Pharyngitis Tonsilitis

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    Maribel MangalusBSN II

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    The word comes from the Greek wordpharanxmeaning "throat" and the suffix -itismeaning "inflammation."

    Pharyngitis is swelling or infection of thetissues and structures in your child's pharynx

    (throat). It is also called sore throat.

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    Viruses are the most common cause of sore throats,but some sore throats are caused by bacterialinfections.

    Individuals who are frequently exposed to coldsand f lus, such as healthcare workers or children in daycare are the most likely to develop pharyngitis.Individuals who have allergies, experience frequent

    sinus infections, or who have been exposed to second-hand smoke are also more likely to developpharyngitis.

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    Viral Infection

    Pharyngitis is most commonly caused by viralinfections such as the common cold, inf luenza,or mononucleosis. Viral infections do notrespond to antibiotics, and treatment is only

    necessary to help relieve symptoms.A virussuch as the cold or flu virus causes viral

    pharyngitis. Pharyngitis is common inadolescents who have an illness calledinfectious mononucleosis (mono). Mono iscaused by the Epstein-Barr virus.

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    Bacterial Infection

    Less commonly, pharyngitis is caused by abacterial infection. Bacterial infections dorequire antibiotics. The most common

    bacterial infection of the throat is strep throat,which is caused by streptococcus A. Rarecauses of bacterial pharyngitis includegonorrhea, chlamydia, and corynebacterium.

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    Bacteriacause bacterial pharyngitis. The most

    common type of bacteria that causespharyngitis is group A streptococcus (strepthroat). Adolescents who are sexually active canget a sore throat from gonorrhea or other

    sexually shared bacteria

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    Pain during swallowing, or hoarseness Cough, runny or stuffy nose, itchy or watery

    eyes

    A rash on his body Fever and headache

    Whitish-yellow patches on the back of histhroat

    Tender, swollen lumps on the sides of his neck

    Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or stomach pain

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    Transmission is by droplet. Germs infiltrate theepithelial layer, then the epithelium is eroded,then the superficial lymphoid tissueinflammatory reaction occurs with thedamming of polymorphonuclear leukocyteinfiltration. In the early stages there ishyperemia and edema and increased

    secretions. Serous exudate at first, but tends tobecome thickened and dry and can be attachedto the pharyngeal wall.

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    By hyperemia, blood vessel walls of the

    pharynx to the width. Blockage forms a yellow,white, or gray present in follicles or lymphoidtissue. It appears that the lymphoid folliclesand blotches on the posterior pharyngeal wall

    or located more laterally to become inflamedand swollen causing inflammation of thethroat or pharyngitis.

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    Assess the patient for pain every 2 to 4 hours,and give antitussives and pain medication.Make sure you dont overmedicate. Pain relief

    allows for maximum chest expansion. Encourage the patient to take deep breaths and

    to cough. To minimize pain, apply firm

    pressure at the site of the pain while the patientcough (splinting).

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    inflammation of the tonsils most commonly caused byviral or bacterial infection.

    Tonsils are the two lymph nodes located on each sideof the back of your throat. They function as a defensemechanism, helping to prevent infection fromentering the rest of your body. When the tonsils

    themselves become infected, the condition is calledtonsillitis.

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    Tonsillitis can occur at any age and is a

    common childhood ailment. It is most oftendiagnosed in children from preschool agethrough their mid teens. Symptoms includea sore throat, swollen tonsils, and fever.

    Tonsillitis is easily diagnosed and treated.Symptoms usually fully resolve within seven to

    10 days.

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    Tonsils are your first line of defense againstillness and they produce white blood cells tohelp your body fight infection. The tonsils

    combat bacteria and viruses that enter yourbody through the mouth, but are vulnerable toinfection from these invaders themselves.

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    Tonsillitis can be caused by a virus, such as

    the common cold, or by a bacterial infection,such as strep throat.

    Children come into close contact with others atschool and play, exposing them to a variety ofviruses and bacteria. This makes themparticularly vulnerable to the germs that cause

    tonsillitis.

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    Tonsillitis most commonly affects childrenbetween preschool ages and the mid-teenageyears. Common signs and symptoms of

    tonsillitis include: Red, swollen tonsils

    White or yellow coating or patches on the

    tonsils Sore throat

    Difficult or painful swallowing

    Fever

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    Enlarged, tender glands (lymph nodes) in theneck

    A scratchy, muffled or throaty voice Bad breath

    Stomachache, particularly in younger children

    Stiff neck Headache

    In young children who are unable to describehow they feel, signs of tonsillitis may include:

    Drooling due to difficult or painful swallowing

    Refusal to eat

    Unusual fussiness

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    TONSILITIS

    CAUSESThe tonsils are lymphnodes in the back ofthe mouth and top ofthe throat. They

    normally help filterout bacteria and othermicroorganisms toprevent infection inthe body. Theybecome so

    overwhelmed bybacterial of viralinfection that swelland became inflamed,causing tonsillitis.

    BACTERIA/ VIRAL

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    BACTERIA / VIRAL

    -A Beta hemolyticstreptoccoci- Nesseriagonorrhoeae- H influenza

    -Mycoplasma

    -Adenovirus- Influenza virus- Epstein- Barr

    Virus- Herpes simplex

    SYMPTOMS

    Difficulty

    swallowingEar painFever, chillsHeadacheSore throat lastslonger than 48hours and may besevereTenderness of the

    jawVoice changes, loss

    of voice

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    SYMPTOMS

    POSSIBLE

    COMPLICATIONS

    Pharyngitis bacterialPharyngitis viralDehydration fromdifficulty swallowing fluidsBlocked airway fromenlarged tonsilsPerotonsillar abscess or

    abscess in other parts ofthe throatRheumatic fever andsubsequent cardiovasculardisorders

    Kidney failure

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    Clear the airway patent (keep the head positionin a state parallel to the spine / as indicated).

    Perform suction if necessary.

    Assess the function of the respiratory system.Assess the patient's ability to perform cough /

    discharging effort.

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