Patentabilidad Manual USPTO

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  • Chapter 2100 Patentability

    Patent Examination Process2103Patentable Subject Matter2104Patentable Subject Matter LivingSubject Matter

    2105

    Patent Subject Matter Eligibility2106Subject Matter Eligibility Analysis ofProcess Claims Involving Laws of Nature

    2106.01

    Guidelines for Examination of Applicationsfor Compliance with the UtilityRequirement

    2107

    General Principles Governing UtilityRejections

    2107.01

    Procedural Considerations Related toRejections for Lack of Utility

    2107.02

    Special Considerations for AssertedTherapeutic or Pharmacological Utilities

    2107.03

    Claim Interpretation; Broadest ReasonableInterpretation

    2111

    Plain Meaning2111.01Effect of Preamble2111.02Transitional Phrases2111.03Adapted to, Adapted for, Wherein,and Whereby Clauses

    2111.04

    Functional and Nonfunctional DescriptiveMaterial

    2111.05

    Requirements of Rejection Based onInherency; Burden of Proof

    2112

    Composition, Product, and ApparatusClaims

    2112.01

    Process Claims2112.02Product-by-Process Claims2113Apparatus and Article Claims Functional Language

    2114

    Material or Article Worked Upon byApparatus

    2115

    Material Manipulated in Process2116Novel, Unobvious Starting Material orEnd Product

    2116.01

    Prior Art; General Level of OperabilityRequired to Make a Prima Facie Case

    2121

    Use of Prior Art in Rejections WhereOperability Is in Question

    2121.01

    Compounds and Compositions WhatConstitutes Enabling Prior Art

    2121.02

    Plant Genetics What ConstitutesEnabling Prior Art

    2121.03

    Apparatus and Articles WhatConstitutes Enabling Prior Art

    2121.04

    Discussion of Utility in the Prior Art2122Rejection Over Prior Arts BroadDisclosure Instead of PreferredEmbodiments

    2123

    Exception to the Rule That the CriticalReference Date Must Precede the FilingDate

    2124

    Tax Strategies Deemed Within the PriorArt

    2124.01

    Drawings as Prior Art2125Availability of a Document as a Patentfor Purposes of Rejection Under 35 U.S.C.102(a), (b), and (d)

    2126

    Date of Availability of a Patent as aReference

    2126.01

    Scope of References Disclosure WhichCan Be Used to Reject Claims When the

    2126.02

    Reference Is a Patent but Not aPublication

    Domestic and Foreign Patent Applicationsas Prior Art

    2127

    Printed Publications as Prior Art2128Level of Public Accessibility Required2128.01Date Publication Is Available as aReference

    2128.02

    Admissions as Prior Art2129Anticipation Application of 35 U.S.C.102(a), (b), and (e)

    2131

    Multiple Reference 35 U.S.C. 102Rejections

    2131.01

    Genus-Species Situations2131.02Anticipation of Ranges2131.03Secondary Considerations2131.04Nonanalogous or Disparaging Prior Art2131.05

    35 U.S.C. 102(a)2132Publications as 35 U.S.C. 102(a) PriorArt

    2132.01

    35 U.S.C. 102(b)2133Rejections of Continuation-In-Part (CIP)Applications

    2133.01

    Rejections Based on Publications andPatents

    2133.02

    Rejections Based on Public Use or OnSale

    2133.03

    35 U.S.C. 102(c)213435 U.S.C. 102(d)2135

    The Four Requirements of 35 U.S.C.102(d)

    2135.01

    35 U.S.C. 102(e)2136Status of U.S. Application as a Reference2136.01Content of the Prior Art AvailableAgainst the Claims

    2136.02

    Critical Reference Date2136.03Different Inventive Entity; Meaning ofBy Another

    2136.04

    Overcoming a Rejection Under 35 U.S.C.102(e)

    2136.05

    35 U.S.C. 102(f)2137Inventorship2137.01Applicability of 35 U.S.C. 103(c)2137.02

    35 U.S.C. 102(g)2138Interference Practice2138.01

    Rev. 9, August 20122100-1

  • The Invention Was Made in ThisCountry

    2138.02

    By Another Who Has Not Abandoned,Suppressed, or Concealed It

    2138.03

    Conception2138.04Reduction to Practice2138.05Reasonable Diligence2138.06

    Examination Guidelines for DeterminingObviousness Under 35 U.S.C. 103

    2141

    Scope and Content of the Prior Art2141.01Differences Between Prior Art andClaimed Invention

    2141.02

    Level of Ordinary Skill in the Art2141.03Legal Concept of Prima Facie Obviousness2142Examples of Basic Requirements of a PrimaFacie Case of Obviousness

    2143

    Suggestion or Motivation To Modify theReferences

    2143.01

    Reasonable Expectation of Success IsRequired

    2143.02

    All Claim Limitations Must BeConsidered>

    2143.03

    Supporting a Rejection Under 35 U.S.C.103

    2144

    Implicit Disclosure2144.01Reliance on Scientific Theory2144.02Reliance on Common Knowledge in theArt or Well Known Prior Art

