PCIA WGIPP 2011_Peace & Conflict Impact Assessment for Waterton Glacier International Peace Park

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Transcript of PCIA WGIPP 2011_Peace & Conflict Impact Assessment for Waterton Glacier International Peace Park

  • Megan GreeleyProgram Specialist

    Todd WaltersExecutive Director

    todd@peaceparkexpeditions.orgmegan@peaceparkexpeditions.org

    Cory WilsonBrand Director

    cory@thecollaborative.net

    peaceparkexpeditions.org

    Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park: Peace & Conflict Impact Assessment

    Expedition

    October 2010

    PCIA Publication

    October 2011

    Documentary Release

    January 2011

    Edition 1 2011.10

  • Contents

    Executive Summary

    Introduction

    Context

    Approach

    Findings

    Core Conflict Drivers

    Mitigating Factors

    Additional Opportunities

    Challenges

    Conclusion

    Bibliography

    Annex

    Stakeholder Profile

    Conflict Profile

    Peace Profile

    Documentary Profile

    Resources

    EIA Worksheet

    PCIA Worksheet

    Acknowledgements

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  • 5Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment

    Edition 1 | October 2011

    Executive Summary1

    In October 2010, International Peace Park Expeditions (IPPE)

    conducted an Exploratory Expedition in Waterton-Glacier

    International Peace Park (WGIPP), with funding from the

    University of Vermonts Institute for Environmental Diplomacy

    & Security (IEDS). The purpose of the WGIPP Exploratory

    Expedition was to examine the relationship between the

    Blackfeet Confederacy and WGIPP in preparation for IPPEs

    experiential peacebuilding expedition with youth living in

    communities surrounding WGIPP. The secondary purpose

    was to create a documentary delineating the attitudes and

    perspectives surrounding transboundary issues occurring

    within WGIPP and the surrounding communities.

    IPPE incorporated a Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment

    (PCIA) into the WGIPP Exploratory Expedition to help evaluate

    the potential peace-enhancing or peace-reducing value01 of an

    Experiential Peacebuilding Expedition in WGIPP. Through the

    process of uncovering conflict drivers (actions perpetuating

    conflicts) and mitigating factors (actors mobilizing resiliencies)

    that exist in and around WGIPP, IPPE designs programs that

    help strengthen ongoing peacebuilding efforts and explore

    new mitigating factors with stakeholders in and around

    WGIPP. Moreover, organizations implementing programs and

    researchers conducting studies in and around WGIPP, can use

    the PCIA resources developed by IPPE to better understand

    how programs impact or are impacted by the conflicts and

    the environment in and around WGIPP.

    01 Hammill, A. and Charles Besanon. 2007. Measuring Peace Park Performance: Definitions and Experiences, in

    Saleem H. Ali, ed., Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution, Cambridge: The MIT Press: 31.

    J. Todd WaltersExecutive Director

    International Peace Park Expeditions

    Executive Summary1

  • 6Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment

    Edition 1 | October 2011

    Introduction2

    For the purposes of this report, peace parks can be de-fined

    as transboundary protected areas that are formally dedicated

    to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity,

    the preservation of natural and cultural resources, and to the

    protection of peace and cooperation.02

    WGIPP became the worlds first peace park in 1932 after Rotarian

    members successfully lobbied the US and Canadian governments

    to link Waterton Lakes National Park in Alberta, Canada with

    Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. Located in the center

    of the Crown of the Continent ecosystem, WGIPP is one of the

    most unique ecosystems in North America. In 1995, UNESCO

    designated WGIPP as a World Heritage site03 for having more

    than 1,200 species of vascular plants, 70 species of mammals,

    including all of North Americas native carnivores, 270 species of

    birds and 25 species of fish among an aquatic life richer than any

    place in the Rockies between the Yukon and Mexico.04 However,

    the effects of global climate change species extirpation, species

    extinction, habitat fragmentation, lost business revenue and

    livelihoods are threatening to destroy this vital ecosystem, as

    well as the cultural identity of the original human inhabitants of

    the area.

