Parfum Uri

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Transcript of Parfum Uri

  • Parfumuri

  • Mirosul(olfactia)-Rol -Protectie - Fiziologic- Natura - Adaptare - Memorie - Sensibilitate - Selectivitate - Intensitate, caliate

    Mirosul organismului:-Determinant genetic-Modificat de stilul de viata, in special de cel alimentar- Carne- Peste- Condimente( usturoi)

  • MirosulCile senzitive1- odorant; 2- aroma; 3- pata galben; 4,8- traseu neuronic; 5- zona cortical de analiz; 6- papile gustative linguale; 7- papile gustative paletale; 9- formaii intermediareStructura i modul de aciune al semnalului olfactiv A-vector-semnal; AC-adenilciclaz; C-protein canal; G-proteina de legare a guanozin-trifosfatului

  • Istoria parfumurilor

  • 5000 BC Egyptian First Dynasty earliest evidence3000 BC Mesopotamia: extraction pots, early apparatus1400 BC Book of Exodus anointing with oils370 BCE Theophrastus writings on use of oils to make fragrances longer lasting.800 AD Alembic distillation apparatus Jabir ibn Hayyan1200 AD Essential oils produced in pharmacies1600 AD Quality of many natural extracts established1860 AD First synthetics (naturally occuring materials)1900 AD First non-natural synthetics (ionones, nitro-musks)Alembic Distillation Appratus

  • Popularity of perfume waned in Europe after the fall of the Roman empire, returned with the crusadersDistillation of essential oilsAttributed to Avicenna, Arab, late 900s

  • Perfumes in 18th century EuropeMore flowery as opposed to heavier scentsNumerous ways to use perfumes, elaborate containersVinaigrettesPommanders go out of style with availability of liquid perfume

  • Eau de CologneGermany, invented an 1709 by an Italian barberRosemary, orange flower, and bergamot oils distilled in grape spiritsNon-greasyNapolean decreed the formula must be public in 1810

  • Perfume odorant types todayConcretespurest, soft plant parts are placed in solventAbsolutesconcretes concentrated in alcoholResinoidsextracted like concretes, from plant secretionsTincturesdirect extraction with ethanolDistilled essential oilsmost common modern methods

  • Types of fragancesConcentraie i compoziii

    Extras de parfum: 20%-40% compui aromaticiAp de parfum (Eau de parfum): 10-30% compui aromaticiAp de toalet (Eau de toilette: 5-20% compui aromaticiAp de colonie (Eau de Cologne): 2-3% compui aromatici

  • Perfume anatomyTop notesimmediately perceived, highly volatile, bright, often citrus, gingerMiddle notesa minute to an hour; often rose, lavenderBottom notesoften animal, resin scents, perhaps vanilla, sandlewood

  • Business of scents (perfumes)10-20 billion dollar industryOnly a few companies are doing smell R & DThey work for two main client groups; household products companies, and perfume companiesLots of secrecy

  • Grasse, in Provence, FranceStarted with tannery perfumesfor scenting gloves?A local company got a patent on the distillation system1720s become a local industryGood sources for jasmine, rose, orangeModern perfume industry started here

  • - Grasse has had a prospering perfume industry since the end of the 18th century.

    - Grasse is the centre of the French perfume industry and is known as the world's perfume capital (la capitale mondiale des parfums).

    - Many "noses" (or, in French, "Les nez" (plural)/"Le nez" (singular)) are trained or have spent time in Grasse to distinguish over 2,000 kinds of scent.

    - Grasse produces over two-thirds of France's natural aromas (for perfume and for food flavourings).

    - This industry turns over more than 600 million euros a year.

    Grasse's particular microclimate encouraged the flower farming industry. It is warm and sufficiently inland to be sheltered from the sea air.

    Jasmine, a key ingredient of many perfumes, was brought to southern France in the 16th century.

    Twenty-seven tonnes of jasmine are now harvested in Grasse annually.

    - There are numerous old 'parfumeries' in Grasse, such as Molinard, Fragonard and Galimard, each with tours and a museum.

  • Materii primeOdoranti, diluanti, fixatori-Ingrediente aromatice naturale-Ingrediente aromatice sintetice-Fixatori- permit parfumului sa se evapore incet si sa miroase cat mai mult timp-Solvent(apa si alcool)

  • What are Fragrance Ingredients?- Chemicals having 6 18 carbon atoms (mostly), and usually one oxygenated functional group. - There are also some multi-functional materials as well as a few sulfur- and nitrogen containing chemical compound.

  • Performance in UseVolatilityFunction of molecular weight (how many carbons) and chemical type.StabilityFunction of chemical type and use condition (acidity, alkalinity, oxidizing, open, closed).Odor Threshold and dose/responseFunction of chemical structure (molecular shape and chemical type).

