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PARALLELISM AND PLANES IN OPTIMALITY THEORY:

PARALLELISM AND PLANES IN OPTIMALITY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM AFAR

bySandra Lee Fulmer

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of theDEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICSIn Partial Fulfillment of the RequirementsFor the Degree ofDoctor of Philosophy

In the Graduate CollegeTHE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

1 9 9 7STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his or her interests the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.

SIGNED: Acknowledgments

I wish to thank the people who have been the most help to me in the ends and means of this dissertation. Of utmost importance has been Mike Hammond. Without his knowledge, encouragement, persistence friendship, and bridge playing, this document surely would have never been finished. Many of the ideas in here were inspired by him. I am also grateful for the help from my other committee members, Terry Langendoen and Dick Demers. They were always ready to discuss my ideas and share my enthusiasm for the variable-position phenomenon.

I also thank all the Linguistics graduate students I have spent time with during my tenure here. Every one of them has added something to my view of the Linguistic world. I would especially like to thank Diane Ohala, Amy Fountain, Pat Perez and Wendy Wiswall for their knowledge, ideas, proofreading skills and friendship. They have been much more than my colleagues.

I would also like to thank my husband, Bruce Walsh for his laughter, loving, nagging and housekeeping skills. He has been both a help and a delight during this process.

My undying gratitude goes out to Nan Crandall, Matt Shimel, Jennifer Wateuma, Fred Matter and Maria Teresa Velez for covering for me at work so that I take time off to finish my dissertation.

Finally, I would like to thank Trouble, Abby, Mouth, Rusty, Scamper, PeeWee, Duffy and Spot for keeping me sane during this process.

