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  • Paradigmatic Tendencies in Cartography: A Synthesis of the Scientific-Empirical, Critical and Post-Representational Perspectives Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.) vorgelegt von M.Sc. Pablo Ivn Azcar Fernndez Gutachter: Herr Prof. Dr. phil.habil. Manfred F. Buchroithner Technische Universitt Dresden Herr Prof. Dr. Zsolt G. Trk

    Etvs Lrand University, Budapest

    Dresden, February 09, 2012

    Fakultt Forst-, Geo- und Hydrowissenschaften

  • Die bereinstimmung dieses Exemplars mit dem Original der Dissertation zum Thema: Paradigmatic Tendencies in Cartography: A Synthesis of the Scientific-Empirical, Critical and Post-Representational Perspectives wird hiermit besttigt.

    ..

    Ort, Datum

    Azcar, Pablo ..

    Unterschrift (Vorname Name)

  • i

    Abstract

    Maps have been important elements of visual representation in the development

    of different societies, and for this reason they have mainly been considered from a

    practical and utilitarian point of view. This means that cartographers or mapmakers

    have largely focused on the technical aspects of the cartographic products, and

    cartography has given little attention to both its theoretical component and to its

    philosophical and epistemological aspects. The current study is dedicated to

    consider these views.

    In this study the main trends, thoughts and different directions in cartography

    during positivism/empiricism, neo-positivism and post-structuralism are reviewed;

    and cartography is analysed under the modernism and post-modernism periods.

    Some of the arguments proposed by philosophers such as Ludwig Wittgenstein

    and Karl Popper are examined as important contributions in our understanding of

    the development of cartography and mapping. This study also incorporates the

    idea or concept of paradigm, which has been taken from the field of the

    epistemology of sciences. The aforementioned opens a space to analyse

    cartography in terms of a paradigm shift.

    In the analysis of each trend within contemporary cartography from the second

    half of the twentieth century until today it is necessary to keep in mind the

    theoretical scheme of a scientific discipline (object of study, research aims,

    methods and approaches, and results). This helps to determine the body of

    knowledge in cartography. It is also important to consider the epistemological

    context in which the tendencies are developed: positivism/empiricism,

    realism/structuralism and idealism/hermeneutic.

    In this way, by considering three epistemological levels - essentialist/ontical

    (scientific), deconstructive (sociological), and ontological (emergent) - some

    paradigmatic tendencies are postulated. The first level results in tendencies such

    as cartographic communication, cartographic semiotics, analytical cartography and

    cartographic visualisation - all of these belong to the scientific-empirical

  • ii

    perspective. In the second level, we have critical cartography, belonging to the

    critical perspective and that confronts the scientific stances. Finally, in the third

    level the so-called post-representational cartography arises in open opposition to

    the traditional representational cartography.

  • iii

    Kurzfassung

    Im Entwicklungsprozess verschiedener Gesellschaften sind Karten immer wichtige

    Elemente visueller Darstellung gewesen. Karten wurden meist aus einer

    praktischen und utilitaristischen Sicht betrachtet. Das heit, dass sich

    Kartographen oder Kartenmacher gezielt auf die technischen Aspekte

    kartographischer Produkte fokussiert haben, und Kartographie sich nur wenig mit

    den theoretischen Komponenten und philosophischen oder epistemologischen

    Aspekten auseinandergesetzt hat. Diese Arbeit verfolgt das Ziel, diese Sichten zu

    analysieren.

    Diese Studie untersucht die verschiedenen kartographischen Denkrichtungen, die

    whrend des Positivismus/Empirismus, des Neo-Positivismus und der Post-

    Strukturalismusperioden entstanden sind und analysiert Kartographie der Moderne

    und post-moderner Perioden. Argumente von Philosophen wie Ludwig

    Wittgenstein und Karl Popper werden untersucht als wichtige Beitrge zu unserem

    Verstndnis der Entwicklung der Kartographie. Diese Arbeit bercksichtigt auch

    das Konzept des Paradigmas, welches aus dem Gebiet der wissenschaftlichen

    Epistemologie adaptiert wurde. Dies erffnet die Mglichkeit, Kartographie

    hinsichtlich eines Paradigmenwechsels analysieren zu knnen.

