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Monitoring of fecal bacteria and chemical parameter in river on Oita and BeppuMr.Krongtum Sankaewtong, Miss Nuntanat Worrakunpiset
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University
National Institute of Technology, Oita Collage1 June 31 July 2015
Water contamination has been concerned as the world issuefor decades especially in industrial countries. And it is important resource for humanand its quality is a key to determine how well being of people who live around thatresource are.
In Japan, though there are several regulations and laws to prohibit the drainage of the sewage from the sources but some of those still be discharged. One of the most important source is from household which of course be the habitat along the river bank. Most of the discharged from those unit will be conducted to the wastewater treatment plant, but some are not. Even though the water treatment is used as the first station for decreasing the contamination of the water before flows to the river but not a hundred percent of the discharge can be treated. Monitoring of the quality of contamination is playing a major role in this issue. The chemical water parameters are set in order to examine the quality of water and control the concentration of chemical substances not to exceed the level that can be affect to human and surround environment. Beside, the microbial indicator is set to determine the fecal contamination from the same sampling water.
This study aimed to investigate the concentration of chemical substances and thelevel of fecal contamination in three main rivers in Oita prefecture which are OhnoRiver and Oita River, under different distance from the mouth of river to eachsampling water.
The observed stations were chosen along the Ono River which flows pass through Oita City, 6 samples were collected, located throughout the length and the area of the river. Beside observed station along Ono River, this study also aims to compare the contamination of water of River in Oita and Beppu city.. Therefore the observed points in Beppu were chosen, Asami, Haruki and Sakai rives.
The chemical water parameters were investigated by using Titration and Ion Chromatography to measure the concentration of cation and anion. The result from the chemical analysis will be shown in form of graphs. This study analyzed enterococci, coliform, and E. coli in each water sample pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and turbidity were also determined as major water parameters. E. faecium and E. faecalis were identified by utilizing PCR. All the isolated Enterococcus strains were identified by PCR. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on an Agarosegel. The amplified DNA bands were visualized after ethidium bromide staining using UV light.
Fig. 1: Map of the survey points in two rivers.
Materials and Methods
The concentrations of ion, except for HCO3-, are increase along the stream from upper
to lower stream in Ohno River due to effect of contamination from factories, fertilizer on
cultivation and household waste along the path from upstream to downstream and Oita
River has the same tendency as in Ohno River.
Ion concentrations level of water between Oita River and Ohno River are close except
for HCO3- concentration because Oita River has some effect from Yufuin and Nagayu hot
springs which cause higher concentration of HCO3- in sampling waters in Oita River than
that of Ohno River.
Fig.2: Effect of distance on the concentration of ion in sampling waters from rivers (a) HCO3
-concentration; (b) Si4+ concentration (c) Na+ concentration; (d) SO42- concentration
Table 1: The fecal bacterial counts and chemical water parameters
Results and Discussion
Ion concentrations of Ohno River and Oita River are increase along the stream from
upper to lower stream in due to effect of contamination along the path from upstream to downstream. Ion concentrations level of water from both rivers are close except for HCO3
concentration because the effect of hot springs in Oita river.HCO3
- and Si4+ concentrations in Ohno River are constant at the downstream and increase at upstream due to the effect of cold spring water at upstream survey points. The concentration of Na+ and SO4
2- in the downstream of both rivers are more than upstream because of the contamination of sewage at downstream water.
Water contamination level of Ono River compared with those of Beppu city is lesser. The Beppus rivers show the higher number of fecal bacterial contamination except the result from Sakai River which can be suggested that the Sakai River has more treatment than the others in the city area.
In compliance with the result from PCR that shows the higher in contamination from both Enterococcus species, E. faecalis and E. faecium in Asami River than the Sakai.
Sampling station pH Water temperature () EC (ms/m)Turbidity
Otozu River 6.95 21.2 17.63 n/a
Shirataki-hashi 6.99 20.3 11.76 n/a
Asaji 7.34 19.3 9.36 n/a
Kamio cho 7.39 19.4 11.73 n/a
Harajiri no taki 7.72 18.7 10.15 n/a
Nakashima Koen 7.28 17.2 10.11 n/a
Haruki River 8.85 24.9 108.3 2.596
Sakai River 8.098 23.9 58.5 1.466
Asami River 8.588 23.5 24.87 20.015
stationEnterococci (CFU 10 mL-1) Coliform E. Coli (MPN 10 mL-1)
MeanSD Mean Mean
Otozu River 1.59102 31.23 7.77102 12
hashi 1.66102 20.51 7.34102 7
Asaji 2.67102 37.81 5.51102 31
Kamio cho 2.13102 22.48 5.69102 20
taki 2.27102 33.69 9.51102 15
Koen 1.5102 8.62 5.05102 3
Haruki River 4.79102 11.52 n/a 19
Sakai River 78.3314.19 n/a 92
Asami River 4.24102 4.58 n/a 47
Fig. 3: The band appearance from UV amplification Up-left: Asami River, E. faeciumDown-left: Asami River, E. faecalisUp-right: Sakai River, E. faecalisDown-right: Sakai River, E. faecium