This dissertation is dedicated to my parents, Gordon and Marjorie Fulmer, who taught me with their love and understanding, everything I will ever need to know. Thank you. TOC \o "1-6" ABSTRACT GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553018 PAGEREF _Toc386553018 101. INTRODUCTION GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553019 PAGEREF _Toc386553019 11Background GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553020 PAGEREF _Toc386553020 16Afar GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553021 PAGEREF _Toc386553021 16Phonemics GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553022 PAGEREF _Toc386553022 17Sounds GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553023 PAGEREF _Toc386553023 17Co-occurrence Restrictions GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553024 PAGEREF _Toc386553024 21Vowel Quality GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553025 PAGEREF _Toc386553025 22Consonants GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553026 PAGEREF _Toc386553026 25Morphology GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553027 PAGEREF _Toc386553027 30General Morphology GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553028 PAGEREF _Toc386553028 30Verb Classes GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553029 PAGEREF _Toc386553029 36Theoretical Background GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553030 PAGEREF _Toc386553030 42Introduction to Optimality Theory GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553031 PAGEREF _Toc386553031 42Correspondence Theory GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553032 PAGEREF _Toc386553032 52Generalized Alignment GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553033 PAGEREF _Toc386553033 56Morphological Planes GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553034 PAGEREF _Toc386553034 57The Morphemic Tier Hypothesis GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553035 PAGEREF _Toc386553035 57Planes in Concatenative Languages GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553036 PAGEREF _Toc386553036 68Morphological Planes and Optimality Theory GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553037 PAGEREF _Toc386553037 72Huave GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553038 PAGEREF _Toc386553038 75Dissertation Overview GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553039 PAGEREF _Toc386553039 792. RELEVANT PHONOLOGY GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553040 PAGEREF _Toc386553040 81Syllables GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553041 PAGEREF _Toc386553041 81The Structure of Syllables GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553042 PAGEREF _Toc386553042 82Closed-Syllable Long Vowel Reduction GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553043 PAGEREF _Toc386553043 92Word Final Long Vowel Reduction GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553044 PAGEREF _Toc386553044 97Exceptions GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553045 PAGEREF _Toc386553045 101Superheavy Syllables GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553046 PAGEREF _Toc386553046 101Long Vowels in Word-Final Position GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553047 PAGEREF _Toc386553047 113The Minimal Word GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553048 PAGEREF _Toc386553048 113Prosodic Vowels GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553049 PAGEREF _Toc386553049 116The Deletion of /y/ GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553050 PAGEREF _Toc386553050 122The Absence of [y] GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553051 PAGEREF _Toc386553051 127Phonological Distribution GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553052 PAGEREF _Toc386553052 127Morphological Alternations GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553053 PAGEREF _Toc386553053 129Insertion or Deletion GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553054 PAGEREF _Toc386553054 130Summary GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553055 PAGEREF _Toc386553055 1343. A MULTIPLANAR MODEL GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553056 PAGEREF _Toc386553056 137The Data: The Person and Plural Markers GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553057 PAGEREF _Toc386553057 137The Plural GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553058 PAGEREF _Toc386553058 150An OT Account GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553059 PAGEREF _Toc386553059 155Necessary Constraints GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553060 PAGEREF _Toc386553060 155Inputs in Optimality Theory and Correspondence Theory GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553061 PAGEREF _Toc386553061 159A Paradox for OT GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553062 PAGEREF _Toc386553062 160Morphemic Tiers and OT GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553063 PAGEREF _Toc386553063 172[a]-Initial Verbs GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553064 PAGEREF _Toc386553064 189The Exceptions GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553065 PAGEREF _Toc386553065 200Summary GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553066 PAGEREF _Toc386553066 2054. Alternative Accounts in OT GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553067 PAGEREF _Toc386553067 208A Linear Planes Analysis GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553068 PAGEREF _Toc386553068 209Avoiding the Paradox with Levels GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553069 PAGEREF _Toc386553069 212Problems with a Level-ordered Approach GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553070 PAGEREF _Toc386553070 237Ad Hoc Levels GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553071 PAGEREF _Toc386553071 239Consonant Co-occurrence Restrictions GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553072 PAGEREF _Toc386553072 240Assimilation Constraints GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553073 PAGEREF _Toc386553073 2445. Some Final Thoughts GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553074 PAGEREF _Toc386553074 268Huave GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553075 PAGEREF _Toc386553075 269Arabic GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553076 PAGEREF _Toc386553076 275Optimal Domains and the Multiplanar Model GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553077 PAGEREF _Toc386553077 278Possibilities for Axininca Campa GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553078 PAGEREF _Toc386553078 279Conclusions GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553079 PAGEREF _Toc386553079 281REFERENCES GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553080 PAGEREF _Toc386553080 283Appendix A GOTOBUTTON _Toc386553081 PAGEREF _Toc386553081 286ABSTRACTIn this dissertation I show that the representations in Optimality Theory must be extended to allow multiple planes. The variable-position affixes in Afar occur as either prefixes or suffixes depending on the initial segment of the verb root. If the root begins with [i], [e(e)], [o(o)] or [u], the affix is a prefix (e.g., t-okm-e# (2-eat-perf) You (sg.) ate); if it begins with [a] or a consonant, the affix is a suffix (e.g., rab-t-e# (die-2-perf) You died). Additionally, plural not only appears as a prefix or a suffix, but when a suffix it can either precede or follow aspect (rab-n-e# (die-pl-perf) I died vs. rab-e#-n (die-perf-pl) They died). A parallel model in Optimality Theory is unable to account for the different order of affixes in forms such as rab-n-e# vs. rab-e#-n. The Multiplanar Model, which posits that output representations consist not only of a word plane but also an affix plane is able to account for this data. The representations for the two forms are: [y-e-n], [rab-e-n] and [n-e], [rab-n-e]. In the first case, plural is specified as the rightmost morpheme by morphological constraints. Even though /y/, the third person marker, cannot surface on the word plane, it satisfies onset on the affix plane. This contrasts with the second case, where onset, being higher ranked than plural (r), requires that plural occurs to the left of aspect to fill the onset position on the affix plane. I then show a serial monoplanar model can also account for this data. Finally, I compare the serial and multiplanar models, arguing that phonological evidence supports the Multiplanar Model. 1. Introduction

Parallelism of constraint satisfaction has been argued to be a central, if not crucial, property of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smollensky 1993, McCarthy & Prince 1993, etc.). Here, however, I show that the adoption of parallelism in Optimality Theory (OT) requires the use of multiplanar representations. Specifically, this work examines affixes in Afar whose position in a string is variable. An example of this is shown with the second person marker in (1) which appears as a prefix on some verbs and as a suffix on others.(1)Variable-position Affixesookom (win) nak (drink milk') t-ookom-e#nak-t-e#2-win-perfect [B123]drink milk-2-perfect [B125]You (sg.) won.She drank milk.

In this thesis I suggest that these affixes surface alternately as prefixes or suffixes in order to satisfy syllabification constraints in the language. Mul