Petrochemicals Presentation

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  • PETROCHEMICALS Chemicals made from petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas.

    The prefix "petro-" is an arbitrary abbreviation of the word "petroleum"; since "petro-" is Ancient Greek for "rock" and "oleum" means "oil". Therefore, the etymologically correct term would be "oleochemicals". However, the term oleochemicals is used to describe chemicals derived from plant and animal fats.


    Chemically, petrochemical products fall into three distinct groups namely: 1. olefins2. aromatics 3. synthesis gas

    The major components of olefins are ethylene and propylene and form the basis of several industrial chemicals and plastic products. Butadiene, another component of petrochemicals, is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber.

  • Benzene, toluene and xylene are the principle components in aromatic petrochemical products such as synthetic detergents, plastic, synthetic fibres and polyurethanes.

    Synthesis gas is made up of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which produces ammonia and methanol. These are refined further to produce other synthetic products and chemicals.


  • RAW MATERIALS OR FEEDSTOCKS The basic raw materials supplied by the petroleum refineries or natural gas companies are LPG or liquid petroleum gases, natural gas, gas from cracking processes, liquid distillate C4-C9, and distillates from special cracking processes, as well as cyclic fractions for aromatics.


  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF METHANE:Acetylene is used for making :

    Vinyl chloride : which is used as monomer for PVC(flooring ,pipes,wire insulators).Vinyl acetate : which is used as a monomer for Poly Vinyl Acetate(adhesives , paint emulsions).Acrylonitrile: which is used in preparation of synthetic fibres.Acetylene as such is used for welding purpose(metal welding).

  • Methanol : Methanol is used as solvent.Formaldehyde: Formaldehyde is used for making

    Urea Resin (Molding, textiles, adhesive)Melamine Resin (molding, laminates)Phenolic ResinMethyl Chloride is used for making silicones.Chloroform is used for making freons and anaesthetics.Carbon tetra chloride is used for making freons and in dry cleaning.


  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF ETHYLENE: Ethanol is used in manufacture of Acetaldehyde ,Alcohols , Esters.Ethyl Chloride is used for manufacture of TEL(Tetraethyllead) and is useful in pharmaceutical industry.Ethylene Oxide is used for making

    Glycol is used as an antifreezing agent and for manufacture of polyesters.Ethanol amine is used as an emulsifier.Detergents

  • Ethyl Benzene is used as a source of Styrene.Rubber is used to make tyres , shoe soles and luggage.Polythenes are used for making packaging films, moldings and paper coatings.Ethylene dichloride is used for making vinyl chloride and PVC(film sheets, coated fabrics , floorings and pipes)


  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF PROPYLENE:Isopropanol is used as a solvent. It is also used in toiletries and for coatings. Cumene was first used for engine fuels(high octane). This use has been overshadowed by phenol process which uses cumene as the starting material to produce acetone.Polypropylene is a rapidly growing product and plays a important role in the plastic industry.Acrolein is mainly used as a contact herbicide to control submersed and floating weeds, as well as algae, in irrigation canals. It is used at a level of 10 ppm in irrigation and recirculating waters. In the oil and gas industry, it is used as a biocide in drilling waters, as well as a scavenger for hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans.

  • Epichlorohydrin is used for manufacturing epoxy resin .Also used in production of elastomers ,polyamines, water treatment chemicals, flame retardants, synthetic glycerol and a variety of glycidyl derivatives. Propylene glycol is used for making Polysters resins.Dodecyl Benzene is used as a lubricant oil.

  • 4.BUTADIENEProducts of Butadiene : 1. Adipic acid 2. Sulpholane 3.Chloroprene

  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF BUTADIENE Adipic acid is used as a monomer for production of Nylon6,6,.Adipic acid is produced by carbonylation reaction of Butadiene. Sulpholane is widely used as an industrial solvent, especially in the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon mixtures and to purify natural gas. Chloroprene is used extensively for rubber making.

  • 5. BENZENE

  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF BENZENEEthylbenzene has been used as a solvent for aluminium bromide in the anhydrous electrodeposition of aluminium. Ethylbenzene is also an ingredient in some paints, and solvent grade xylene (xylol) is nearly always contaminated with a few percent of ethylbenzene.Cumene is a important constituent of petroleum products.Cyclohexane Cyclohexane is also used for calibration of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) instruments, because of a convenient crystal-crystal transition at 87.1 C.

    Heat treating equipment manufacturer Surface Combustion uses cyclohexane as a carbon carrying gas in their high purity vacuum carburizing furnaces.

  • Nitrobenzene: Approximately 95% of nitrobenzene is consumed in the production of aniline which is a precursor to rubber chemicals, pesticides, dyes, explosives, and pharmaceuticals.

    Chlorobenzene is used as an intermediate in the production of commodities such as herbicides, dyestuffs, and rubber. Chlorobenzene is also used as a high-boiling solvent in many industrial applications as well as in the laboratory.

  • 6. TOLUENE

  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF TOLUENENylon is a high strength fibre. It is used for making fishing nets, ropes, parachutes , textile fibre and type cords.Flexible and semi-flexible Polyurethane foams are used extensively for interior components of automobiles, in seats, headrests, armrests, roof liners, dashboards and instrument panels.Caprolactum is used in the production of Nylon,6.

  • 7. XYLENES

  • USES OF PRODUCTS OF XYLENESTerephthalic acid is used the production of polybutylene terephthalate and several other engineering polymers.Mixed with terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid is used in the production of resins for drink bottles. Polyamide resin is used with epoxy for adhesive , marine finishes, floorings and maintenance coatings.It is tough, flexible, has excellent water resistant , very good chemical resistance, superior adhesion, good mechanical and electrical properties.