Phrightening Phobias

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Transcript of Phrightening Phobias

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    By NATALIE ALARCON

    Phrighteningphobias

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    BY NATALIE ALARCON

    New York, NY

    2013

    Phrighteningphobias

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    Introduction

    Medical Phobias

    Animal Phobias

    Environmental

    Phobias

    01 02

    03 04Hemophobia............................ 21

    Iatrophobia ............................. 24Dentophobia ........................... 27

    Trypanophobia ....................... 29

    Ophidiophobia .........................10

    Ranidaphobia ......................... 12

    Ophidiophobia .........................14

    Arachnophobia ........................16

    Astraphobia ............................ 31

    Aquaphobia ............................. 33

    Hydrophobia ........................... 35

    What is a phobia?......................4

    What are the Symptoms? ........7

    How Common Are Phobias? ....9

    contents

    Table of

    4

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    Situational Phobias05 06 Acrophobia .............................41Bathmophobia ........................43Climacophobia ........................47Aerophobia .............................49 Phobia TreatmentTherapy ................................... 53Medication .............................. 55

    5

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    AnimalsPhobias of Animals

    Imagine being in the dark alone with the largest snake

    in the world. Not being able to move chills runs down

    your spine and the hair on your body stands tall! You

    feel the snakes slippery rough skin against you arms.

    Squeezing its body tightly around your legs, you begin

    to feel like you are about to suffocate. As you being to

    scream for help, you realize it was just a dream.

    9

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    Fear of snakes is one of the most common

    phobias, yet many people have never

    seen a snake in person. So how is this fear

    generated? New research suggests humans have

    evolved an innate tendency to sense snakes and

    spiders, too and to learn to fear them.

    Psychologists found that both adults and

    children could detect images of snakes among

    a variety of nonthreatening objects more

    quickly than they could pinpoint frogs, owers or

    caterpillars. The researchers think this ability

    helped humans survive in the wild.

    The idea is that throughout evolutionary

    history, humans that learned quickly to fear snakes

    would have been at an advantage to survive and

    reproduce, said Vanessa LoBue, a post doctoral

    fellow in psychology at the University of Virginia.

    Humans who detected the presence of snakes very

    quickly would have been more likely to pass on

    their genes.

    Previously, anthropologists have suggested

    the need to notice snakes in the wild may have

    led early primates to develop better vision and

    larger brains. The researchers were inspired to

    investigate the fear of snakes when they thought

    about how universally people dislike the slithering

    legless lizards.This feeling is really common,

    LoBue told LiveScience. We dont see snakes

    all the time. Theres really no reason for this

    overwhelming disgust or hatred of snakes.

    I have almost a phobia of snakes, DeLoache

    said. When I see a picture of a snake, Im like, Oh

    my God, eew! The reason we got into this research

    was because Ive always been fascinated by how

    it is that people develop it. My intuition was that

    there was something that made me feel afraid of

    snakes early on. You react to them very early on.

    said DeLoache

    Snakes are often feared as many people nd

    their appearance unsightly, slimy and disgusting.

    The gliding movement of a snake can literally make

    their skin crawl. Evidence suggests that many

    individuals suffering from ophidiophobia, do not

    actually have any direct contact with snakes. This

    implies that ophidiophobia is triggered genetically.

    This phobia is sometimes understandable and in

    fact, not irrational at all, as some snakes are very

    poisoness and can cause harm to humans. Snakes

    have fangs and often people are afraid of receiving

    a fatal snakebite. Children are often anxious about

    snakes as adults tend to tell them that they are

    dangerous. The phobia is usually more apparent

    in children over the age of four, although, younger

    children will often show signs that they are worried

    or cautious.

    OphidiophobiaFear of Snakes

    10

    The fear of snakes is possibly the most common

    subcategory of herpetophobia, or fear of reptiles.

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    Why Do Boys and Girls Respond

    Differently to Snakes?It worked for the girls, but not the boys.He found

    that 11-month old girls but not boys of the

    same age associated recurrent threats with

    fearful faces, according to the study. Interestingly,

    when the babies were shown owers or other

    nonthreatening images along with faces showing

    either fear or happiness, it made no difference.

    That suggests the presence of a bias to

    recognize that snakes may be threatening, but not

    owersDeLoache and LoBue tested infants (8 to 14

    months old) and 3-yearold children and adults

    to see if they found images of snakes more quickly

    in a matrix of several images than they found

    harmless objects, like owers. In all three cases the

    participants found snakes faster than owers.

    SymptomsThe fear of snakes can be tricky to diagnose, as

    symptoms can vary widely between sufferers. If

    you have mild ophidiophobia, you may fear only

    encounters with large or venomous snakes. If your

    phobia is more severe, you may be afraid of smaller

    snakes as well. You may even be unable to look at

    photographs or television shows in which snakes

    appear.

    It is important to distinguish betweenophidiophobia and herpetophobia. If you are

    also afraid of lizards, from small geckos to six

    foot Komodo dragons, then your phobia is more

    properly termed herpetophobia. Your symptoms

    may include, but are not limited to, shaking, crying

    or running away from snakes. You may experience

    heart palpitations or have difculty breathing. You

    may nd it difcult or even impossible to remain

    in the same room as a snake.

    EffectsOphidiophobia can be insidious. Over time, you may

    begin to fear things that are not directly related to

    snakes themselves. For example, you may become

    afraid of pet stores that offer snakes for sale. You

    may avoid camping or hiking trips, or even zoos

    and nature preserves. You may also develop a

    secondary fear of other reptiles.

    DiagnosingThere are a number of common myths about

    snakes. If you have never handled one, you may

    be nervous that it will be slimy or disgusting or

    afraid that you will be crushed by a constrictor.

    The symptoms listed above, on the other hand, are

    out of proportion to normal nervousness and may

    indicate an actual phobia.

    TreatmentThe most common treatments for snake phobia are

    based on cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques.

    You may be encouraged to talk about your fear

    and taught new messages to replace your fearful

    self-talk. You may also be slowly exposed to snakes,

    beginning with photographs and gradually building

    up to a live encounter with a small snake in a

    controlled environment.

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    RanidaphobiaFear of Frogs

    Ranidaphobia is considered to be a specic phobia and is

    also related to Batrachophobia (fear of amphibians, such

    as frogs, newts, salamanders, etc).

    Imagine traveling back through time millions of

    years to the age of the dinosaurs. Pterodactyls

    glide above a soggy marsh. Nearby, a colossal

    80-ton Brachiosaurus munches on a tree. On the

    ground at its feet, something strangely familiar

    hops by: a frog.

    Ichthyostega, prehistoric predecessor to the

    modern frog, lived 370 million years ago during

    the Devonian Period. Sometimes referred to asthe rst four-legged sh, skeletal remains of this

    earliest-known amphibian were rst discovered in

    East Greenland.

    Surprised? Few people realize just how ancient

    frogs are. For 190 million years, the ancestors of

    modern frogs have roamed (if not ruled) the earth,

    looking much the same as they do today. The secret

    to their success is their amazing adaptability.

    As amphibians, frogs have one webbed foot in

    each of two worlds. The advantages of this double

    life are clear to see: Are land predators giving you

    trouble? Dive into the water. Not enough to eat in

    the pond? Hop out and see what they are serving

    on shore.

    Frogs have evolved to live in an astounding

    variety of climates. They can be found just about

    anywhere theres fresh water, from the desert to

    the Arctic, on all continents except Antarctica.

    Though they thrive in warm, moist tropical

    climates, frogs also live in deserts and high on

    15,000 f