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Transcript of Planning

  • 1. PlanningDr.

2. MEANINGplan is a course of action to be taken in future. It is a pre decided course of action . Planning is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done , how it is to be done , where , when and whom . It involves determination of objectives to be achieved as well as the activities required to achieve the objectives.9/17/ 3. DEFINEThe planning of action is at one and the same time the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed , the stages to go through and the methods to use.-HENRI FAYOLPlanning is fundamentally a mental predisposition to d0 things in an orderly way , to think before and to act in the light of the fact rather than of guesses.-L.F.URWICK9/17/ 4. Features of planningPlanning is goal oriented:it seeks to achieve certain objectives and all plans are linked with the goal of the organization. So planning is purposeful.Planning is future oriented:it is based on the proverb look before you leap. It is essential to predict future.Planning is primary function :planning saves as the basis for another functions of management. Planning provides the foundation for managerial action to achieve the specify goals of organization.9/17/ 5. Planning is continuous process:planning is on going process it is prepared for a specific period of time . At the end of the period , new plans have to be prepared. similarly as condition changed the existing plans to be revised.Planning aims at efficiency and effectiveness:plans are prepared to achive the objectives in the best way.sound planning leads to accomplishment of desired objectives at the minimum possibility cost9/17/ 6. Importance of planningMAKING OBJECTIVES CLEAR: planning makes goal clean and specific . It focus to attain the organizational goal and also serve guide for deciding what actions should be takenHelp organization a right path :Employees can understand how their action relate to organizational goals . It provides orderly efforts towards the goals .9/17/ 7. It reduced risk and uncertainty :It helps to predict future events and prepare to face the unexpected events . It helps manager to identify the potential danger and steps take to over come them.It improve efficiency of operations :planning involved selection of best possible course of action. It helps to achieve optimum utilization of available resources.Provides the basis of control :planning makes control meaningful and effective. A comparison of performance with the desired results helps to identify the deviations and to take corrective steps to make the events confirm to plans9/17/ 8. Limitation of planningDynamic conditions act as a limitation of planning:the assumption on which planning is based may not hold good and the condition under which plans are being implemented may differ from the assumed conditions.Availability of time is a limiting factor planning :some times it causes delay in taking action .at emergency situation in business require promotion action and allow little time for thinkingCost involved in planning :planning is a costly process. A good ideal time , energy and money is involved in gathering of facts and testing of various alternatives.9/17/ 9. The Government from time to time will be constraint on managerial decision.Procedure , rules and policies once established are difficult to change .Some person are psychologically opposed to planning as they consider the present more important than the future.9/17/ 10. 10How to Make a Plan That Works2Set GoalsDevelopCommitmentDevelopEffectiveActionPlansTrackProgressTowardGoalAchievementMaintainFlexibilityRevise existing planorBegin new planning process9/17/ 11. 11 S.M.A.R.T. SpecificMeasurableAttainableRealisticTimelySetting Goals2.19/17/ 12. Step 1. DEFINE THE TASKWhat would we need to know about theassignment before we accept? All the facts and figures: where, when, how, whatand who The objective or goal of the assignment: what weare trying to accomplish9/17/2014 12 13. Step 2. IDENTIFY RESOURCESWhen we consider the resources needed andavailable, we need to ask ourselves: What resources do we need to accomplish the task? What do we already have? Where do we get what we dont have? Are there any resources that requirespecial attention, advance planning,or significant expense? Are therealternatives?9/17/2014 13 14. Step 3. CONSIDER ALTERNATIVESThis step relates to alternate methods andprocedures for a training course. These mightinclude: What kind of training aids should we use? Which technique will be best forgetting the message across? How should we arrange the tablesand chairs?9/17/2014 14 15. Step 4. CREATE THE PLANCreating a workable plan can be a challenge. Training session outlines are provided in BSA trainingmanuals. We need to fill in the blank spaces.A written plan tells everyone concerned what isexpected, and when. It provides a permanent record that will be helpful thenext time we conduct the course. It can serve as a backdated checklist9/17/2014 15 16. Step 5. WORK THE PLAN Be sure you are ready. Review the previous steps. Do it! Hold the training course. Follow the written plan, but be flexible and makeany adjustments needed.9/17/2014 16 17. Step 6. EVALUATEWhat should we evaluate about a trainingcourse?Did we accomplish what we set out to do?Will we conduct it the same way again?If not, what changes would we make?9/17/2014 17 18. TWO TYPES OF PLANSThere are two types of plans that relate to training:SHORT-RANGE PLANSLONG-RANGE PLANS9/17/2014 18 19. SHORT RANGE PLANNING :It relates to a relatively short period and has to be consistent with the long range plans . Operational planning are generally related to a short periods.9/17/ 20. SHORT-RANGE PLANS Meet a particular objective in the near future Cover a limited area of training Answer the question: Are we doing things right? Should fit well within and contribute to long-range plansSome examples: Plans for basic training sessions for new leaders whohave just been recruited