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    The journal of the International Legume Society

    Issue 3 • June 2014

    The timeless chickpea Big hearts pulse within pods


  • ISSN

    2340-1559 (electronic issue)

    Quarterly publication

    January, April, July and October,

    with an open possibility of publishing additional issues

    Published by

    International Legume Society (ILS)

    Co-published by

    Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia

    CSIC, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Córdoba, Spain

    Publishing Director

    Diego Rubiales

    CSIC, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Córdoba, Spain

    Office and subscriptions

    CSIC, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture

    International Legume Society

    Apdo. 4084, 14080 Córdoba, Spain

    Phone: +34957499215 • Fax: +34957499252

    Front cover photo

    Teresa Millán


    Editorial Board


    Diego Rubiales

    Assistant Editors

    Mike Ambrose (genetic resources), Paolo Annicchiarico (lucerne),

    Birte Boelt (seed production), Beat Boller (clovers), Ousmane

    Boukar (cowpea), Judith Burstin (pea), Marina Carbonaro

    (pharmaceutical uses), Branko Šupina (non-food uses), Vuk

    Đorđeviš (soybean), Gérard Duc (faba bean), Noel Ellis (genomics),

    Sara Fondevilla (bioinformatics), Bernadette Julier (breeding),

    Branislav Kovačeviš (black locust), Kevin McPhee (genetics),

    Aleksandar Medoviš (archaeobotany), Aleksandar Mikiš (vetches),

    Teresa Millán (chickpea), Fred Muehlbauer (lentil), Ramakrishnan

    Nair (food uses), Pádraig O‟Kiely (feed uses), Dejan Pajiš

    (scientometrics), Diego Rubiales (biotic stress), Christophe Salon

    (phenomics), Marta Santalla (common bean), Petr Smýkal (wild

    relatives), Frederick L. Stoddard (abiotic stress), Wojciech Święncicki

    (lupins), Richard Thompson (Medicago truncatula), Rajeev Varshney

    (pigeon pea), Carlota Vaz Patto (vetchlings), Tom Warkentin

    (quality), Christine Watson (agronomy), Ping Wan (adzuki bean),

    Daniel Wipf (symbiosis)

    Technical Editor

    Aleksandar Mikiš

    Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia


    Legume Perspectives is an international peer-reviewed journal aiming

    to interest and inform a worldwide multidisciplinary readership on

    very different aspects of legume research and use, including genetics,

    agronomy, animal production, human nutrition and health and


    Our journal prefers review articles on different legume species and

    crops and various legume research topics. The structure of review

    articles is rather loose by not strictly following structure of original

    research articles. Please write your article so that it will assist in the

    exchange of information between people working in different expert

    fields of legume research: write to the length requested; provide a

    review of the most important information on your topic; try to

    explain specialist words, unusual jargon and acronyms; emphasise

    results and conclusions; choose titles carefully and add subheadings

    that tell readers something. Legume Perspectives prefers a clear, simple

    and comprehensive writing style that would make its articles

    interesting and useful for both academic and amateur audience.

    In case of original research articles, we strongly recommend a

    typical structure with a very concise and clear presentation of the

    obtained results and their significance.

    We do encourage you to submit either longer (1,250 words + 2

    tables, figures or photos + up to 8 references) or shorter (450 words

    + 1 table, figure, photograph or drawing + up to 4 references)

    manuscripts. The Editorial Board may allow any variation from case

    to case. Please provide also an additional abstract of between 90 and

    100 words and from 4 to 6 key words listed alphabetically.

    The manuscripts should be prepared in Microsoft Office Word,

    using Times New Roman font, 12 points size. The references should

    be listed and numbered alphabetically, following the style of any of

    the published papers in this issue. The tables may be incorporated in

    the manuscript, while figures, photographs or drawings should be

    submitted separately as jpg files of a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

    Please send your prepared manuscripts for publishing in Legume

    Perspectives to Technical Editor (

    Interested in grain, forage and other legume research?

    Join Legume Society today!

