PD Dr. Gerhard Leubner Freiburg, Germany ... Tansley Review: Finch-Savage, Leubner-Metzger (2006)

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Transcript of PD Dr. Gerhard Leubner Freiburg, Germany ... Tansley Review: Finch-Savage, Leubner-Metzger (2006)

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    PD Dr. Gerhard LeubnerAlbert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany

    http://www.seedbiology.eu

    Comparative seed biology will lead the way:

    Evolutionary conservation and biodiversity of

    physiological mechanisms that control germination

    Modern

    Seed technologies / treatments

    10000 year

    old squash seed

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    7)

    Scie

    nce

    27

    6: 9

    32

    -934

    Celery seed (days to emergence):

    Theophrastus of Eresos 39-50

    ISTA germination tests 10-28

    ISTA: Uniformity in Seed Testing

    Seed germination

    Seed dormancy

    Seed after-ripening

    Seed priming

    Seed longevity Evenari (

    1984)

    The B

    ota

    nic

    al R

    evie

    w50: 119-1

    42

  • PD Dr. Gerhard LeubnerAlbert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany

    http://www.seedbiology.eu

    Comparative seed biology will lead the way:

    Evolutionary conservation and biodiversity of

    physiological mechanisms that control germination

    Modern

    Seed technologies / treatments

    ISTA: Uniformity in Seed Testing

    Julius Sachs Friedrich Nobbe

    ISSS? ISTA?19th-II and 20th-I

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  • PD Dr. Gerhard LeubnerAlbert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany

    http://www.seedbiology.eu

    Comparative seed biology will lead the way:

    Evolutionary conservation and biodiversity of

    physiological mechanisms that control germination

    Modern

    Seed technologies / treatments

    ISTA: Uniformity in Seed Testing

    Plant hormone ethylene as seed vigor marker

    Importance to consider specific seed tissues

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  • PD Dr. Gerhard LeubnerAlbert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany

    http://www.seedbiology.eu

    Comparative seed biology will lead the way:

    Evolutionary conservation and biodiversity of

    physiological mechanisms that control germination

    Modern

    Seed technologies / treatments

    ISTA: Uniformity in Seed Testing

    Distinct effects of plant hormone ethylene on

    seed germination and seedling establishment

    Kucera, Tintelnot, Leubner-Metzger,

    unpublished (2004)

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  • PD Dr. Gerhard LeubnerAlbert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Germany

    http://www.seedbiology.eu

    Comparative seed biology will lead the way:

    Evolutionary conservation and biodiversity of

    physiological mechanisms that control germination

    Modern

    Seed technologies / treatments

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    ISTA: Uniformity in Seed Testing

    ABA-ethylene antagonism: Abscisic acid (ABA) Ethylene (precursor ACC) Pericarp (Fruit coat)Importance of natural +artificial seed covers!

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  • 1. Evolution of seed quality from MYA until todayK

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    MYA=

    Million

    Years

    Ago

  • 1. Evolution of seed quality from MYA until todayK

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    2010)

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    al 6

    1: 9

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    MYA=

    Million

    Years

    Ago

  • 1. Evolution of seed quality from MYA until todayK

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    ke (

    2010)

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    MYA=

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    Years

    Ago

  • 1. Evolution of seed quality from MYA until today

    Importance of seed tissue interactions in germination control!

    Origin of seed habit diversity of angiosperm seed mechanismsTansley Review: Linkies et al. (2010) The evolution of seeds. New Phytologist 186: 817-831

  • 2. Mechanisms of germination: Lettuce as example

    Argyris et al. (2008) Plant Physiology 148: 926947 - Wang, Leubner (unpub., 2009)

    Tansley Review: Finch-Savage, Leubner-Metzger (2006) New Phytologist 171: 501-523

    Lactuca sativa (Asteraceae)

  • 2. Mechanisms of germination: Lettuce as example

    (2) Seedling establishment:

    Distinct developmental and molecular

    regulatory program ( seed germination)!

    (1) Seed germination:

    Endosperm weakening +

    embryo growth potential!

