POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY (GAP)

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POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY (GAP). Ronald S. Kaiser, Ph.D., ABPP Licensed Psychologist Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University Jefferson Headache Center. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY (GAP)Ronald S. Kaiser, Ph.D., ABPPLicensed Psychologist

    Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Neurology,Thomas Jefferson University

    Jefferson Headache Center

  • POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DEFINEDPositive psychology is that branch of psychology that involves the study and promotion of well-being.

    The gold standard for measuring well-being is flourishing.

    The goal of positive psychology is the increase of flourishing.

    Seligman, 2011

  • POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED (2)

    Psychology is not just the study of pathology, weakness, and damage. It is also the study of strength and virtue.

    Treatment is not just fixing what is broken. It is nurturing what is best.

    Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2000)

    Positive Psychology can be incorporated into other approaches to treatment.

  • WHAT DETERMINES HAPPINESS?Lyubomirsky, 2007

    Chart1

    10

    50

    40

    Percentages

    Sheet1

    Percentages

    Circumstances10

    Set Point50

    Intentional Activity40

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • PSYCHOTHERAPY COMES FROM A DISEASE REDUCTION MODEL

    Historical definition of health = Absence of disease.Psychoanalytic goal of tension-reduction.CBT focuses on irrational beliefs, automatic negative thoughts, etc.DSM gold standard is No Diagnosis.Reportable scales on the MMPI are the elevated ones.NIMH funding is granted for disease research.

  • WHO DEFINITIONS OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH HAVE CHANGED

    Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

    Mental Health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.

  • PSYCHOLGYS CONTRIBUTIONS TO LEARNING HAVE IMPACTED ON

    Schools

    Parenting

    Sports

    Industry

    But not necessarily on the conduct of psychotherapy

  • PSYCHOLOGY AND INDUSTRYOften co-opted by other disciplinesEffectiveness trumps credentialsLaid the groundwork for the coaching professionAre you familiar with? Seth Godin Brian Tracey Jim Rohm Stephen Hovey Napoleon Hill Tony Robbins

  • MORE MOTIVATING THAN MONEY(AFTER A CERTAIN POINT)

    Autonomy

    Mastery

    Purpose

  • LETS START WITH A BIT OF SELF-DISCLOSUREThe influence of Jim Murray

    The influence of Don Meredith

    The influence of Dr. Benjamin Shimberg

    The influence of the gym

    The role of context

    The arrival of positive psychology

    The internet

  • SOME NEW DEVELOPMENTS THAT AFFECT THEORY BUILDING

    Brain PlasticityMindfulnessThe role of physical exerciseThe role of mental exerciseHealth PsychologyBiofeedback/NeurofeedbackThe early work in positive psychologyThe internet

  • THE SPECIAL ROLE OF BRAIN PLASTICITY

    The historical belief was that after childhood the brain could only change in one direction Decline.

    Hardwiring: the concept that the brain was more like a computer than a muscle.

    Research has dramatically changed this thinking

  • Taubs Constraint Induced (CI) Movement Therapy.

    Competitive plasticity and Merzenichs brain mapping.

    The role of mental rehearsal (Pascal-Leones piano students; Sharanskys imprisonment).

    Maguires research on the posterior hippocampuses of London taxi drivers (Maguire, Current Biology, 2011).

    Mirror neurons (Iacoboni, 2009)RESEARCH ON THE CHANGING BRAIN

  • THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISEWhat did Freud, Rogers, Skinner, Ellis, etc. have to say about exercise?What have Seligman, Achor, and other positive psychologists said about exercise?MacArthur Foundation studies demonstrate 3 ways of reducing cognitive decline (normal weight, lifelong learning, exercise)Studies demonstrate that if you are middle-age and sedentary and you start a regular exercise program, you can delay the onset of cognitive decline by 10-15 years (Ratey; Kramer).Naperville, IL, 8th graders finished #1 in the world in science & 6th in math after being involved in a comprehensive daily PE program.

  • THE BRAIN AND POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

  • POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY EMERGES IN AN AGE OF SCIENCE

    Commitment to research

    Criticisms of humanistic psychology for insufficient research base.

    Unlike Freud, Rogers, Ellis, Positive Psychology was largely developed by academics rather than clinicians

  • THE SEMINAL ARTICLE

    Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5-14.

