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BY : RADHE BIHARI UPADHYAY 1RC07EC082Under the guidance of : Ms. ASWINI.B Lec . Dept . of ECE


The interaction of light with matters in nano-structured metallic structure has led a new branch of photonics called PLASMONICS This the technology in which confinement of light occurs. Derived from plasmons, whose freq. equal to light. It is beyond the diffraction Limit. Plasmonics circuit offers the potential to carry optical signal & electric current through the same metal circuitry. Hence it combine the superior technical Advantages of photonics & electronics on the same chip.Practical visualization of plasmons

A plasmon is a density wave in an electron gas, which is analogous to a sound wave. Plasmons exist mainly in metals, where electrons weakly bound and free to room. It is a collective wave where billions of electrons oscillate in synchronization. Plasmons can travel along nano-scale wires. They can transfer information with high bit rate.

Plasmons are generated at the metal-dielectric interface. Electron cloud shifting occurs. Charge density waves are generated at the plasma frequency. The waves are localized in a certain region.

Fig: Electron cloud shifting

SPP are nothing but electromagnetic waves that propagates along a metal-dieletric interface .

Fig : A SPP propagating along a metal-dielectric interface.

Surface plasmon polaritons They are surface em waves that propagate in direction parallel to metal-dielectric interface. Localized surface plasmons They are collective electron charge oscillations in metallic nano-particles excited by light.

When the frequency of electronics pulses increases,the electronic device become hot and wire become very loose.

Large amount of data can not be transferred.When the size of electronic wire reduces its

resistance increases, but capacitance remainsame, this leads to time delay effects.

Optical fibers are used. The size of optical fiber is in the order of 100s of nanometer due to diffraction limit.

Huge amount of data can not be sent along with miniaturization.

Metal nano - structure have a unique ability to concentrate light into nano scale volumes.

The field concentrating abilities of optical antenna may serve to bridge

large gap between

Fig: Nanoscale Antenna

Photonics and Electronics devices.

Investigation of specific plasmon enhancing structures for emitters and detectors, along with an investigation of the technologies to implement them. Achieve a proof of concept of plasmon enhanced photonics devices in 2 applications: (a) Inorganic LEDs: enhancing electrical to optical energy conversion. (b) Silicon photo-detectors: Improving signal-to noise ratio and increasing speed.

Huge control over electromagnetic wave at nanoscale. The EM field of the EM wave displays the

electron cloud due to its well coupling.

Surface plasmons generated at the

metal dielectric interface cloud allowsplasmons travel along nano-scale wire .

Bio-imaging. Near-field optical microscope. Lithography.

Nano antenna.Nanolaser (field enhancement)

Plasmon Enhanced Fluorescence.Solar cells.

Waveguiding using plasmonics (for high density integration) has no clear future unless the loss problem is solved

Field enhancement with pasmonics (PV, LED, detector, small laser, etc ) has a better future

What Is :

A single layer of carbon as a honeycomb pattern. By putting closely spaced nano-scale metallic wire, it can be a part of plasmonics system.

Use :

It can be used for high speed optical


It can be used in solar cell.

It can be used inphoto-detectors.

Structure of Graphene

Plasmonic therapy is used for curing cancer. Nanoshells tends to embed in the tissues of the tumor instead of other cells. An infra-red light is then shone on to the tumor. The cancer tissues heats-up, where the photo thermal energy kills the cancer cells. Plasmonic Therapy

Surrounding an object with a material having the right kind of dielectric properties (negative refractive index) can make the object invisible.

A. The black disc blocks the light coming from the left and reflects it back, leaving a shadow towards the right (green/yellow).

B. The surrounding ring of cloaking material guides the light around the disc and thereby fills in the shadow.

Plasmonics wave propagate without loss at Thz frequency. It can use the advantage of photonics & electronics. It has huge control over electromagnetic wave at nano scale.


absorption losses. Plasmons tends to decipate only after few millimeters of propagation.

To develop new optical components and systems that are of same size as today smallest integrated chips. Plasmons sources,detectors and wires as well as splitters can be developed.

How can be plasmons be efficiently excited with nanoscale resolution? What are the fundamental processes that determine the losses of surface plasmon polaritons?

Potential to enhance the processing speed of future integrated circuit. In the past devices were relatively slow and bulky. The semiconductor industry has perform an incredible job in scaling electronic device to nano-scale dimension.