    Argyris et al. (2008) Plant Physiology 148: 926947 - Wang, Leubner (unpub., 2009)

    Tansley Review: Finch-Savage, Leubner-Metzger (2006) New Phytologist 171: 501-523

    Lactuca sativa (Asteraceae)

  • 2. Mechanisms of germination: Seed tissue interactions

    Mechanical restraint, e.g. inhibition of endosperm weakening

    Prevention of inhibitor leakage, e.g. abscisic acid (ABA)

    Interference with water uptake or gas exchange, e.g. O2 (sugar beet pericarp)*

    Gibberellin (GA) - Abscisic acid (ABA) antagonism:

    Endosperm weakening and embryo growth potential!

    Ethylene - ABA antagonism: Ethylene promotes weakening!**

    *Sugarbeet: Hermann et al. (2007) Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 3047-3060

    **Brassicaceae endosperm weakening: Linkies et al. (2009) Plant Cell 21: 3803-3822

  • 2. Mechanisms of germination: Seed tissue interactions

    Mechanical restraint, e.g. inhibition of endosperm weakening

    Prevention of inhibitor leakage, e.g. abscisic acid (ABA)

    Interference with water uptake or gas exchange, e.g. O2 (sugar beet pericarp)

    Thermoinhibition lettuce: narrow temperature causes switch

    at high temperature ABA up, GA down, ethylene down

    Thermotolerance lettuce: Natural variation temperature switch

    QTL for lettuce thermotolerance QTG for ABA production

    Argyris et al. (2008) Plant Physiology 148: 926947 (lab of Kent Bradford, UC Davis)

  • 2. Mechanisms of germination: Seed technology interactions

    Mechanical restraint, e.g. inhibition of endosperm weakening

    Prevention of inhibitor leakage, e.g. abscisic acid (ABA)

    Interference with water uptake or gas exchange, e.g. O2 (sugar beet pericarp)*

    Seed biotechnologies and enhancements improve seed quality:

    Seed priming, seed coating/pelleting (artificial envelopes), ...

    Seed treatments: Fungi-, Insect-, Nematicides, Plant hormones

    *Sugarbeet: Hermann et al. (2007) Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 3047-3060

    Argyris et al. (2008) Plant Physiology 148: 926947 (lab of Kent Bradford, UC Davis)

  • 2. Mechanisms of germination: Lettuce seedling uniformity

    SEST2009 - 5th International Symposium on "Seed, Transplant and Stand Establishment of

    Horticultural Crops.", Sept./Oct. 2009, Murcia - Almeria, Spain - Foto: Gerhard Leubner

  • Tansley Review: Finch-Savage, Leubner-Metzger (2006) New Phytologist 171: 501-523

    Endosperm weakening studied in Asterales (lettuce), Solanales (tomato, tobacco)

    Two-step germination Nicotiana spp.: Testa rupture Endosperm rupture

    3. Hormonal control endosperm rupture: Solanaceae

    Cotyledons

    Testa (seed coat)

    Embryo

    Non-micropylarendosperm

    EndospermMicropylarendosperm

    Radicle

    Nicotiana

    (tobacco)

    Solanaceae

  • Tansley Review: Finch-Savage, Leubner-Metzger (2006) New Phytologist 171: 501-523

    Endosperm weakening studied in Asterales (lettuce), Solanales (tomato, tobacco)

    Two-step germination Nicotiana spp.: Testa rupture Endosperm rupture

    3. Hormonal control endosperm rupture: Solanaceae

  • 4. Endosperm in mature

    seeds: Evolution and

    functions

    Martins tree of structural

    seed types (1946) based on

    embryo-endosperm morphology

    of > 1287 mature seedsMartin (1946), Baskin and Baskin (2004)

    Darwins

    tree of life

    (1837)

    Darwins

    evidence:

    Structure

  • Trollius (Ranunculaceae)

    Lactuca (Asteraceae) C GA

    Iris (Iridaceae) C

    Triticum (Poaceae) C

    Chenopodium (Amaranthaceae)

    Syringa, Fraxinus (Oleaceae) C GA

    Solanoideae:

    Lycopersicon

    C GA ABA (?)

    Capsicum C GA

    Datura, Solanum

    Cestroideae:

    Nicotiana, Petunia

    Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) C (perisperm)

    Coffea (Rubiaceae) C GA ABA (biphasic)

    Apium (Apiaceae)

    Puncture force:C = decrease (control)

    GA = GA promotes

    ABA = ABA inhibits

    Solanaceae: Solanoideae, Cestroideae

    Lepidium (Brassicaceae) C GA Eth