  • PIONEERS OF THE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MOVEMENT

    Ed Diener (Dr Happiness; Subjective well-being)George Vaillant (longitudinal study of successful aging)

    MIHALYI CSIKSZENTMIHALYI

    MARTIN SELIGMAN

    Barbara Fredrickson (Broaden and Build; Positivity Ratio)Christopher Peterson* (Values in Action project)

  • THE NEXT GENERATION OF LEADERS IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Sonja Lyubomirsky (Happiness)Todd Kashian (Curiosity)Karen Reivich (Resilience)Angela Duckworth (Grit)Robert Vallarand (Passion)Tal Ben-Shahar (General student body teaching)Shawn Achor (Consulting)

  • THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CAROL DWECK

    Mindset: The view that you adopt for yourself.

    Fixed Mindset: The belief that your qualities are unchangeable and you have to keep proving yourself over and over. Related to being praised for your attributes.

    Growth Mindset: The belief that your basic qualities can be changed by your efforts. Related to being praised for your efforts.

    Substantial research supports the benefits of the growth mindset.

  • CSIKSZENTMIHALY

    As World War II approached in Europe, he observed how some adults became helpless as social supports decayed while others maintained their integrity.

    His work in the U.S. led to his development of the concept of Flow and its role in the development of Positive Psychology.

  • FLOWThe optimal experience.

    It does not just happen passively, but you cant force yourself into flow.

    It involves being fully focused, motivated, energized, and involved in an activity.

    You cant be depressed or anxious and able to be in a state of flow.

    Contrary to popular belief, lifes best moments are when we are stretched to physical and/or mental limits rather than relaxed.

    Our best moments may not necessarily be pleasant at the time.

    Experiences that result in flow for us are not universal.

  • THE CONDITIONS OF FLOWGoals are clear

    Feedback is immediate

    There is a balance between opportunity and capacity

    Concentration is deep

    The sense of time is altered

  • TRAITS OF THE AUTOTELIC PERSONALITY

    Curiosity

    Persistence

    Low self-centeredness

    Oriented toward performing activities for intrinsic reasons only.

  • SELIGMANHis journey went from Learned Helplessness to Learned Optimism to Authentic Happiness to Flourish - and the psychology of well-being.

    Developed the MAPP program at Penn.

    Instrumental in developing major positive psychology concepts including Signature Strengths and PERMA.

    Collaborated with Chris Peterson in researching and writing Character Strengths and Virtues.

  • PERMA

    Positive Emotion

    Engagement

    Relationships

    Meaning

    Accomplishment

  • CHARACTER STRENGTHS AND VIRTUES

    Positive Psychologys answer to the DSM and ICD A Manual for the Sanities.

    The focus is on what is right about people rather than what is wrong.

    Based on substantial research across cultures.

    6 Virtues encompass 24 Character Strengths.

  • STRENGTHS OF WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE

    Creativity (Originality, Ingenuity)

    Curiosity (Interest, Novelty-seeking, Openness to Experience)

    Open-mindedness (Judgment, Critical Thinking)

    Love of Learning

    Perspective (Wisdom)

  • STRENGTHS OF HUMANITY

    Love

    Kindness (Generosity, Nurturance, Care Compassion, Altruistic Love, Niceness)

    Social Intelligence (Emotional Intelligence, Personal Intelligence)

  • STRENGTHS OF JUSTICE

    Citizenship (Social Responsibility, Loyalty, Teamwork)

    Fairness

    Leadership

  • STRENGTHS OF TEMPERANCE

    Forgiveness and Mercy

    Humility and Modesty

    Prudence

    Self-Regulation (Self-Control)

  • STRENGTHS OF TRANSCENDENCE

    Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence (Awe, Wonder, Elevation)

    Gratitude

    Hope (Optimism, Future-Mindedness, Future Orientation)

    Humor (Playfulness)

    Spirituality (Religiousness, Faith, Purpose)

  • STRENGTHS OF COURAGE

    Bravery

    Persistence (Perseverance, Industriousness)

    Integrity (Authenticity, Honesty)

    Vitality (Zest, Enthusiasm, Vigor, Energy)

  • ASSESSING SIGNATURE STRENGTHS Go to www.authentichappiness.org

    VIA Survey of Character strengths (240 items)

    Brief Strengths Test (24 items)

    Several other tests

    Test results are used for research as well as your own benefit/

  • OTHER INDICATORS OF STRENGTHS

    Resilience

    Savoring

    Grit

    Posttraumatic Growth

  • FREDRICKSONS 10 TOP POSITIVE EMOTIONS

    Joy

    Gratitude

    Serenity

    Interest

    Hope

    Pride

    Amusement

    Inspiration

    Awe

    Love