Parfum Uri

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Transcript of Parfum Uri

  • Parfumuri

  • Mirosul(olfactia)-Rol -Protectie - Fiziologic- Natura - Adaptare - Memorie - Sensibilitate - Selectivitate - Intensitate, caliate

    Mirosul organismului:-Determinant genetic-Modificat de stilul de viata, in special de cel alimentar- Carne- Peste- Condimente( usturoi)

  • MirosulCile senzitive1- odorant; 2- aroma; 3- pata galben; 4,8- traseu neuronic; 5- zona cortical de analiz; 6- papile gustative linguale; 7- papile gustative paletale; 9- formaii intermediareStructura i modul de aciune al semnalului olfactiv A-vector-semnal; AC-adenilciclaz; C-protein canal; G-proteina de legare a guanozin-trifosfatului

  • Istoria parfumurilor

  • 5000 BC Egyptian First Dynasty earliest evidence3000 BC Mesopotamia: extraction pots, early apparatus1400 BC Book of Exodus anointing with oils370 BCE Theophrastus writings on use of oils to make fragrances longer lasting.800 AD Alembic distillation apparatus Jabir ibn Hayyan1200 AD Essential oils produced in pharmacies1600 AD Quality of many natural extracts established1860 AD First synthetics (naturally occuring materials)1900 AD First non-natural synthetics (ionones, nitro-musks)Alembic Distillation Appratus

  • Popularity of perfume waned in Europe after the fall of the Roman empire, returned with the crusadersDistillation of essential oilsAttributed to Avicenna, Arab, late 900s

  • Perfumes in 18th century EuropeMore flowery as opposed to heavier scentsNumerous ways to use perfumes, elaborate containersVinaigrettesPommanders go out of style with availability of liquid perfume

  • Eau de CologneGermany, invented an 1709 by an Italian barberRosemary, orange flower, and bergamot oils distilled in grape spiritsNon-greasyNapolean decreed the formula must be public in 1810

  • Perfume odorant types todayConcretespurest, soft plant parts are placed in solventAbsolutesconcretes concentrated in alcoholResinoidsextracted like concretes, from plant secretionsTincturesdirect extraction with ethanolDistilled essential oilsmost common modern methods

  • Types of fragancesConcentraie i compoziii

    Extras de parfum: 20%-40% compui aromaticiAp de parfum (Eau de parfum): 10-30% compui aromaticiAp de toalet (Eau de toilette: 5-20% compui aromaticiAp de colonie (Eau de Cologne): 2-3% compui aromatici

  • Perfume anatomyTop notesimmediately perceived, highly volatile, bright, often citrus, gingerMiddle notesa minute to an hour; often rose, lavenderBottom notesoften animal, resin scents, perhaps vanilla, sandlewood

  • Business of scents (perfumes)10-20 billion dollar industryOnly a few companies are doing smell R & DThey work for two main client groups; household products companies, and perfume companiesLots of secrecy

  • Grasse, in Provence, FranceStarted with tannery perfumesfor scenting gloves?A local company got a patent on the distillation system1720s become a local industryGood sources for jasmine, rose, orangeModern perfume industry started here

  • - Grasse has had a prospering perfume industry since the end of the 18th century.

    - Grasse is the centre of the French perfume industry and is known as the world's perfume capital (la capitale mondiale des parfums).

    - Many "noses" (or, in French, "Les nez" (plural)/"Le nez" (singular)) are trained or have spent time in Grasse to distinguish over 2,000 kinds of scent.

    - Grasse produces over two-thirds of France's natural aromas (for perfume and for food flavourings).

    - This industry turns over more than 600 million euros a year.

    Grasse's particular microclimate encouraged the flower farming industry. It is warm and sufficiently inland to be sheltered from the sea air.

    Jasmine, a key ingredient of many perfumes, was brought to southern France in the 16th century.

    Twenty-seven tonnes of jasmine are now harvested in Grasse annually.

    - There are numerous old 'parfumeries' in Grasse, such as Molinard, Fragonard and Galimard, each with tours and a museum.

  • Materii primeOdoranti, diluanti, fixatori-Ingrediente aromatice naturale-Ingrediente aromatice sintetice-Fixatori- permit parfumului sa se evapore incet si sa miroase cat mai mult timp-Solvent(apa si alcool)

  • What are Fragrance Ingredients?- Chemicals having 6 18 carbon atoms (mostly), and usually one oxygenated functional group. - There are also some multi-functional materials as well as a few sulfur- and nitrogen containing chemical compound.

  • Performance in UseVolatilityFunction of molecular weight (how many carbons) and chemical type.StabilityFunction of chemical type and use condition (acidity, alkalinity, oxidizing, open, closed).Odor Threshold and dose/responseFunction of chemical structure (molecular shape and chemical type).

