Poetry Terms - Poetry Terms General Elements Figurative Language Sound Devices Forms of Poetry Types

download Poetry Terms - Poetry Terms General Elements Figurative Language Sound Devices Forms of Poetry Types

of 33

  • date post

    22-Jul-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    6
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Poetry Terms - Poetry Terms General Elements Figurative Language Sound Devices Forms of Poetry Types

  • Poetry Terms

     General Elements

     Figurative Language

     Sound Devices

     Forms of Poetry

     Types of Poetry

    1

  • 2

    Elements: Stanza

     Formal division of lines in a

    poem

     Considered a unit

     Separated by spaces

     Couplets: two lines

     Quatrains: four lines

  • 3

    Speaker

     Imaginary voice assumed by poet

     Often not identified by name

     May be person, animal, thing, or

    abstraction

     E.g.: Dickinson as dead person:

    “Because I could not stop for

    Death-He kindly stopped for me-”

  • 4

    Tone

     Writer’s attitude to

    audience and subject

     E.g.: formal or informal

    serious, playful, pompous

    bitter, ironic, personal

    sympathetic, friendly

    grieving, sarcastic, harsh

  • 5

    Allusion

     Reference to well-known person,

    place, event, literary work, or art

     Usually to the Bible or to

    mythology

     E.g.: “The Magi . . . were wise men

    . . . who brought gifts to the Babe

    in the manger.”

  • 6

    Connotation

     Ideas or meanings associated with

    a word (in addition to dictionary

    definition)

     E.g.: “caged bird” = sad, trapped

    creature

    “previously owned vehicle” = used car

    “vacation spot” = lake

    Compare: fragrance, smell, stench

  • 7

    Denotation

     Dictionary definition of a word

     Independent of other associations

    (connotations)

     E.g.: lake

     Denotation: inland body of water

     Connotation: vacation or fishing spot

  • 8

    Paradox

     Statement that seems

    contradictory but may be true

     Surprising, catches reader’s

    attention

     E.g.: “Youth is wasted on the young.”

    “The more things change, the

    more they stay the same.”

  • 9

    Symbol

     Object has own meaning but also

    represents abstract idea

     Stands for something else

     E.g.:

     Flag symbolizes country

     Scarlet ibis symbolizes Doodle and

    other people who struggle

  • 10

    Figurative Language

     Writing not meant to interpret literally

     Compares dissimilar things

     Creates vivid impressions

     Metaphors, similes, personifications

     E.g.:

     “My black eyes are coals burning

    Like a low, full jungle moon

    Through the darkness of being”

  • 11

    Fig Lang: Metaphor

     Figure of speech

     A comparison

     One thing spoken of as if

    it is something else

     E.g.: “Poetry is a river.”

    “The sky is a patchwork quilt.”

  • 12

    Fig Lang: Simile

     Figure of speech, comparison

     Uses like or as to compare

    two unlike ideas

     E.g.:

     “The morning sun is like a red

    rubber ball.”

     “Does it dry up, like a raisin in the

    sun?”

  • 13

    Fig Lang: Imagery

     Descriptive or figurative language

     Creates word pictures (images)

     Details of sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, or movement

     E.g.: “ghostly marching on pavement

    stones”

    “wind-tanned skin”

    “wise black pools”

  • 14

    Fig Lang: Personification  Figurative language

     Nonhuman subject given human

    characteristics

     E.g.: “The wind danced in the trees.”

    Daffodils “tossing their heads in sprightly

    dance”

    Storm “tosses her hair, throws back her

    head, and closes her eyes”

  • 15

    Fig Lang: Extended Metaphor

     Writing about a subject as if it were

    something else

     Comparison several lines long or

    entire poem

     E.g.: “caged bird” becomes

    person who is not free

    “broken-winged bird that cannot fly”

    becomes life without a dream

  • 16

    Fig Lang: Sensory Words/Lang

     Writing that appeals to the senses -

    images

     Provides details related to senses

     E.g.: feeling the sun beating

    down on one’s head

  • Sound Devices: Onomatopoeia

     Words that imitate sounds

     E.g.: murmur, thud, sizzle, hiss,

    buzz, bang, pop, cuckoo

     E.g.: Poe’s “Bells”

