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  • Perceived Workplace Discrimination as a Mediator of the Relationship between Work

    Environment and Employee Outcomes: Does Minority Status Matter?

    by

    Nicole Ellis Jagusztyn

    A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Psychology Department of Psychology

    College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida

    Major Professor: Kristen Salomon, Ph.D. Jennifer Bosson, Ph.D. Edward Levine, Ph.D. Stephen Stark, Ph.D.

    Joseph Vandello, Ph.D.

    Date of Approval: July 12, 2010

    Keywords: ethnic differences, minority, health, stress, job attitudes, environment

    Copyright © 2010, Nicole Ellis Jagusztyn

  • Acknowledgements

    I would like to thank my major professor, Kristen Salomon, Ph.D., for the

    guidance and feedback I needed in completing this project. I would also like to thank my

    committee for providing the depth and rigor that this project needed to make a valuable

    contribution to the literature. To Dr. Thomas Bernard, thank you for agreeing to chair my

    defense on such short notice. Many thanks to my parents for supporting me through

    twenty-two long years of schooling. Pyramids took less time to build. To Jeremy

    Mackling, I bestow on you “credit” for “motivating” me.

  • i

    Table of Contents

    List of Tables iii

    Abstract

    Chapter One Introduction 1 Overview of the paper 1 Minority Group Membership 1 An Aside: Perceived Sexism/Racism and Perceived Discrimination Defined 3 The Existence of Discrimination 3 The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination 6 An Aside: Overt vs. Subtle Discrimination 7 Perceived Discrimination as a Stressor 8 The Costs of Perceived Discrimination 8 Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Health Outcomes 9 Perceived Discrimination and Physical Health Outcomes 11 Perceived Discrimination and Job Attitudes 12 Organization-Level Antecedents to Perceived Discrimination 13 Equal Employment Opportunity 14 Minority Segmentation 15 Perceived Diversity Climate 17 Instrumental and Emotional Social Support 20 Token Status 22

    Summary 26 Hypothesis 1 27 Hypothesis 2 28 Hypothesis 3 29 Hypothesis 4 30 Hypothesis 5 31 Hypothesis 6 31

    Chapter Two Method 33 Procedure 33 Participants 34 Measures 38

    Demographics 38

  • ii

    Equal Employment Opportunity 38 Perceived Minority Segmentation 39 Diversity Climate 39 Instrumental Social Support 40 Emotional Social Support 40 Token Status 41 Perceived Discrimination at work (overt) 41 Perceived Discrimination at work (subtle) 42 Every-day Perceived Discrimination 42 Physical Health 43 Psychological Health 44 Job Satisfaction 43 Organizational Commitment 43 Intention to Turnover 43

    Data Analysis 44 Chapter Three Results 48

    Analysis of Pilot Test Data 48 Analysis of Full Demonstration Data 68

    Results for Perceived Equal Employment Opportunity/ Diversity Climate 73

    Sex-Based Discrimination 73 Race-Based Discrimination 82

    Results for Minority Segmentation 92 Sex-Based Discrimination 92 Race-Based Discrimination 102

    Results for Social Support 112 Sex-Based Discrimination 112 Race-Based Discrimination 122

    Analysis of Coworker Responses 133 Chapter Four Discussion 136 Summary of Results for Equal Employment Opportunity/ Diversity Climate 136

    Summary of Results for Minority Segmentation 137 Summary of Results for Social Support 140 Sex-Based vs. Race-Based Perceived Discrimination 142 Conclusions 143 Limitations 144

    Suggestions for Future Research 146

    References 149

    Appendix A: Measures 177

  • iii

    Appendix B: Original Version of Full Demonstration Analyses 189

    About the Author End Page

  • iv

    List of Tables

    Table 1

    Comparison of Minority and Majority group Members 35

    Table 2 Group Comparison on Continuous Demographic Variables

    36

    Table 3 Group Comparison on Categorical Demographic Variables

    37

    Table 4 Item Analysis of Job Satisfaction Measure.