Plans for a den chief training conference Plans for training roundtable staff members9/17/2014 20 21. LONG RANGE PLANSLONG RANGE PLANNING : long range planning sets long term goals for the enterprise and then proceeds to formulate specific plans for attaining these goals. It also involves an attempt to analyze and make decision about basic problems and issues which have significance reaching well beyond the present operating horizon of the enterprise.9/17/ 22. LONG RANGE PLANS Cover a longer time May include a variety of different types of trainingSome examples: An annual plan, including Fast Start and basic training Makeup training sessions Den chief training Regular monthly roundtables Supplemental training Personal coaching Self-study9/17/2014 22 23. SHORT- AND LONG-RANGE PLANSBoth short-range and long-range plans aredeveloped using the six steps.9/17/2014 23 24. PERT CHARTA PERT chart is a graphic representation of a projects schedule, showing the sequence of tasks, which tasks can be performedsimultaneously, and the critical path of tasks that must be completed on time in order for the project to meet its completion deadline.9/17/ 25. How to use itIdentify all tasks or project components. Make sure the team includes people with firsthand knowledge of the project so that during the brainstorming session all component tasks needed to complete the project are captured. Document the tasks on small note cards.Identify the first task that must be completed.Place the appropriate card at the extreme left of the working surface.Identify any other tasks that can be started simultaneously with task #1. Align these tasks either above or below task #1 on the working surface.9/17/ 26. How to use itIdentify the next task that must be completed. Select a task that must wait to begin until task #1(or a task that starts simultaneously with task #1) is completed. Place the appropriate card to the right of the card showing the preceding task.Identify any other tasks that can be started simultaneously with task #2. Align these tasks either above or below task #2 on the working surface.Continue this process until all component tasks are sequenced.9/17/ 27. Identify task durations. Using the knowledge of team members, reach a consensus on the most likely amount of time each task will require for completion. Duration time is usually considered to be elapsed time for the task, rather than actual number of hours/days spent doing the work. Document this duration time on the appropriate task cards.Construct the PERT chart. Number each task, draw connecting arrows, and add task characteristics such as duration, anticipated start date, and anticipated end date.Determine the critical path. The projects critical path includes those tasks that must be started or completed on time to avoid delays to the total project. Critical paths are typically displayed in red.9/17/ 28. 9/17/ 29. 29Charts: Henry Gantt9/17/ 30. 30Planning from Top to BottomAdapted from Exhibit 5.539/17/ 31. 31Starting at the TopStrategic PlansClarify how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors (2-5 years) VisionAn inspirational statement of anorganizations purpose (2 sentences) MissionOverall goal that unifies efforts towardits vision, stretches and challenges, and possesses a finish line andtime frame. Flows from vision. 3.19/17/ 32. 32Planning Time Lines3.1Years0123456PlansStrategicTacticalOperational5 Years2 years30 days6 months6 months2 Years9/17/ 33. 33Bending in the MiddleTactical PlansSpecify how a company will use resources, budgets, and people toaccomplish goals within its mission. (6 months to 2 years)ManagementbyObjectivesDevelop and carry out tactical plans1.Discuss possible goals2.Participatively select goals consistent with overall goals3.Jointly develop tactical plans4.Meet to review progress3.29/17/ 34. 34Finishing at the BottomOperationalPlansDay-to-day plans for producing or delivering products and services overa 30-day to six-month period3.39/17/ 35. 35Kinds of Operational PlansSingle-Use PlansPlans that cover unique, one-time-only eventsStanding PlansPlans used repeatedly to handle frequently recurring events.Three kinds are: policies, procedures, and rules and regulations.BudgetsQuantitative planning to decide howto allocate money to accomplish company goals3.39/17/ 36. Strategic planning :It is part of functional areas of business . It involves key decisions regarding the overall goals and strategies of the enterprises . It is the process of deciding on basic goals , the resources required to achieveOperational planning : it is also known as tactical planning or administrative planning which involves the conversion strategic plans into detailed operational programs.9/17/ 37. Functional planning :It is prepared for various functional areas of business like production planning financial planning and man power planning . It serves as a guide for people in a particular department of functional areas of the enterprise.9/17/ 38. Mission : explains fundamental purpose of the organization . It explains how an organization will conducts its business.Objectives : it explains the future destination an organization wants to attain. The objectives should be clearly understand by every employees.Policies : general rules in written statement to be followed in respective situation. Provides basic framework within which managers operate.9/17/ 39. Procedures : administrative guide prescribing the sequence in which various activities are to be performed. It helps in standardizing and stream lining day to day activities.Rules : statement of action asking subordinates to have in a particular manner. It is strictly followed by every one. it is essential for smooth operation of business. Eg :no smoking , no entry9/17/ 40. SUMMARYA well planned training course is easier to present and easier for participants to understand.The process permits each planning step to be revisited whenever necessary.On-going improvements make training more effective. 9/17/ 41. 9/17/ 42. 9/17/2014 42