    2144.03

    Legal Precedent as Source of SupportingRationale

    2144.04

    Obviousness of Ranges2144.05Art Recognized Equivalence for the SamePurpose

    2144.06

    Art Recognized Suitability for anIntended Purpose

    2144.07

    Obviousness of Species When Prior ArtTeaches Genus

    2144.08

    Close Structural Similarity BetweenChemical Compounds (Homologs,Analogues, Isomers)

    2144.09

    Consideration of Applicants RebuttalArguments

    2145

    35 U.S.C. 103(c)2146Three Separate Requirements forSpecification Under 35 U.S.C. 112, FirstParagraph

    2161

    Computer Programming and 35 U.S.C.112, First Paragraph

    2161.01

    Policy Underlying 35 U.S.C. 112, FirstParagraph

    2162

    Guidelines for the Examination of PatentApplications Under the 35 U.S.C. 112, para.1, Written Description Requirement

    2163

    Support for the Claimed Subject Matterin Disclosure

    2163.01

    Standard for Determining ComplianceWith the Written DescriptionRequirement

    2163.02

    Typical Circumstances Where AdequateWritten Description Issue Arises

    2163.03

    Burden on the Examiner with Regard tothe Written Description Requirement

    2163.04

    Changes to the Scope of Claims2163.05Relationship of Written DescriptionRequirement to New Matter

    2163.06

    Amendments to Application Which AreSupported in the Original Description

    2163.07

    The Enablement Requirement2164Test of Enablement2164.01Working Example2164.02Relationship of Predictability of the Artand the Enablement Requirement

    2164.03

    Burden on the Examiner Under theEnablement Requirement

    2164.04

    Determination of Enablement Based onEvidence as a Whole

    2164.05

    Quantity of Experimentation2164.06Relationship of Enablement Requirementto Utility Requirement of 35 U.S.C. 101

    2164.07

    Enablement Commensurate in ScopeWith the Claims

    2164.08

    The Best Mode Requirement2165Considerations Relevant to Best Mode2165.01Best Mode Requirement Compared toEnablement Requirement

    2165.02

    Requirements for Rejection for Lack ofBest Mode

    2165.03

    Examples of Evidence of Concealment2165.04Two Separate Requirements for ClaimsUnder 35 U.S.C. 112, Second Paragraph

    2171

    Subject Matter Which Applicants Regardas Their Invention

    2172

    Unclaimed Essential Matter2172.01Claims Must Particularly Point Out andDistinctly Claim the Invention

    2173

    Interpreting the Claims2173.01Determining Whether Claim Languageis Definite

    2173.02

    Correspondence Between Specificationand Claims

    2173.03

    Breadth Is Not Indefiniteness2173.04Specific Topics Related to Issues Under35 U.S.C. 112, Second Paragraph

    2173.05

    Practice Compact Prosecution2173.06Relationship Between the Requirements ofthe First and Second Paragraphs of 35U.S.C. 112

    2174

    Identifying a 35 U.S.C. 112, SixthParagraph Limitation

    2181

    Scope of the Search and Identification ofthe Prior Art

    2182

    2100-2Rev. 9, August 2012

    MANUAL OF PATENT EXAMINING PROCEDURE

  • Making a Prima Facie Case of Equivalence2183Determining Whether an Applicant HasMet the Burden of Proving NonequivalenceAfter a Prima Facie Case Is Made

    2184

    Related Issues Under 35 U.S.C. 112, Firstor Second Paragraphs

    2185

    Relationship to the Doctrine of Equivalents2186Prosecution Laches2190

    >

    2103 Patent Examination Process [R-9]

    I. DETERMINE WHAT APPLICANT HASINVENTED AND IS SEEKING TO PATENT

    It is essential that patent applicants obtain a prompt yetcomplete examination of their applications. Under theprinciples of compact prosecution, each claim should bereviewed for compliance with every statutory requirementfor patentability in the initial review of the application,even if one or more claims are found to be deficient withrespect to some statutory requirement. Thus, USPTOpersonnel should state all reasons and bases for rejectingclaims in the first Office action. Deficiencies should beexplained clearly, particularly when they serve as a basisfor a rejection. Whenever practicable, USPTO personnelshould indicate how rejections may be overcome and howproblems may be resolved. A failure to follow thisapproach can lead to unnecessary delays in the prosecutionof the application.

    Prior to focusing on specific statutory requirements,USPTO personnel must begin examination by determiningwhat, precisely, the applicant has invented and is seekingto patent, and how the claims relate to and define thatinvention. USPTO personnel will review the completespecification, including the detailed description of theinvention, any specific embodiments that have beendisclosed, the claims and any specific, substantial, andcredible utilities that have been asserted for the invention.

    After obtaining an understanding of what applicantinvented, the examiner will conduct a search of the priorart and determine whether the invention as claimedcomplies with all statutory requirements.

    A. Identify and Understand Any Utility for theInvention