  • Clasificarea materiilor prime odorante Naturale -Vegetale-flori ( trandafir, iasomie, mimoze, narcise, lacrimioare, tuberose, plumeria, muscata, flori de salcam ,flori de portocal, flori de ylang-ylang, cuisoara)-fructe (citrice, fructe de ienupar, vanilie) - frunze si parti lemnoase( lavanda, salvie, rozmarin, viola(panseluta), frunze de citrice) - scoarta de copac( scortisoara, casarila)- lemn (santal, palisandru, cedru, mesteacan, ienupar, pin)- radacini, rizomi si bulbi (rizomi de iris, radacini de vetiver, rizomi de ghimbir)- seminte (boabe de cumaru, seminte de morcov, coriandru, cacao, chimen, nucsoara, anason)- rasini(tamaie, mir, rasini de pin si brad, etc. ) - Animale (secretii)- musk (mosc), civet(zibeta), ambergris (ambra)(casalot), castoreum(castor), fagure Sintetice- calone, linalool, cumarina, salicilati, etc.

  • Obtinerea parfumului- composing perfumesObtinerea parfumului- composing perfumes-poate dura ani de zile-poate contine pana la 800 de ingrediente - expert- parfumator- nez(nas)- parfumuri functionale- parfumuri fine -Colectarea- plantele sunt culese(adesea cu mana) si aduse din toate zonele lumii -ingredientele sintetice- obtinute in laborator-Extractia- obtinerea ingredientelor aromatice prin diferite metode de extractieAmestecarea- rolul parfumatoruluiImbatranirea parfumului- poate dura luni sau aniControlul calitatii

  • Metode de obtinere a odorantilor naturali- Macerarea(extractie cu solvent)- cea mai folosita metoda de obtinere- dureaza de la ore la luni- hexan, dimetil eter- "concret"- extractie cu lichide supercritice- CO2-"absolut"- extractie cu etanol- "tinctura"- extractie cu grasime- "pomada"- Distilarea- antrenarea cu vapori ( hidrodistilare) - distilarea uscata - distilarea fractionata- Expresie- Enfleurage

  • Extractia - extractoare statice- materialul vegetal este imobil, imersat n solvent - recirculare exterioara- extractoare mobile (rotative)- materialul vegetal este ncrcat ntr-un tambur rotativ, venind permanent n contact cu o cantitate de solvent - cantitate mai mica de solventi

  • Narcisse Concrete

  • Avantaje: -consum termic redus, - posibilitatea excluderii contactului cu oxigenul, - inexistena problemelor derivate din prezena rezidurilor de solveni n extract - utilizarea unor gaze netoxice -CO2 - CO2- nepolar- folosit la extractia aromaticelor nepolare - temperatura mica- putere de solvatare mare - compusi extrasi raman nealterati- absolut - se recupereaza "solventul"Extractie cu lichide supercriticeAdvantages of CO2- It is a natural product- chemically inert, non-flammable- non-toxic- easy to completely eliminate- selective- readily available- Inexpensive

  • Extractie cu lichide supercritice- CO2- extracia prin SFE se compune din dou etape: extracia i colectarea analitului- colectarea analitului: - on-line n gaz-cromatograf sau SFC (supercriticalfluid-cromatograf), - off-line prin depresurizarea lichidului supercritic ntr-un vas colector.

  • Extractie cu lichide supercritice

    Disadvantage: Technical constraints- High cost of initial investment

    Advantages:- obtain extracts which are very close in composition to the natural product.- It is possible to adjust the selectivity & viscosity, etc by fine tuning the temperature & pressure- All result in the increase of popularity of this type of method

  • Antrenarea cu vapori de apAntrenarea cu vapori de ap se practic n cinci variante diferite:- antrenarea la foc direct- antrenarea n curent de vapori- antrenarea cu vapori sub presiune- antrenarea la presiune redus - procedeu nou de antrenare cu vapori de ap

  • Florentine vessel

  • Expresie

    -metoda -cold pressed-oil is forced from the material under high mechanical pressure and generally produces a good quality oil

  • Enfleurage- grasimile absorb componentii odoranti- grasimea se depune pe placi de sticla montata in rame de lemn- startul de grasime se zgarie cu un pieptene- se depun petalele de flori pe suprafata de grasime- 3 luni- ramele se intorc si se bat pentru a provoca desprinderea petalelor epuizate- se inlocuiesc cu unele noi- un kg grasime- 3 kg petale- grasimea parfumata se extrage cu alcool- absolut

  • LavenderMint familySterile hybrid of two species (L. angustifolia and L. latifolia) most often used todayObtained by steam distillationMore than 300 components, linalool importantIn many mens fragrances (fern note)

  • RoseRosa centifolia and damascenaPetals extracted with steam or solventsUsed in many perfumes, foods

  • RoseMost important constituents:

  • Geranium Pelargonium graveolensOils distilled from leaves and stemsMuch cheaper than rose, similar fragrance in some typesEssence from Reunion island especially fruityAlso in drinks, insect repellent

  • Geraniol and related compoundsFound in a variety of plantsAlso produced synthetically

  • JasmineJasminum grandiflorumVolatile solvents now used, used to be enfleurageA ton of flowers to yield a kilo of essenceExtremely expensiveWide range of jasmonoid compounds, biosynthesis perhaps similar to prostaglandinsBenzyl acetate and related compounds common