  • 3Legume Perspectives Issue 3 • June 2014


    e are pleased to

    present this issue

    of Legume


    devoted to chickpea, a highly

    valued food legume with

    continuously increasing

    international demand. The

    characteristics that make this

    legume special include high

    drought tolerance, wide

    adaptation, high nutritional

    qualities and diversified food

    uses. This issue is aimed at

    providing information on the

    recent developments in global

    chickpea research directly

    from the experts. The topics

    covered include general

    aspects of the crop, such as

    origin, phenology and

    adaptation, genomic

    resources, major abiotic and

    biotic constraints, agronomy

    and nutritional quality. In

    addition, reports from major

    chickpea growing countries on

    current status of chickpea

    production, constraints and

    major achievements have been

    provided. We hope that the

    information provided here

    would be useful to the readers

    and further stimulate interest in

    the crop and interactions

    among chickpea researchers.

    On behalf of the International

    Legume Society, we wish to

    thank all the authors for their

    valuable contributions.

    Pooran Gaur and Teresa Millán

    Managing Editors of

    Legume Perspectives issue 3



    4 Juan Gil: A good companion of Man


    5 José I. Cubero: Chickpea in history

    7 Aleksandar Mikić: Diversity of the words denoting chickpea in modern European


    8 Jens D. Berger: An evolutionary perspective on the role of phenology in the specific

    adaptation of chickpea

    12 Teresa Millán, Eva Madrid, Rajeev K. Varshney: Genomic resources in chickpea

    15 Pooran Gaur, Samineni Srinivasan, Rajeev Varshney: Drought and heat tolerance in


    18 Timothy D. Colmer, Vincent Vadez: Salt tolerance in chickpea: Towards an

    understanding of sensitivity to salinity and prospects for breeding for improved resistance

    20 Suresh Pande, Mamta Sharma: Resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer

    arietinum L.)

    23 Weidong Chen, Patricia Castro, M. Jose Cobos: Resistance to Fusarium wilt in chickpea

    25 Hari C. Sharma, Pooran M. Gaur, Samineni Srinivasan, C.L. Laxmipathi Gowda:

    Exploiting host plant resistance for pest management in chickpea

    29 Kadambot H.M. Siddique, Lakshmanan Krishnamurthy: Chickpea production technology

    33 Manu P. Gangola, Monica Båga, Pooran M. Gaur, Ravindra N. Chibbar: Chickpea –

    nutritional quality and role in alleviation of global malnourishment

    36 Julia Carreras, María José Allende, Alberto Saluzzo, Susana Avalos, Vilma Mazzuferi,

    Norma Ateca, Susana Garcia Medina, Claudio Panadero Pastrana: Chickpea crop in

    Argentina: An opportunity to diversify the national production

    39 Cecilia Baginsky G.: Chickpea: A crop of soon recovery in Chile

    41 Kristy Hobson, Ted Knights, Eric Armstrong, Michael Materne, Larn McMurray, Col

    Douglas, Ian Pritchard: An overview of chickpea breeding programs in Australia

    44 Bunyamin Tar’an: An overview of chickpea breeding program in Canada

    47 Asnake Fikre: An overview of chickpea improvement research program in Ethiopia

    50 Sushil K. Chaturvedi, Neelu Mishra, Pooran M. Gaur: An overview of chickpea breeding

    programs in India

    53 Sayyed H. Sabaghpour: An overview of chickpea breeding programs in Iran

    55 Paul K. Kimurto, Bernard Towett, Richard S. Mulwa, Nancy Njogu, Alice Kosgei, Serah

    Songok, Moses Oyier, Daniel Rutto, Paul Korir, Gangarao Rao, Said Silim, Peter Kaloki, Ruth

    Muruiki, Grace Barmao, Joseph K. Macharia: An overview of chickpea breeding programs

    in Kenya

    58 Moez Amri, Mariem Bouhadida, Mohamed H. Halila, Mohamed Kharrat: Chickpea

    cropping and breeding program: An overview on the Tunisian situation

    62 Mar Mar Win, Tun Shwe, Pooran M. Gaur: An overview of chickpea breeding

    programs in Myanmar

    65 Asghar Ali, Shahid R. Malik: An overview of chickpea breeding program in Pakistan

    69 Josefa Rubio, Teresa Millán, Juan Gil: An overview of chickpea breeding programs in


    71 Robert O. Kileo: An overview of chickpea breeding programs in Tanzania

    74 Cengiz Toker, Fatma Oncu Ceylan, Zeynep Oz