Part II - Oregon State U · PDF fileLactose Lactase Galactose Glucose Reduced Quantities in...

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Transcript of Part II - Oregon State U · PDF fileLactose Lactase Galactose Glucose Reduced Quantities in...

  • BiochemistryofCarbohydratesPartII

    Dr.KevinAhern

  • Glycolysis Summary

    Glucose + 2 ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD+

    Yields

    2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O

  • Glycolysis Fermentation in Yeast/Bacteria

    Glucose

    GA3P

    NADH + H+

    NAD+

    1,3 BPG

    Pyruvate (PYR)

    O2 Helps to Make NAD+

    In Absence of Oxygen

    Product of Process

    X

  • Glycolysis Fermentation in Yeast/Bacteria

  • Glycolysis Fermentation in Animals

    Glucose

    GA3P

    NADH + H+

    NAD+

    1,3 BPG

    Pyruvate (PYR)

    Product of Process

    XO2 Helps to Make NAD+

  • Glycolysis Fermentation in Animals

  • Glycolysis Fates of Pyruvate

    Pyruvate Not an End Point Important for Amino Acids,Energy, Fermentation

  • Glycolysis Metabolism of Other Sugars - Galactose

  • Glycolysis Metabolism of Other Sugars - Galactose

    Lactose

    Lactase

    Galactose Glucose

    Reduced Quantities in Adults Leads to Lactose Intolerance

  • Glycolysis Metabolism of Other Sugars - Fructose

    Fructose Fructose-1-Phosphate (F1P)

    Fructokinase

    F1P DHAP + Glyceraldehyde

    Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate

    Fructoaldolase

    To Glycolysis

  • Glycolysis Metabolism of Other Sugars - Fructose

    Fructose

    F1P

    DHAP + GA3P

    Regulatory Enzyme Bypassed

    Regulatory Enzyme Bypassed

    Excess Pyruvate?

  • Gluconeogenesis Synthesis of Glucose

    Important for Regulating Blood Glucose Reactions in Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion, Endoplasmic Reticulum In the Body - Liver and Kidney

  • Gluconeogenesis Synthesis of Glucose

    Four Reactions in Gluconeogenesis Replace Three Reactions in Glycolysis

    All Other Reactions are Simply the Reverse of Glycolysis Reactions

    Two Pyruvates Needed for Each Glucose

  • Gluconeogenesis Synthesis of Glucose (Hexokinase)

    (PFK)

    G6Pase

    F1,6BPase

    (Pyruvate Kinase)

    PEPCK

    Pyruvate Carboxylase

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Glucose

    G6P

    F6P

    F1,6BP

    DHAP + G3P

    GA3P

    1,3 BPG

    3-PG

    2-PG

    PEP

    Pyr

    1. Hexokinase

    2. Phosphoglucoisomerase

    3. PFK1

    4. Aldolase

    5. Triose Phosphate Isomerase

    6. GA3PDH

    7. Phosphoglycerate Kinase

    8. Phosphoglycerate Mutase

    9. Enolase

    10. Pyruvate Kinase

    11. Glucose-6-Phosphatase

    10. Phosphoglucoisomerase

    9. F1,6 Bisphosphatase

    8. Aldolase

    7. Triose Phosphate Isomerase

    6. GA3PDH

    5. Phosphoglycerate Kinase

    4. Phosphoglycerate Mutase

    3. Enolase

    2. PEPCK 1. Pyruvate Carboxylase

    Run as Reverse of Glycolysis Reactions

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Reaction #1 Step 1 of Bypassing Pyruvate Kinase Occurs in Mitochondrion

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Pyruvate (Pyr)

    Oxaloacetate (OAA)

    Pyruvate Carboxylase

    Reaction #1 Step 1 of Bypassing Pyruvate Kinase Occurs in Mitochondrion

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Biotin Carrying CO2

    CO2

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Reaction #2 Occurs in Mitochondrion Second Triphosphate Necessary

    Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK)

    Oxaloacetate (OAA)

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphatase (FBPase)

    Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate (F1,6BP)

    Fructose 6 Phosphate (F6P)

    Glycolysis Enzyme Required ATP

    Reaction # 9 of Gluconeogenesis Not the Reversal of the PFK Reaction Energy Realized by Not Regenerating ATP

  • Gluconeogenesis Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

    Reaction # 11 of Gluconeogenesis Not the Reversal of the Hexokinase Reaction Energy Realized by Not Regenerating ATP Occurs in Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Glucose 6 Phosphate (G6P) Glucose

    Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase)

    Glycolysis Enzyme Required ATP

  • GluconeogenesisandGlycolysis Regulation

    GlycolysisGlucose + 2 ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD+

    Yields 2 Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O

    Gluconeogenesis2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 4 ATP + 2 GTP

    Yields Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 4 ADP + 2 GDP + 6 Pi

    Gluconeogenesis Requires More Energy Than Glycolysis Generates Futile Cycle Results if Both Running Simultaneously

    ATP/GTP Burned, Nothing but Heat Produced

  • GluconeogenesisandGlycolysis Regulation

  • GluconeogenesisandGlycolysis Regulation

    Glycolysis

    Gluconeogenesis

  • GluconeogenesisandGlycolysis Regulation

    Glycolysis Hexokinase - G6P (-)