    Wenn man die Tendenzen der zeitgenssischen Kartographie von der zweiten

    Hlfte des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts bis heute studiert, muss der theoretische

    Rahmen einer wissenschaftlichen Disziplin (Forschungsobjekt, Forschungsziel,

    Arbeitsmethodik und Ergebnisse) bercksichtigt werden. Dies erlaubt es, das

    gesammelte Wissen der Kartographie zu ermitteln. Ebenfalls wichtig ist die

    Bercksichtigung des epistemologischen Kontexts, in dem diese Tendenzen

    entstanden: Positivismus/Empirismus, Realismus/Strukturalismus und

    Idealismus/Hermeneutik.

    Unter Bercksichtigung dreier epistemologischer Ebenen Essenzialisten/ontisch

    (wissenschaftlich), dekonstructiv (soziologisch) und ontologisch (emergent)

  • iv

    werden ausgewhlte paradigmatische Tendenzen postuliert. Die erste Ebene

    ergibt Tendenzen wie die kartographische Kommunikation, die kartographische

    Semiotik, die analytische Kartographie und die kartographische Visualisierung,

    die alle zu der wissenschaftlich-empirischen Perspektive gehren. Zur zweiten

    Ebene gehrt die kritische Kartographie, welche der kritischen Perspektive

    zugeordnet ist und die wissenschaftliche Standpunkte konfrontiert. Die so

    genannte post-reprsentative Kartographie entsteht aus der dritten Ebene im

    offenen Widerstand zur traditionellen reprsentativen Kartographie.

  • v

    Acknowledgments

    First of all, I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. Manfred F. Buchroithner for

    his steady interest in my work. His continued meetings, discussions and

    comments, and the access he has given me to bibliographical references have

    been very helpful during this long process of study. I also wish to thank Prof. Wolf

    G. Koch and Dr. Alexander Wolodtschenko for their important contribution in the

    search for references in the topics studied.

    I am grateful to Mrs. Sharma and all the staff at the Institute for Cartography, and

    to other PhD students especially from Egypt, Sudan and Syria.

    My sincere gratitude is extended to the members of the Lehrstuhl fr

    Raumentwicklung, their Director Prof. Berhnard Mller and Dr. Paulina

    Schiappaccasse for their collaboration with me as a PhD student, and very

    especially to Mrs. Cindy Krause for her generous help in tandem-language. They

    have all been very helpful and friendly during my stay in Dresden.

    I also wish to thank Dr. Andrea Contreras for her valuable and disinterested help in

    the editorial revision of this document, and for her practical comments about the

    writing of the text itself.

    I cannot forget mentioning Mrs. Gabriele Feyler (Campusbro Unit-mit-Kind) who

    has been a wonderful person, and great help to me and my family during the

    process of integration for foreign students at the TU-Dresden.

    My appreciation is also extended to the Metropolitan Technological University

    (Universidad Tecnolgica Metropolitana, Chile) for their financial support during

    my studies in Germany, as well as to the authorities and colleagues of the

    Department of Cartography.

    Finally, I wish to thank all the support that I have received from my beloved wife

    Mnica and from my two lovely daughters Consuelo and Fernanda. Their

    unconditional love has allowed me to pursuit this rewarding challenge in my life.

  • vi

    Table of Contents

    Abstract .................................................................................................................... i

    Kurzfassung ........................................................................................................... iii

    Acknowledgments ................................................................................................... v

    Table of Contents ................................................................................................... vi

    List of Figures ......................................................................................................... ix

    List of Tables ........................................................................................................... x

    1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Motivation ..................................................................................................... 1

    1.2. Thesis Structure, Hypotheses, Questions and Objectives of Investigation .. 2

    2 Philosophy, Epistemology and Cartography ........................................................ 8

    2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 8

    2.2 Philosophy and Epistemology: Some Scopes ............................................... 8

    2.3 Cartography and Knowledge of the World: Philosophical and