Plant Diseases Presentation

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    Et io logy C o n ce r n w i th ca u s a l o r g a n i

    Par thenogenes is A c t u al m e c h a n is m o f d i s e a s e d e v el o p m e n t

    E p id e m io l o g y S p r ea d o f p a t h o g e n w i tthe c rop a rea

    C o n t r o l De v e lo p m e n t o f s u i t ab l e m eto con t ro l the d i sease

    . S ys t e m i c D i s e a s e1 d i s e a s e s p r e a dt h r o u g h o u tt h e p l a n t

    On the basis of primary infection

    . So i l bo rne d i sease1 D i s e a s e s p r ea d

    t h r o u g h s o i l

    . A i r b o r n e d i s e as e1 D i s e a s e s p r ea dt h r o u g h a i r

    . Seed bo rne d i sease1 D i s e a s e s p r e adt h r o u g hSeed

    O n t h e b a s i s o f c a u s e s

    . I n f e c ti o u s p l a n t d i s e a s e1

    - C a u s e d b y B a ct e ri a

    - C a u s e d b y F u n g i- C a u s e d b y M y co p l as m a

    - C a u s e d b y V i r u s es

    - C a u s e d b y I n s ec t s

    . No n in fec t iou s d isease1

    L o w / H i g h T e m p e ra tu r e

    - L a c k o r Ex c e s s s o i l m o i s t u re

    - L a c k o r ex c e s s o f li g h t

    - N u t r ie n t d e f ic i en c i e s

    - T o x i c it y o f p e s t ic id e s

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    . N e c r o s i s1

    a ) L e a f s p o t - K i l le d c e ll s i n l i m i ta r e a , e g- T i k k a s p o t i n g r o u n d n u

    c) Bl ight- Sudden dea th o f p lan t pa r ts ,

    eg- Late b l igh t o f potato

    d ) D a m p i n g O f f - S ee d l i n g s t o t o p pd o w n a n d d i e

    e) R o t - D eco m p o s e s rap id ly ,

    eg- red ro t o f su garcan ef ) W il t - P lu gg in g o f x ylem vess el s , e-

    Wi l t o f co t ton

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    g ) C a n k e r- D e a d a r e a in p a r k , e g- C i tr u s c a n k e r

    h) Rus t- B ro w n i s h m a s s o f s p o r e s b r e ak t h rep idermi s .eg- Rus t o f wheat

    i ) Smut- C h a r c o a l l ik e p o w d e r y m a s s in f l o rappa r a tus eg- S m u t o f s o rg h u m

    j ) S c a b- U l c e r l ik e s y m p t o m s o n f r u i te g- S c a b o f a p p l e k ) M i ld e w- S u p e rf i ci al g r o w t h o f f u n

    e g- D o w n e y m i ld e w

    .1H y p e r t r o p h y & H y p e r p l a s i a

    (O v er d e v el o p m e n t )

    - i n c r ea s e in s i z e o f i n d i v id u a l

    (H yp e r t ro p h y )

    - e g- E lo n g a te d i n t er n o d e s in p l

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    Hyperp las ia i n c r e as e in n u m b e r o f ce l l s as a resu l t o f ce ll d iv is ionEg-C r o w n g a l l d i s e a se

    .1 H y p o p l a s i a(U n d e r d e v e lo p m e n t )

    R e d u c e d e v el o p m e n t o f w h o l eo r p a r t o f p l a n tE g- L i t t l e l e a f o f b r i n j a l

    C a u s a l o r g a n i s m :X a n th o m o n a s c i t r i .S y m p t o m s

    N e c r o t i c b r o w n s p o t s a r e c o a rs e i n s u

    o n l e a f tw i g s a n d f r u i ts .

    O n y o u n g l e a ve s , th e l e s i o n a p p e a r ss p o t . S o o n t h e s p o t b e c o m e e n l a r g e dw e e k s t h e y d e v e lo p i n t o b r o w n n e c r o

    T h e l e s io n s th e n b e c o m e e n la r g e d f u rc o l la p s e b r o w n d e p r e s s io n a p p e a r s inp o s i t i o n f o r m i n g a c r at er l ik e s t ru c t u r .

    T h e m a r g i n o f t h e le s i o n s t o b e r a i s e d a b oo f t h e h o s t t is s u e s .

    A s t h e d i s e a s e p r o g r e s s , t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i ob e c o m e s g r a y is h w h i te , h a r d a n d a p p e a r st i s s u e w i t h r o u g h s u r f a c e .

    Y e l l o w h a l o s a r e u s u a ll y f o r m e d a r o u n d t h .