    In addition to the environmental conflict, this Park is also the

    central focus of a one hundred year structural conflict over land

    dispossession between the U.S./Canadian governments and the

    four tribes of the Blackfeet Confederacy - the Piikani, Siksiska

    and Blood/Kainai Nations in Alberta and the Blackfeet Nation in

    Montana.05

    02 Ali, Saleem H. 2007. Introduction: A Natural Connection between Ecology and

    Peace? in Saleem H. Ali, ed., Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution, Cam-

    bridge: The MIT Press: 2.

    03 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2005.

    World Heritage. http://www. whc.unesco.org/.

    04 P. R. Dingwall, K. Rao. 2009. Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park: Report of

    the Reactive Monitoring Mission, UNESCO World Heritage Centre/International Union for

    Conservation of Nature

    05 National Geographic Society. 2008. Long the great warriors of the eastern slopes, the

    Blackfoot Confederacy includes the Piikani, Siksiska and Blood/Kainai Nations in Alberta

    and the Blackfeet Nation in Montana. On the west side are the mountain bands of the

    Historically, the establishment of national parks in both countries

    took away land rights and implemented harsh policies toward

    original inhabitants.06 The land dispossession, enforcement of

    the artificial U.S./Canadian border, and subsequent assimilation

    techniques imposed by the U.S. and Canadian Governments

    segmented the cultural identity of the Blackfeet Confederacy

    while generating animosity between the Blackfeet Confederacy

    and the U.S./Canadian Governments that would be passed down

    through generations.

    Although both the environmental and structural conflicts in and

    around WGIPP are not overtly violent, the former exacerbates

    the latter causing the latent cultural degradation of the Blackfeet

    peoples identity, which is equally damaging. In the words

    of a Blackfeet Chief, recounted by Lea Whitford, Blackfeet

    Department Chair at the Blackfeet Community College, To take

    this land from me is like chopping off my head.07

    Ktunaxa Nation in British Columbia and the Ksanka/Kootenai in Montana. Farther south, the

    Interior Salish people, including the Bitterroot Salish and Pend dOreille, are closely related

    to other Salish-speaking nations in British Columbia, Washington, and Idaho. http://visitmt.

    com/Images/cofc/CoCHistLowResFinal.pdf

    06 Spence, M.D. 2000. Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of

    the National Parks. New York: Oxford University Press.

    07 Lea Whitford Interview, October 13, 2010

    Thirty thirty swath border cut at 49th Parallel U.S./Canadian border. Flags and Blackfeet art installation at U.S./Canadian Border

    ContextA

  • 7Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment

    Edition 1 | October 2011

    Introduction2

    OverviewOver the course of eight days in Montana and Alberta, in WGIPP and

    the surrounding buffer communities, IPPE conducted thirteen interviews

    with a variety of stakeholders exploring their relationship to WGIPP

    and transboundary issues. IPPE staff volunteered their time and energy

    before, during and after the Exploratory Expedition to complete the

    research, writing and production of the complementary educational

    tools: this PCIA report and the accompanying documentary video. The

    budget covered only travel expenses. As such, we recognize its limitations

    as a snapshot in time, and that we view this as a living document to

    be continually updated over time to include additional stakeholder

    perspectives, and evolving social, cultural, economic and political context.

    The complementary PCIA report and documentary video allow our work

    to reach a broad audience with multiple learning styles, harness the power

    of social media, provide educational tools for the classrooms, provide

    professional tools for the implementation and evaluation of projects within

    WGIPP and the surrounding buffer communities. We look forward to the

    opportunity to update this edition in the future with the help a growing

    stakeholder community.

    ApproachB

    Transcending Boundaries: Perspectives from Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park

    Montana, United States / Alberta, Canada

    Documentary / 13:00

    http://vimeo.com/ippe/transcendingboundaries-wgipp

    Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park

    Montana, United States / Alberta, Canada

    13 Interviews / 8 Days

    http://peaceparkexpeditions.org/public/ippe_pcia_wgipp_11ed01.pdf

  • 8Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment

    Edition 1 | October 2011