    PFK - AMP (+), ATP (-), F2,6BP (++) Pyruvate Kinase - Alanine (-), ATP (-), F1,6BP (+)

    Gluconeogenesis FBPase - Citrate (+), AMP (-), F2,6BP (- -)

    PEPCK - ADP (-) Pyruvate Carboxylase - ADP (-), Acetyl-CoA (+)

    Reciprocal Regulation

    Low Energy High Energy

    Other

    F2,6BP is Made Upon Insulin Stimulation - Favors Glycolysis F2,6BP is Broken Down Upon Glucagon Stimulation - Favors Gluconeogenesis

  • GluconeogenesisandGlycolysis Regulation

  • CoriCycle

  • MetabolicMelody

    Gluconeogenesisto the tune of "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious"

    Copyright by Kevin Ahern

    When cells have lots of ATP and NADH tooThey strive to store this energy as sugar yes they do

    Inside of mitochondria they start with pyruvate(slow) Carboxylating it to make oxaloacetate

    Oh gluconeogenesis is so exhilarating Memorizing it can really be exasperating

    Liver cells require it so theres no need for debatingGluconeogenesis is so exhilarating

    Oh, glucose, glucose come to beGlucose, glucose come to be

    Oxaloacetate has got to turn to PEPEmploying energy that comes from breaking GTP

    From there it goes to make a couple phosphoglycerates(slow) Exploiting ee-nolase and mutase catalytic traits

    Oh gluconeogenesis is livers specialtyProducing sugar for the body most admirablySix ATPs per glucose is the needed energy*

    Gluconeogenesis is livers specialty

    Oh glucose, glucose joy to meGlucose, glucose joy to me

    Converting phosphoglycerate to 1,3BPGRequires a phosphate that includes A-T-P energyReduction with electrons gives us all an N-A-D(slow) And G3Ps isomerized to make D-H-A-P

    Oh gluconeogenesis is anabolic blissReversing seven mechanisms of glycolysis

    To do well on the final students have to learn all thisGluconeogenesis is anabolic bliss

    Oh, glucose, glucose factoryGlucose, glucose factory

    The aldolase reaction puts together pieces soA fructose molecule is made with two phosphates in tow

    And one of these gets cleaved off by a fructose phosphatase(slow) Unless F2,6BP's acting blocking path-a-ways

    Oh gluconeogenesis a pathway to revereThat makes a ton of glucose when it kicks into high gear

    The cell's a masterminding metabolic engineerGluconeogenesis a pathway to revere

    Oh glucose, glucose jubileeGlucose, glucose jubilee

    From F6P to G6P, that is the final phaseThe enzyme catalyzing it is an isomerase

    Then G6P drops phosphate and a glucose it becomes(slow) Inside the tiny endoplasmic-al reticulums

    Oh gluconeogenesis is not so very hardI know that on the final we will not be caught off guard'Cause our professor lets us use a filled out index card

    Gluconeogenesis is not so very hard

    http://www.davincipress.com/professional.html

  • MetabolicMelody

    BennyBeaverSong(tothetuneofRedRiverValley)

    Copyright Kevin Ahern

    InCorvallisalovablemascotWonderswhyhesthewaythatheis

    EveryonethathemeetshasoneanswerItrelatestothesequencingbiz

    EngineerssaythatBennysamazingBuildingdamsofincrediblestrength

    AndhisfrontteethareworthyofpraisingGrowingtoanincrediblelength

    Whyisourcollegemascotsodaunting?Whiletheotherslikeducksaresomeek?

    DNAinthecellsofourBennyIswhatmakesallofhistraitsunique

    SoourBeaverwillsoongethisanswersTothequestions,revealingunknownsTherewillbealltheinfohesafterInthesequenceofhisfullgenome

    http://www.davincipress.com/professional.html

  • MetabolicMelody

    En-er-gy (To the tune of "Let It Be")

    Copyright Kevin Ahern

    When I was walking through the forest

    Grizzly bears came after me So I was badly needing

    En-er-gyMy body dumped some epinephrine

    Out into the blood for me 'Cause I was badly needing

    En-er-gy

    En-er-gy / En-er-gy En-er-gy / En-er-gy I was badly needing

    En-er-gy

    The epinephrine gave a kick to Enzymes deep inside of me To make a bunch of cyclic

    AMPAnd when this hit my protein kinase

    Catalytic ecstasy The C subunits started

    Adding P's

    Adding P's, adding P's Adding P's, adding P's Phosphorylation city

    Adding P's

    The protein kinase put a phosphate Onto PBK for meUsing energy from

    ATP

    And PBK in turn converted 'b's to 'a's and 'I's to 'D's *

    So I released a ton of G1P

    G1P / energy G1P / energy

    California needs some G1P

    And when the chaos had subsided I consumed some Frito Lays Which soon began reversing

    These pathwaysThe glucose halted epinephrine

    Insulin began the race to Turn on Phosphoprotein

    Phosphatase

    Phosphatase - cleaves the P's Phosphatase - cleaves the P's

    The dephosphorylation Cleaves the P's

    And so they were removed from action Cellular kinases

    Thanks to Phosphoprotein Phosphatase

    I'll end my story here before I Get depressed from one last fact

    That dephosph