PFD - scba

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    Basic FirefighterSCBA

    Michael Corsello

    Peyton Fire

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    SCBA IntroOxygen Deficiency

    Normally 21% Oxygen in air

    Hypoxia occurs quickly

    17% O2 impaired muscular activity

    12% O2 dizziness, headache, rapid fatigue

    9% O2 unconciousness6% O2 death within a few minutes

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    SCBA IntroElevated Temperatures

    Inhalation of heated air causes serious

    decreases in blood pressureCan cause pulmonary edema

    Damage is not immediately reversible

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    SCBA IntroSmoke

    Composed of minute particles suspended

    in heated gasesParticles and gas may be irritating or lethal

    Toxic Atmospheres

    In addition to smoke, non-fire relatedenvironments can be quite hazardous

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    SCBA IntroToxic Atmospheres

    Many hazardous compounds are rated by

    the NIOSH IDLH (Immediately Dangerousto Life and Health)

    Toxic environments may be encountered inany situation, not just in a live fire

    During salvage and overhaul, there may bea more hazardous environment then duringthe fire

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    SCBA Intro

    Some common fire

    Related gases and

    Their IDLH values

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    SCBA IntroSCBAs or Self Contained Breathing

    Apparatus are covered by NFPA and

    OSHA regulations (NFPA1500 & 1404)Use of SCBAs are limited by air supplyand limitations of the wearer

    Physical

    Medical

    Mental

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    SCBA IntroPhysical limitations of the wearer

    Fitness wearer must be in good physical

    condition to maximize ability to functionAgility wearing an SCBA limits mobilityand balance

    Facial Features the shape and contour ofthe face affects the seal of the mask

    Facial Hair reduces ability to obtain a seal

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    SCBA IntroMedical

    Neurologic good motor skills are required

    to operate effectively in an SCBAMuscular/Skeletal requires strength andsize to operate in an SCBA

    Cardiovascular/Respiratory poor

    cardiovascular health can lead to stroke orheart attacks, while respiratory healthlimits operation time in an SCBA

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    SCBA IntroMental

    Training wearer must be familiar with all

    aspects of SCBA operation and useSelf-Confidence belief in ones ability hasa positive affect on actions to beperformed

    Emotional ability to maintain self-controlin a high-stress environment minimizeserrors and lengthens time in an SCBA

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    SCBA IntroLimitations of Equipment

    Visibility the mask limits peripheral vision

    and is prone to foggingCommunication the facepiece hindersvocal communication

    Weight an SCBA adds 25-35lbs of weightMobility an SCBA reduces the freedom ofmovement in many ways

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    SCBA IntroLimitations of Air Supply

    A single bottle has a limited amount of air

    Increased exertion drastically shortensbottle duration

    Poor physical/mental condition shortens

    bottle durationCylinder pressure before use determinesair supply

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    SCBA Intro2 basic types

    Open Circuit

    Closed Circuit (rebreather)

    Open Circuit is most common

    Exhaled air is lost to the environment

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    SCBA Intro

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    SCBA Intro4 basic component assemblies

    Backpack and harness assembly the frame and

    straps holding everything togetherAir Cylinder assembly bottle, valve and pressuregauge

    Regulator assembly high-pressure hose / low

    pressure alarmFacepiece assembly lens, exhalation valve, headharness and possibly low-pressure hose

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    SCBA IntroCylinder pressure gauge and remotepressure gauge should be within 100psi

    Estimated Bottle Durations2216psi, 45ft3 30min

    4500psi, 45ft3 30min

    3000psi, 66ft

    3

    45min4500psi, 66ft3 45min

    4500psi, 87ft3 60min

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    SCBA IntroDonning

    Before donning, perform all safety checks

    Cylinder pressureGauge equilibrium

    Harness and Facepiece assembly all strapsfully EXTENDED

    Check all valves TURN ON CYLINDER BEFOREDONNING!!

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    SCBA IntroMethods for Donning

    Over-The-Head

    Holding SCBA upside down, raise over headand allow to slide over the back, with armstraps falling into place over the shoulders

    Helmet MUST be worn prior to raising SCBA

    over headCoat Method

    Put SCBA on as it were a coat or backpack

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    SCBA IntroDonning the facepiece

    Facepiece MUST make a positive seal with

    faceSeal MUST be checked every timefacepiece is donned

    All straps MUST be tightened and securedfully to ensure an effective seal

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    SCBA IntroDoffing

    Ensure that area is safe and SCBA is no longer

    requiredDisconnect low-pressure hose or regulator

    Remove the facepiece

    Remove backpack

    Shut off cylinder valveRelieve pressure from regulator

    Extend all straps

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    SCBA IntroMaintenance (NFPA1404 / NFPA1500)

    SCBAs must be inspected after each use, weekly,

    monthly and annuallyCheck cylinder pressure, gauge operation, low-pressure alarm, hoses / connections, facepiece,harness system and all valves

    More detailed inspections monthly and annuallyHydrostatic testing

    Steel/Aluminum every 5 yrs

    Composite every 3 yrs

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    SCBA IntroOperations

    Confined Spaces

    Stay lowIf unable to pass an obstruction, doff harnesswith facepiece in place while maintaining holdon regulator push SCBA FIRST, then follow

    through re-don harness and tighten straps

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    SCBA IntroOperations

    All team members operate together, if one

    person has to exit, everyone exitsDont hesitate to exit a scene if anythingseems unsafe as a team

    The low-pressure alarm is the FINALindicator to leave

    Ensure all team members stay together

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    SCBA IntroSCBA Malfunction

    In case of an SCBA regulator failure, breathe byoperating the bypass valve

    Open the bypass, take a breath

    Close the bypass to conserve air

    With the entire team, get to safety

    In case of a facepiece seal failure, start positive-pressure ventilation

    Open the bypass far enough to push air out of the mask

    With the entire team, get to safety

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    SCBA IntroRemember

    Safety First