    49

    Table 5 Item Analysis of Organizational Commitment Measure.

    50

    Table 6 Item Analysis of SF-36 Physical Functioning Sub-scale

    51

    Table 7 Item Analysis of SF-36 Physical Role Limitations Scale

    52

    Table 8 Item Analysis of SF-36 Emotional Role Limitations Scale

    52

    Table 9 Item Analysis of the SF-36 Energy Sub-scale

    53

    Table 10 Item Analysis of the SF-36 Emotional Well-being Sub-scale

    53

    Table 11 Item Analysis of the SF-36 Social Functioning Sub-scale

    54

    Table 12 Item Analysis of the SF-36 Pain Sub-scale

    54

    Table 13 Item Analysis of the SF-36 General Health Sub-scale

    54

    Table 14 Item Analysis of the Instrumental Social Support Scale

    55

    Table 15 Item Analysis of the Emotional Social Support Scale

    55

    Table 16 Item Analysis of the Minority Segmentation Scale

    56

    Table 17 Item Analysis of the Diversity Climate Scale

    57

    Table 18 Item Analysis of the Subtle Gender Discrimination Scale

    58

    Table 19 Item Analysis of the Subtle Race Discrimination at Work Scale

    59

  • v

    Table 20 Item Analysis of the Overt Race Discrimination at Work Scale

    60

    Table 21 Item Analysis of the Overt Gender Discrimination at Work Scale

    61

    Table 22 Item Analysis of the General Every-day Race Discrimination Scale

    62

    Table 23 Item Analysis of the General Every-day Gender Discrimination

    63

    Table 24 Item Analysis of the Equal Employment Opportunity Scale

    64

    Table 25 Percentage of Tokenism within the Workplace and Work Group

    65

    Table 26 Correlations Among the Discrimination Measures in Pilot Study

    67

    Table 27 Correlations Among all Measures used in Original Analyses

    70

    Table 28 Correlations Among all Measures used in Revised Analyses

    72

    Table 29 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV= Job Satisfaction, Mod = Gender)

    74

    Table 30 Results of Simple Mediation for Men and Women (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV = Job Satisfaction)

    75

    Table 31 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV= Organizational Commitment, Mod = Gender)

    76

    Table 32 Results of Simple Mediation for Men and Women (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV = Organizational Commitment)

    76

    Table 33 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV= Intent to Turnover, Mod = Gender)

    77

    Table 34 Results of Simple Mediation for Men and Women (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV = Intent to Turnover)

    78

    Table 35 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV= Physical Health, Mod = Gender)

    79

  • vi

    Table 36 Results of Simple Mediation for Men and Women (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV = Physical Health)

    80

    Table 37 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV= Psychological Health, Mod = Gender)

    81

    Table 38 Results of Simple Mediation for Men and Women (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Sex-based Discrimination, DV = Psychological Health)

    82

    Table 39 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV= Job Satisfaction, Mod = Race)

    83

    Table 40 Results of Simple Mediation for Whites and Non-Whites (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV = Job Satisfaction)

    84

    Table 41 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV= Organizational Commitment, Mod = Race)

    85

    Table 42 Results of Simple Mediation for Whites and Non-Whites (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV = Organizational Commitment)

    86

    Table 43 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV= Intent to Turnover, Mod = Race)

    87

    Table 44 Results of Simple Mediation for Whites and Non-Whites (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV = Intent to Turnover)

    88

    Table 45 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV= Physical Health, Mod = Race)

    89

    Table 46 Results of Simple Mediation for Whites and Non-Whites (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV = Physical Health)

    90

    Table 47 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV= Psychological Health, Mod = Race)

    91

  • vii

    Table 48 Results of Simple Mediation for Whites and Non-Whites (PREDICTOR = EEODIV, Med = Race-based Discrimination, DV = Psychological Health)

    92

    Table 49 Results of Moderated Mediation (PREDICTOR= Minority Segment