Pest and Diseases of Jathropha in Lampung and West Java

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Transcript of Pest and Diseases of Jathropha in Lampung and West Java

Pests and Diseases of Jatropha in Lampung and West JavaKikin H. Mutaqin David Chandra Gede Suastika Dadang

Department of Plant Protection Faculty of Agriculture Bogor Agricultural University

Introduction Jatropha is a potential plant source for development of biofuel Adequate raw material for biofuel processing would be provided by planting jatropha widely and often monoculturally. Monoculture planting has many consequences, such as triggering the occurrence of plant pest and disease problem.

The control program requires the knowledge about pest and disease

Objective To survey pests and diseases of Jatropha curcas plantation located in West Java and Lampung To measure the intensity, incidence and severity of the pests and diseases found

Metodology Survey was conducted in Lampung (locations: South Lampung and Bandar Lampung) and West Java (Locations: Cigawir, Ciawi, Citerureup 1 and Citerureup 2) during October 2007 February 2008

At each location, observation was done in 5 replications Observation: population intensity (number of pests/leaf or plant; pest or disease incidence; disease severity Samples of Pests and diseased plants were identified at Department of Plant Protection Bogor Agricultural university

Pest or disease incidence (I): Number of plants affected (n) I = ------------------------------------------------ X 100% Number of plants observed (N)Disease severity (S): (ni.vi) S = --------------- X 100% NxVNi = Number of plants affected at category level i Vi = Damage category level i N = Number of plants observed Damage category value: 0 = No symptom

1 = 0 < x 25 %2 = 25 < x 50 %

V

= Highest damage category value

3 = 50 < x 75 %4 = x > 75 %

Plantation CharacteristicsLocation Lampung Selatan Bandar Lampung Sukabumi Ciawi Altitude (m ASL) 50 m dpl Width (ha) 2,5 ha Spacing Phase of plant Maintenance

2m x 2m

Generative

No

70 m dpl600 m dpl 400 m dpl

0,3 ha30 ha 2,5 ha

0,5m x 0,5m2m x 2m 2m x 2m

GenerativeVegetative Generative

NoYes Yes

Citeureup 1Citeureup 2

200 m dpl200 m dpl

30 ha0,5 ha

2m x 2m2m x 2m

GenerativeVegetative

YesYes

Pests of Jatropha Found in Lampung and West Java

Mealybug - Ferrisia virgata (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae) Indonesian name: kutu putih, kutu dompolan Has wide host range Becomes an important pest of jatropha

Pierce-sucking insect on leaf, young stem, shoot and petiole Affected organs become yellow, dried and fall - plant becomes partially wilt

The insect secretes honey dew; associated with fungus Known as vectors of several viruses

F. virgata Intensity4,0

Intensity (insect/leaf)

3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0South Bandar Lampung Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup Citeureup 1 2

Location

Pentatomid bug - Chrysocoris javanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)- Commonly found on castor (Ricinus communis) and jatropha - Important pest on jatropha

- Pierce-sucking insect on fruit - Affected fruit becomes dried

C. javanus Intensity1,2

Intensity (insect/plant)

1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0South Bandar Lampung Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup Citeureup 1 2

Location

Redbanded Thrips - Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Rasping-sucking insect puncture the plant cells and withdraw cell sap Commonly found in buds, flowers, or on the underside of leaves; plant becomes distorted Incites characteristic symptom: silverleaf due to their feed activity

S. rubrocinctus Intensity8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0South Bandar Lampung Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup Citeureup 1 2

Intensity (insect/leaf)

Location

S. rubrocinctus Silverleaf Symptom Intensity 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup 1 Citeureup 2

Silverleaf symptom (%)

Location

Shorthorned grasshopper - Walanga nigricornis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) Large size grasshopper

Polyphagous insect - many cropsLeaf feeder causing severe damage on plants sporadic attack on plantation

V. nigricornis Intensity 0,5Intensity (insect/plant)

0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup Citeureup 1 2

Location

Red spider mite - Tetranychus sp. (Acarina: Tetranychidae) Non insect pests (acarina) pierce sucking pest

Polypagous pest Withdraws plant sap, the mesophyll tissue collapses, causing mall chlorotic spot forms at each feeding. Distorted leaves; complete defoliation if the mites are not controlled

Tetranychus sp. Intensity1,2

Intensity (mites/leaf)

1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup Citeureup 1 2

Location

Tetranychus symptom incidence25

stunted leaf (%)

20 15 10 5 0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup Citeureup 1 2

Location

Other pestsPierce sucker: Green stink bug - Nezara viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) Rice bug - Leptocorisa oratorius (Hemiptera: Alydidae) True Bug (Coreidae: Hemiptera) Pyrrhocoreid (Pyrrhocoridae - Coleoptera)

Leafhopper - Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

Leaf feeder: Geometrid looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Limacodid caterpillar - Parasa lepida (Lepidoptera : Limacodidae) Bag moth (Lepidoptera:Psychidae) Leafminer - Liriomyza sp. (Diptera)

Long snout weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Nezara viridula

Empoasca sp.

Bag moth

Parasa lepida

Liriomyza sp.

Curculionid

Diseases of Jatropha Found in Lampung and West Java

Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas ricinicola) The bacteria infect plant primarily in vascular system: cortex, phloem or xylem

Affected leaf shows brown or yellowish spot developed into larger deep brown spot Severe infection cause leaf yellowing and early fall of the leaves Can also infect fruit

Bacterial leaf spot disease intensity

100 80Disease incidence Disease severity

percentage

60 40 20 0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup 1 Citeureup 2

Location

Leaf blight (Helminthosporium sp.) The fungi infect leaves; cause small spots at beginning; developed into larger brown spot irregular shape (blight) Severe infection cause leaf yellowing

Brown spot disease intensity

100 80percentageDisease incidence Disease severity

60 40 20 0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup 1 Citeureup 2

Location

Fruit Rot (Botrytis ricini) The fungi causes diseases in many crops Infect young flower and fruit flower and fruit

Decreases fruit yield significantly Can also infect stem, causing damping off, and die-back

Fruit rot disease intensity

100 80Disease incidence Disease severity

percentage

60 40 20 0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup 1 Citeureup 2

Location

Stem and root rot (Fusarium sp.) The fungi infects many crops Jatropha: Infect stem dry rot along the stem

Stem tissues become red then turn to black (tissues undergo necrosis) Can also infect root Plant died due to stem and root damage

Stem rot disease intensity

100 80Disease incidence Disease severity

percentage

60 40 20 0South Lampung Bandar Lampung Cigawir Ciawi Citeureup 1 Citeureup 2

Location

Other diseases Powdery mildew (Oidium sp.) : foliar disease Grey spot (Pestalotia sp.) : foliar disease Mosaic (virus) : systemic disease

THANK YOUShould there be any question, kindly address to: Dr. Dadang Email: dadangtea@ipb.ac.id Mobile phone: +62 817 724 251