75% of patients survive a first stroke, and, of these individuals, 25% are left with a minor disability and 40% experience moderate-to-severe disabilities [4]. Furthermore, stroke patients are at high risk for future vascular events, including recurrent stroke, putting them at a greater risk of death and further disability [5]. With growing numbers of stroke survivors, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the short- to long- term recovery process after stroke and to identify avenues for developing efficacious therapeutic strategies to enhance post- stroke outcomes [6]. Government research funding agencies, like the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS), and nongovernmental research funding organizations, like the American Heart Association (AHA), have recognized the need for prioritizing poststroke out- comes research by developing strategic plans to explore ways in which the brain affected by stroke or endangered by risk factors can preserve, protect, or recover function and supporting consortia of multidisciplinary investigators and facilities conducting collaborative investigation into stroke regeneration, resilience, and secondary prevention [7, 8].

    This special issue was developed to shed light on the various factors affecting the central and peripheral nervous system, which influence prognoses following a stroke, as well as to portray promising new poststroke treatmentmodalities.

    In the systematic qualitative review conducted by C. Ellis and colleagues, they found evidence of a racial disparity in post- stroke functional outcomes, with people of Black race, who have the highest risk for stroke incidence and mortality [9], having poor outcomes after a stroke compared to their non- Hispanic White counterparts. Among 355 ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic therapy, D. Nathanson et al. observed that women experienced better recovery outcomes at 3 months after stroke than men and that lower diastolic blood pressures in women may contribute to this gender difference. Findings from both studies highlight a need to properly establish the contributors to demographic disparities in stroke outcomes and implement interventions to equitably enhance favorable sequela after stroke.

    M. Poorjavad et al. performed a systematic review on the use of surface electric stimulation intensity and electrode placements to treat swallowing disorders after stroke, rec- ommending that additional research should focus on better discrimination of the underlying neurophysiologic effects of these therapeuticmethods on swallowing function. In a phase I study, A. Sharma and team evaluated the feasibility and potential effects ofautologous bone marrow mononuclear- cell intrathecal transplantation in chronic stroke patients, noting that relatively younger patients, those who underwent therapy within 2 years of stroke, and those with ischemic versus hemorrhagic strokes showed better recovery. On the other hand, D. K. Rose and colleagues found that low- frequency rTMS stimulating contralesional hemisphere did not augment upper extremity motor ability in a population

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation Stroke Research and Treatment Volume 2014, Article ID 828435, 2 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/828435

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/828435

  • 2 Stroke Research and Treatment

    of individuals with chronic stroke. They suggest that the chronicity of their cohort (on average ≥5 years from stroke onset) and degree of upper motor impairment may have le