    “Of the bells, bells, bells, bells”

    ringing, chiming, jangling,

    rangling, clang, clash, roar”

    17

  • 18

    Sound Devices: Assonance

     Repetition of vowel sounds

    followed by different consonants in

    2 or more stressed syllables

     E.g.: “weak and weary”

    “child of silence”

    “so rolling…a stone”

  • 19

    Sound Devices: Alliteration

     Repetition of initial consonant sounds

     Emphasizes words, imitates sounds, creates musical effects

     E.g.: “I grew like a thin, stubborn weed, watering myself whatever way I could.”

    “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.”

    “The fair breeze blew, the white foam

    flew.”

  • 20

    Sound Devices: Rhyme  Repetition of sounds at ends of words

     End rhyme vs. internal rhyme

     E.g.: “Swans sing before they die—’twere no bad thing Should certain persons die before they sing.” (end)

    “Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary.”

    (internal)

     Exact rhyme vs. slant rhyme (slant rhyme – similar but not identical sounds)

     E.g.: ball and hall (exact) hold and bald (slant)

  • 21

    Sound Devices: Repetition  Use of any language element – a sound,

    word, phrase, clause, or sentence –

    more than once

     Used for musical effects and for

    emphasis

     E.g.:

     Alliteration, assonance, rhyme, rhythm

    repeat sounds

     Refrain repeats line/s

     “You liked winning…You liked

    writing…You liked all the faces…”

  • 22

    Sound Devices: Refrain  Regularly repeated line

    or group of lines

    In music: a chorus

    E.g.: Quoth the raven, “Nevermore.”

    “Macavity, Macavity, there’s no one

    like Macavity.”

  • 23

    Sound Devices: Rhythm  Pattern of beats or stresses

     Some poems have a specific pattern or

    meter

     E.g.:

    “There was a young lady named bright

    Whose speed was far faster than light;”

     Prose and free verse use natural

    rhythms of everyday speech

  • 24

    Forms of Poetry: Fixed Form

     Stanzas have repeated or predictable patterns

     Words in each stanza may rhyme or sound alike

     Length and rhythm of stanzas are related

     Number of syllables in line may be fixed

  • 25

    Forms of Poetry: Free Form or Free Verse

     Lacks structure or pattern

     Words may not rhyme

     Lines do not match in number of

    syllables, length, or rhythm

  • Types of Poetry: Sonnet

     14-line lyric poem

     Formal patterns of rhyme, rhythm

    and line structure

    Two types:

    English, or Shakespearean

    (3 quatrains + couplet)

    Italian, or Petrarchan

    (octave + sestet) 26

  • 27

    Types of Poetry: Haiku  3-line verse form

     1st and 3rd lines: 5 syllables (?)

     2nd line: 7 syllables (?)

     Single vivid emotion

     Images from nature

     E.g.: Basho:

     “furu-ike ya “An old pond

    kawazu tobi-komu A frog jumps in

    Mizu-no-oto” The sound of water”

  • 28

    Types of Poetry: Lyric Poem

     Brief poem

     Musical verse: uses rhythm,

    alliteration, and rhyme

     Observations and feelings of

    one speaker

     Sung with lyre in ancient times

  • 29

    Types of Poetry: Narrative Poem

     Tells a story in verse

     May be an epic or a ballad

     E.g.:

     “Casey at the Bat”: humorous

    narrative poem

     Poe’s “Raven”: serious narrative

    poem

  • 30

    Types of Poetry: Ballad

     Songlike poem that tells a story

     Often adventure and romance

     Most written in 4 to 6-line stanzas,

    regular rhythms and rhyme

    schemes, often a refrain

  • 31

    Types of Poetry: Limerick

     Humorous, rhyming, five-line poem

     Specific meter and rhyme scheme

     E.g.: Edward Lear:

    “There was an Old Person whose habits,

    Induced him to feed upon rabbits;

    When he'd eaten eighteen,

    He turned perfectly green,

    Upon which he relinquished those habits.”