Peopling North America ANTH 221: Peoples and Cultures of Mexico Kimberly Martin, Ph.D

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Transcript of Peopling North America ANTH 221: Peoples and Cultures of Mexico Kimberly Martin, Ph.D

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Peopling North AmericaANTH 221: Peoples and Cultures of MexicoKimberly Martin, Ph.D.

How We ReconstructGeography and ClimatePhysical AnthropologyGenetics (Mitochondrial DNA, Y Chromosome DNA)AnatomyArchaeologyStratigraphySeriationChemical dating methodsTechnologyLifestylesCultural AnthropologyLinguisticsGeography and ClimatePathways to the New WorldCoastal/Boat MigrationDates in South America too early for land migrationAustralia populated 40,000 YA without a land routeBeringia Land BridgeIce ages pulled water out of oceans, sea levels droppedLots of archaeological evidence in areas consistent with Beringia

Coastal Migration Routes Southeast Asian, Japanese, Polynesian and European boat building traditions going back at least as far as 20,000 years ago (Japan)Boat building materials do not surviveEvidence of coastal subsistence based on marine mammals, fishing, shell-fish, gathering rather than big game herding.

Coastal Migration RoutesFrom Southeast Asia routes north along coast and iceFrom Northern Europe (Scandanavia, Britain) to Iceland to Greenland to North AmericaClovis-Solutrean Hypothesis

CoastalMigration Routes

North PacificBefore 23,000After 15,000 YANorth AtlanticBeringia Land BridgeConnects Siberia and Alaska

McKenzie Corridor

Berengia DatesDates BCEBeringiaPacific Coastal RouteMackenzie Corridor38,000-34,000Accessible(open)OpenClosed34,000-30,000Submerged(closed)Open

Open

30,000-22,000Accessible(open)ClosedOpen

22,000-15,000Accessible(open)Open

Closed15,000-todaySubmerged(closed)Open

Open

DNAE Evidence

LGM = Last Glacial Maximum 20,000 Years Ago

A2, B2, Clb, Clc, Cld, C4c, Dl, D4h3, X2a = genetic markers that indicate a relationship with the first migrants.

A2a, D2, D2a, Cla = mutated genetic markers that evolved in North America and were carried back to Asia through back-migration.

One ancestral population between 42,000 and 21,000 YAPhysical Anthropology

The interocular distance is broad,The nasal angle is blunt rather than sharp,The nasal aperture is broad from top to bottom; The cheekbones are wide,The palate has a somewhat rounded shape,The incisors in the upper jaw are prominently shovel-shaped, No edge-on-edge incisal bite.The nasal root is prominent The nasal angle is acute.The nasal spine is short Sharp lower nasal sill with a very vague impression of bilateral gutters. The upper dental arcade is somewhat V-shaped. The incisors in the upper jaw are blade-like.Nasal root is depressed and the nasal angle is obtuse. Nasal aperture is broad from top to bottom. Lower part of the nostrils has a bilateral gutter and there is no sill. Upper dental arcade has a somewhat rectangular shape. Incisors in the upper jaw are blade-likeThe face projects forward to a mild to moderate degree. African Male Skull European Male Skull Asian Male SkullPhysical Anthropology

Blade-shaped (left) incisors Vs. shovel-shaped incisors (right)Dental Arch Variation

Some Archaeological DatesClovis Culture (tools) 11,000 YA16,500 13,000 YA Pre Clovis sites in Pennsylvania and Chili

TWO THEORIES

Short Chronology - 15,000-17,000 YALong Chronology - two waves of migration 40,000-21,000 YA w/ ancestors in South America multiple waves more recently w/ ancestors in North America

Language AffinitiesOnly One Linguistic Relationship Established at this point:

RECENT FINDING THAT THESE ARE RELATED:Ket, from western Siberia (almost extinctNa-Dene languages -- Athabascan tribes in Alaska, Tlingit and Eyak people, as well as Indian populations in western Canada and the American Southwest, including the Navajo and the Apache.

Problems with ReconstructionLack of archaeological sitesWide range of datesConflicting datesDisagreement about the validity of datesNew technology in genetics