    C h a r a ct e rs o f C a u s a l o r g a n i s m :

    T h e b a c t e r i a l c e ll s a r e G r a mV e , s t r a i g h t r o d s , p o lf l ag e l l u m , i n c h a i n s , w i t h c a p s u l e s , n o n- s p o r e f o r m i n ga n d a e r o b i c .

    M i lk c o l o u r c h a n g e s t o b l u e , p o s i t iv e t os t a r c h a d l i q u e f y g e l a t i n .

    T h e b a c t e r i u m is n o t a b l e t o s u r v i v e s a p .

    D i s e a s e c y c le :

    T h e p a th o g e n e n te r s t h r o u g h s tw o u n d s .

    F r ee m o i s tu r e a n d s t r o n g w i n d sf a vo r s t h e s p r e a d o f t h e d i s e a s e

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    Con trol measures

    C a n k e r f r e e n u r s e r y s t o c k s h o u l d b e u s e d .

    F i e ld s a n i t a t io n w a s m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e mo f th e d i se a se .

    B u r n i n g o f s h o o t s b e a r in g c a n k e r l e s i o n s i s a l

    i n r e d u c i n g t h e i n o c u l u m l o a d .

    A p e r i o d i c sp ra y o f i n se c t i c i d e s i s e f f e c t i ve i ni n s e c t d a m a g e .

    B o rd e a u x m i x t u r e ( %) a n d o t h e r C u1c o m p o u n d s a n d a n t ib i o t i c s l ik e S t r e p to m y c i nA g r i m yc i n h a ve b e e n e f f e c t i ve .

    Practical Ap proach:

    S tu d y o f s y m p t o m s I s o l a ti o n o f b a c t e r i al p a t h o g en f r

    in fec tedleaves

    I d en t i fi c a ti o n o f b a c t e r ia l p a t h o gg ra ms t ai n in g a n d c o l o n y m o r p h o l o g y

    X a n th a n g u m p r o d u c t i o n a n d i t sa p p l i c a t i o n

    P r a c t i c a l A p p r o a c h s l i d e c a n t e l l

    . w h e r e ( i n w h i c h f i e l d , i n d u s t r y ) t h e c1i s u s e d

    . W h i c h t y p e / p r o f i le / d e s i g n a t io n p e o p1

    s u b j e c t- G o v t .A g r iF i e l d o f f ic e r s , P r i v a t e

    H o r t i c u l t u r e o f f i c e r , P e s t i c i d e f ie l d s a l e s

    s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t w i l l g e t a n r e l a t e / a s s i

    a n d a p p r o a c h t h o s e a r e a s, p e o p l e w i th c o

    Q u e s t i o n s ? ?

    D e s c r i b e th e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p lc l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

    W r i te s h o r t n o t e s o n f o l lo w i n g

    a ) c a n k e r b ) W i l t c ) B l ig h t e t c

    E x p l a in i n d e t a i l a b o u t s y m p t o

    c a u s a t i ve a g e n t o f c i t ru s c a n k e E x p l a in t h e d i s e a s e c y c l e o f c i tr

    H o w w i l l y o u c o n t r o l th e c i tr u s

    M a tc h t h e f o l lo w i n g) C i t ru s1 R e d r o t

    ) A p p l e1 Wi l t

    ) Su g a rca n e1 C r o w n g a ll) C o t to n1 Scab

    ) H yp e rp l a s i a1 C a n k e r C h o o s e t h e b e s t a n s w e r

    ) L im i ted necr o t i c a rea a re ca l led1

    a )B li g h t b ) L e a f sp o t c )M i l d e w d) Fu n g a l i n f e c ti o n o n f l o ra l p a r t1ca l le d _ _ _ _ _

    a )Ru s t b )Ro t c ) S mu t d ) M i l d e w

    F i ll u p t h e b l a n k s

    ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i s a f a m i l ia r i n s e c t i s i d1

    )N e c r o t ic l e s s io n o c c u r o n a l a1c a l le d _ _ _ _ _ _

    )P l u g g i n g o f x y l e m v e s s e l s c a l l1d i s e a s e .

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    CLOSU RE

    Sum m ar ies t he en t ire c on t en t

    A sk t he qu es t ions and in t e ract w i th t he s t udent s

    F ie ld v is i t- t o exam ine t he va r ious p lan t d i sease l i ve l

    .1 T ex t b o o k o f Pl an t p at h o lo g y b y PD . SH A RM A

    .1 T ex t b o o k o f Pl an t p at h o lo g y b y BP .P A N D EY

    .1 http:/ / findebookee.com/ p/ plant-pathology-ppt

    .1 Jo urnal-Ecobiology, Electronic jou rnal, Indian journ

    microbiology