  • JasmineMost important constituents

  • TuberosePolyanthes tuberosaAmaryllis relativeExpensive, low yield to extract, done by enfleurage until relatively recentlyMany fragrance compounds (eugenols, nerol) also some weird tuberose lactones

  • OrangeCitrus speciesFlowers, leaves, fruits, even bark all usedDistillation or solvents usedWide range of compounds isolated, including linalool

  • BergamotCitrus bergamiaZests from unripe fruits usedHarmonious with many other compounds; contains linalool, limonene does not dominate in this as it does in orange oilCoumarins removed from essence (photosensitizing)In Earl Grey tea, as well as perfumes, soapsEau de Colognes

  • Iris of FlorenceIris pallidaViolet-scented rhizomes (orris root) used to produce a concrete with iron in myristic acid (called a butter)In perfume with heavy, woody notes

  • ylang-ylangCananga odorata, related plants From SE Asia (?)AnnonaceaeVery floral scentSeveral common compounds (eugenols, linalool) also p-Cresyl methyl ether stinks by itself, but blends well

  • PatchouliShrub in the mint familyPogostemon cablin Distilled dried leaves yield several important fragrancesDistinctive strong odor, but also mixes well

  • PatchouliMost important constituents:

    tricyclic sesquiterpene alcohols

  • VanillaNative to Mexico, much now grown in MadagascarMore than 200 compounds have been identifiedExtract used in small amounts in perfumes; its very strongLots of synthetic vanillin relatives used

    vanillinVanillin analogs, some with carnation, cocoa butter overtones

  • OakmossEvernia prunastri A lichen found in much of EuropeSome constituents now synthesized

  • Olibanum (incense tree)Resin from a Boswellia treeResinous, woody smellUsed in some perfumes (Opium, Jicky)

  • SandalwoodAlpha Santalol:

    Beta Santalol:

  • FixativesVarious animal productsAmbergis, musk, castoreum, civetsynthetics often used nowe.g. ambergris compound from sage

  • GINGER: Zingiber officinaleDefinition: Ginger is the peeled or unpeeled rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae).

    Common Names: Jamaican ginger, GingerGeographical sourcesJamaicaChinaIndia Africa

    HistoryCultivated in India from the earliest times. Used by Greeks and Romans and was a common article of commerce in the European Middle Ages.

  • Zingiber officinale - CONSTITUENTSVolatile oils (1 2%)CampheneCineoleCitralBorneolGingerol pungent component Anti-inflammatoryShogaols increases bile secretion

    Sesquiterpene HCsZingiberene & Zingiberol (Sesquiterpene alcohol)

    ResinsStarch Mucilage

  • CINNAMON: Cinnamomum zeylanicumDEFINITION: Cinnamon is the dried bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae).

    GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCESCultivated in Sri Lanka, South India, Seychelles, Madagascar, Martinique, Cayenne, Jamaica & Brazil.

  • Cinnamomum - CONSTITUENTSVolatile oils (at least 1.2 %)PhlobaphenesMucilageCalcium OxalateStarch

  • CLOVEDEFINITION: Cloves are the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Eugenia caryophyllus), (Myrtaceaea).

    Geographical SourcesMolucca or Clove Islands, Zanzibar, Pemba, Madagascar, Indonesia & Brazil.

    CONSTITUENTS14-21% Volatile oilsMainly eugenol & isoeugenolSitosterolStigmasterolCampesterol

  • Terpene derivativesOthers-Ginger, cardamom, pepper (Piper nigrum), clove

  • Aromatic compounds

  • First Synthetics

  • Synthesis of Vanillin

  • Synthesis of Coumarin

  • Synthesis of Ionones

  • Sandalwood

    Alpha Santalol:

    Beta Santalol:

  • Musks

  • Research and DevelopmentAnalyticalApplication of new GC methods (head space with SPME)Use of more sensitive and better computerized instrumentation: GC-MS, NMR, FT-IR.Live flowers above methods used to analyze odors of flowers before picking.New extraction methods for naturals: supercritical CO2

  • Synthetic Research

    Considerations:Structure relationship to materials of known value natural or syntheticRaw materials Process(often a combination of all three)

  • Synthetic ResearchPractical only for largest companies.Hundreds of materials synthesized each year for evaluation.In-depth evaluation must include testing in fragrances and in applications.Decision to develop cannot be taken lightly.

  • Development of New SyntheticsProcesses must be very well worked out in laboratory, pilot plant and factory.Best economics, safety and workplace hygiene.Testing is required to meet industry safety standards and international PMN requirements for all new chemicals.Cost to register new ingredients worldwide is well over $300,000.

  • Synthetic vs natural: what are the issues?The truth about fragrance oils Each essential oil comes from just one source, a living plant. There are no chemicals involved.Remember, they are all chemicals!We may actually know more about the synthetic mixtures than the natural ones

  • ConcernsToxicity to people?Allergens?Increasing asthma incidence?Unknown compounds in the mix?Persistence in the environment?Example: synthetic musk

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