Patanjal Singh Chandel

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    STAIN BLOCKING

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    STAIN BLOCKING

    By- - Mukesh Kumar

    &

    Arvind Devashish Toppo

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    Question ?

    What is stain ?

    How does it come ?

    How can we remove this ?

    What are the principle involve in

    removing this ?

    .

    STAIN BLOCKING

    ?

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    INTRODUCTION

    Stains are ugly looking colour patches which destroy the

    beauty of textile material.

    It reduce the aesthetic & economical value of textile

    material, hence it must be removed.

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    Type of stains

    based on appearance

    absorbed stains ( penetrate into the fabric)

    built up stains ( deposit on the surface )

    compound stains ( absorbed + built )

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    absorbed stains ( penetrate into the fabric)

    Cloth

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    Yarn of the fabric

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    built up stains ( deposit on the surface )

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    Compound stains ( absorbed + built )

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    Based on groups :-

    coarser particulates

    or non acid dye

    colorants in a water

    finer size particulates

    or natural or synthetic

    colourant in waste

    contain acid dyes as a

    principle colour body

    bleaches or oxidizing

    agents usually leaving

    a light coloured spot

    e.g.

    e.g.

    e.g.

    e.g.

    beer, blood, nail polish ,

    cooking oil

    oil paint, red wine, and

    egg

    cough syrup,

    gelatin

    shoe

    dye ,

    hair dye

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    Stain repellant & Stain release finish

    should ---

    Either create a repulsion between Fabric &

    staining substance thus preventing stain.

    Or By weakening the bonding between fabric &

    staining substance. Hence, allowing easier

    removal of stains during domestic wash.

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    PRINCIPLE OF STAIN REPELLANT FINISH

    Reduce the surface energy of the fibre to such anextent that both aqueous and oily substance(polar ornon-polar liquids) are repelled.

    making the fabric surface difficult to wet.

    modifying fibre surface by creating -ve charge, whichwill repel anionic acid colourants used in the drinks.

    treatment can block the charged protonated aminegroup in the fibre and thus achieve repulsion ofanionic stains.to block sides for the adherence of the contaminants.

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    METHODS OF STAIN REMOVAL :-

    1. lubrication :- for the insoluble matter asgraphite & pigments .

    Glycerin, Vaseline, and benzene soap is used forremoving of stain.

    2. solvent action :- dry and wet solvent is used.

    3. mechanical action :- brush, water gun is used.

    4. digestion :- used of enzymes.

    5. chemical action :- by using of some chemicals.

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    CHEMICAL ACTION :-

    1. fluorochemicals

    2 . lanashield

    3. sulphonated groups containing compounds

    4. hybrid co-polymers

    5. synthetic tanning agents called syntans

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    FLOUROCHEMICALS

    reduce the surface energy

    enhance water & oil based stain resistance

    Mechanism :-The prefluronated sides chains of polyacryalate

    are oriented to point directly away from the fibre

    surface and hence the

    (CF2)n(CF3) terminal groups form a lowenergy repellant surface.

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    Str.

    Surface energy:-

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    1- The perfuroalkyl group are responsible for

    water proofing, oil, proofing and dirt repellent.

    2 - A spacer provided the required molecular

    mobility so that the substance is soluble or

    emulsified.

    3- Anchoring group guarantee permanence by

    mean of chemical, physical, cross linking bonding.

    F(CF2CF2)n

    1 2 3

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    Water & oil repellency by fluoric

    chemical.

    TEXTILE SURFACE

    F F

    F

    F

    F

    F

    F

    F

    FF

    FF

    FF

    F

    F

    FF

    F

    F F

    F FF

    F

    F

    FF

    F

    F

    FF

    FF

    F

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    Effect ofNo. of washes on water and oil

    repellency of a fluorochemical finished textile

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    LANASHIELD:-

    used for wool or wool blends

    provide a durable resistance of wide range of

    colored anionic stains from soft drinks, cordials

    etc does not cause yellowing and is durable to

    shampooing.

    RECEIPE :-

    liquor ratios as high as 1:20. applied to loose stock or yarn in the dyebath

    pH 3 to 4 at temperatures of between 60oC and

    80C for 15 to 30 minutes.

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    PERFOMANCE

    Lanashields performance is achieved without the

    use of an expensive and environmentally

    sensitive fluorochemical treatment, as used in

    conventional nylon stain-block finishing.While

    the use of a fluorochemical will give additional

    protection against oil-based stains, many such

    treatments are not durable to wear.

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    SULPHONATED GROUPS CONTAINING

    COMPOUNDS

    It makes a covalent bond with the wool fibre and

    block the active sites for further any bond

    formation with the stains.

    Fibre reactiveDCT

    (di chloro tri azine)compoundis used, which contain sulphonated groups as a

    stain blocking agents.

    sulphonated aromatic formaldehyde

    condensation compounds are also used.

    str.-

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    HYBRID CO-POLYMERS

    used for permanent stain blocking

    hybrid co-polymer=fluorine based hydrophobic

    +hydrophilic blocks

    hydrophilic in nature when it is wet. Hydrophilicblocks swell and reverse the interfacial

    characteristics of the surface yielding the

    hydrophilic surface, hence stain removes.

    hydrophobic in nature when it is dry.T

    hehydrophilic blocks are shielded by the flurocarbon

    segments.

    when again dried, Re-orientation of co-polymer

    occurs.

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    Dual action by the surface:-

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    Testing for the stain resistance :-

    The two most commonly used test methods are

    1st - the AATCCTestMethod 175 - 2003 (StainResistance Pile Floor Coverings)

    &

    2nd - IWS/WNZTM 282 (TestMethod for

    Determining the

    Staining

    Propensity of

    TextileFloor Coverings)

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    THANKSTHANKS

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    For further study see:-

    Textile Chemicals (2 A-1463)

    Hand book of fibre finish(2 C-1389)

    Manual Technology (2 F-1295)

    Advance in wool technology(1C-2420) Encyclopedia (1D-1467)