Pineapple Vinegar to Enhance Shelf Life of Carrot and ... Vinegar to Enhance Shelf Life of Carrot...

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  • Pineapple Vinegar to Enhance Shelf Life of Carrot and Mango in Tanzania

    Aldegunda Sylvester Matunda

    Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Science in Life Science In Food Science and Technology

    Sean F. O'Keefe Co-Chair Kumar Mallikarjunan Co-Chair

    Susan Duncan Amanda Stewart Richard Mongi

    6/04/2015 Blacksburg, VA

    Keywords: Pineapple, mango, carrot, vinegar, sensory evaluation, consumer

    acceptability, Vitamin A, Vitamin C:

  • Pineapple Vinegar to Enhance Shelf Life of Carrot and Mango in Tanzania

    Aldegunda Sylvester Matunda

    ABSTRACT Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable, produced seasonally, and large

    quantities (about 50-60% of production) are wasted during high season due to poor

    handling and lack of cold storage in Tanzania. Processing excess pineapple into vinegar

    which can be used for preservation of other fruits and vegetables may be a helpful

    strategy for reducing losses. Vinegar was produced from pineapple juice supplemented

    with sugar to produce different degrees of Brix (13, 20 and 30) and was fermented with

    Saccharomyces cereviciae, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Levels of acetic acid were measured in the vinegar produced. High production (5.8%) of

    acetic acid was observed with pineapple juice concentrated to 130 Brix with the

    combination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, A. pasteurianus and G. oxydans.

    The pineapple vinegar produced was used for preservation of carrot and mango.

    The pH of carrot pickle and mango chutney was monitored for three months. The pH of

    preserved carrot and mango was below 4 and no significant changes in pH were observed

    during three months storage at 29-320C. Chemical analysis of vitamin A and vitamin C

    showed high losses of Vitamin A in carrot and increased vitamin A in mango, but losses

    of about 74% and 85% of vitamin C were observed in carrot and mango after processing.

    Consumer sensory testing of pineapple vinegar, carrot pickle and mango chutney

    showed no significance different on overall consumer acceptability of products during

    storage. Pineapple vinegar can be used to rescue mango and carrots that would otherwise

    be lost, producing highly acceptable food products in Tanzania.

  • iii

    Acknowledgement

    I sincerely appreciate USAID for sponsoring my study, iAGRI stuff in Tanzania

    for their assistance, and Sokoine University for allowing me to use their lab facilities.

    Stewart Mwanyika, lab technician in the food science lab at Sokoine University,

    supported me greatly during lab work in Tanzania.

    My committee members, Dr. Richard Mongi, Dr Suzan Duncan, Dr. Amanda

    Stewart, Dr. Kumar Malkarjunan, are thanked for their advice and contributions to my

    study; it was great to have each of them on my committee.

    My thanks to Ken and Kim for their assistance in lab work at Virginia Tech; it

    was very helpful and grateful to work under your assistance.

    Special appreciation to my advisor Dr. Sean OKeefe for being my advisor; I am

    very grateful to work with him when I was in US and even when I was outside US he

    continued to provide the same assistance and support.

    My special gratitude goes out to my husband, my son and my family for their

    encouragement and love during my study, especial when I was away from my country; it

    was nice to have them on my side.

    My friends and everyone who helped me during my study, it was nice to have all

    of you on my side.

  • iv

    Dedication

    I dedicate this work to my beloved son, Carrington Victor, for his patience and

    tolerance of my absence, which made it hard to concentrate on my studies. His love was

    my strength in whatever I did. My husband, with his love and support during my studies,

    made me feel strong in my work. My mother (Mary Matunda) for her prayers during my

    studies, my sisters (Avelina Matunda and Marytreza) for their love and encouragement

    during my studies, my mother (Agnes Muhabuki) for taking care of my son during my

    studies, keeping my son healthy and safe was encouraging me and strengthened me

    during my studies.

  • v

    Abbreviations

    FAO - Food Association Organization

    MAFC - Ministry of Agriculture, Food Cooperatives.

    Ho - Null hypothesis

    Ha - Alternative hypothesis

    pH- negative log of hydrogen ion concentration

    WHO World Health Organization

    ATCC American Type Culture Collection

    USA United State of America

    SUA Sokoine University of Agriculture

    GAP Good Agricultural Practices

    GMP Good Management Practices

    GHP Good Hygiene Practices

    TSS Total Soluble Solid

    IRB Institutional Review Board

    NIMR National Institute for Medical Research

    THSD Tukeys Honest Significant Difference

    AAB Acetic Acid Bacteria

    s.d standard deviation

    CV Commercial Vinegar

    A.p - Acetobacter pasteurianus bacteria

    O Gluconobacter oxydans bacteria

    P13 Pineapple juice concentrated to 13 degree Brix

  • vi

    P20 Pineapple juice concentrated to 20 degree Brix

    P30 Pineapple juice concentrated to 30 degree Brix

  • vii

    Table of ContentsAcknowledgement ............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Dedication .......................................................................................................................... iv

    Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... v

    List of figures ..................................................................................................................... xi

    List of tables ...................................................................................................................... xii

    Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................. 1

    1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Background information ............................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Problem statement ......................................................................................................... 2

    1.3 Objective of the study ................................................................................................... 3

    1.3.1. Specific objectives and hypotheses: .......................................................................... 3

    Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................. 5

    2.0 Literature Review.......................................................................................................... 5

    2.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 5

    2.2 Fruits ............................................................................................................................. 6

    2.2.1 Pineapple .................................................................................................................... 6

    2.2.2 Mango ........................................................................................................................ 6

    2.2.3 Carrot ......................................................................................................................... 6

    2.3 Post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables in Tanzania .............................................. 7

    2.4 Vinegar .......................................................................................................................... 8

    Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................... 10

  • viii

    3.0 Material and Methods ................................................................................................. 10

    3.1. Study area................................................................................................................... 10

    3.2 Raw materials. ............................................................................................................. 10

    3.3 Vinegar Processing ..................................................................................................... 10

    3.4 Preserving carrot and mango with vinegar ................................................................. 13

    3.5 Chemical analysis ....................................................................................................... 17

    3.5.1 Measurement of total soluble solids ........................................................................ 17

    3.5.2 Measurement of pH .................................................................................................. 17

    3.5.5 Consumer sensory evaluation of pineapple vinegar ................................................ 18

    3.5.6 Statistical data analysis ............................................................................................ 20

    Chapter 4 ......................................................