  • Clasificarea materiilor prime odorante Naturale -Vegetale-flori ( trandafir, iasomie, mimoze, narcise, lacrimioare, tuberose, plumeria, muscata, flori de salcam ,flori de portocal, flori de ylang-ylang, cuisoara)-fructe (citrice, fructe de ienupar, vanilie) - frunze si parti lemnoase( lavanda, salvie, rozmarin, viola(panseluta), frunze de citrice) - scoarta de copac( scortisoara, casarila)- lemn (santal, palisandru, cedru, mesteacan, ienupar, pin)- radacini, rizomi si bulbi (rizomi de iris, radacini de vetiver, rizomi de ghimbir)- seminte (boabe de cumaru, seminte de morcov, coriandru, cacao, chimen, nucsoara, anason)- rasini(tamaie, mir, rasini de pin si brad, etc. ) - Animale (secretii)- musk (mosc), civet(zibeta), ambergris (ambra)(casalot), castoreum(castor), fagure Sintetice- calone, linalool, cumarina, salicilati, etc.

  • Obtinerea parfumului- composing perfumesObtinerea parfumului- composing perfumes-poate dura ani de zile-poate contine pana la 800 de ingrediente - expert- parfumator- nez(nas)- parfumuri functionale- parfumuri fine -Colectarea- plantele sunt culese(adesea cu mana) si aduse din toate zonele lumii -ingredientele sintetice- obtinute in laborator-Extractia- obtinerea ingredientelor aromatice prin diferite metode de extractieAmestecarea- rolul parfumatoruluiImbatranirea parfumului- poate dura luni sau aniControlul calitatii

  • Metode de obtinere a odorantilor naturali- Macerarea(extractie cu solvent)- cea mai folosita metoda de obtinere- dureaza de la ore la luni- hexan, dimetil eter- "concret"- extractie cu lichide supercritice- CO2-"absolut"- extractie cu etanol- "tinctura"- extractie cu grasime- "pomada"- Distilarea- antrenarea cu vapori ( hidrodistilare) - distilarea uscata - distilarea fractionata- Expresie- Enfleurage

  • Extractia - extractoare statice- materialul vegetal este imobil, imersat n solvent - recirculare exterioara- extractoare mobile (rotative)- materialul vegetal este ncrcat ntr-un tambur rotativ, venind permanent n contact cu o cantitate de solvent - cantitate mai mica de solventi

  • Narcisse Concrete

  • Avantaje: -consum termic redus, - posibilitatea excluderii contactului cu oxigenul, - inexistena problemelor derivate din prezena rezidurilor de solveni n extract - utilizarea unor gaze netoxice -CO2 - CO2- nepolar- folosit la extractia aromaticelor nepolare - temperatura mica- putere de solvatare mare - compusi extrasi raman nealterati- absolut - se recupereaza "solventul"Extractie cu lichide supercriticeAdvantages of CO2- It is a natural product- chemically inert, non-flammable- non-toxic- easy to completely eliminate- selective- readily available- Inexpensive

  • Extractie cu lichide supercritice- CO2- extracia prin SFE se compune din dou etape: extracia i colectarea analitului- colectarea analitului: - on-line n gaz-cromatograf sau SFC (supercriticalfluid-cromatograf), - off-line prin depresurizarea lichidului supercritic ntr-un vas colector.

  • Extractie cu lichide supercritice

    Disadvantage: Technical constraints- High cost of initial investment

    Advantages:- obtain extracts which are very close in composition to the natural product.- It is possible to adjust the selectivity & viscosity, etc by fine tuning the temperature & pressure- All result in the increase of popularity of this type of method

  • Antrenarea cu vapori de apAntrenarea cu vapori de ap se practic n cinci variante diferite:- antrenarea la foc direct- antrenarea n curent de vapori- antrenarea cu vapori sub presiune- antrenarea la presiune redus - procedeu nou de antrenare cu vapori de ap

  • Florentine vessel

  • Expresie

    -metoda -cold pressed-oil is forced from the material under high mechanical pressure and generally produces a good quality oil

  • Enfleurage- grasimile absorb componentii odoranti- grasimea se depune pe placi de sticla montata in rame de lemn- startul de grasime se zgarie cu un pieptene- se depun petalele de flori pe suprafata de grasime- 3 luni- ramele se intorc si se bat pentru a provoca desprinderea petalelor epuizate- se inlocuiesc cu unele noi- un kg grasime- 3 kg petale- grasimea parfumata se extrage cu alcool- absolut

  • LavenderMint familySterile hybrid of two species (L. angustifolia and L. latifolia) most often used todayObtained by steam distillationMore than 300 components, linalool importantIn many mens fragrances (fern note)

  • RoseRosa centifolia and damascenaPetals extracted with steam or solventsUsed in many perfumes, foods

  • RoseMost important constituents:

  • Geranium Pelargonium graveolensOils distilled from leaves and stemsMuch cheaper than rose, similar fragrance in some typesEssence from Reunion island especially fruityAlso in drinks, insect repellent

  • Geraniol and