Paper on Characterization of Pressure Composite Tubes

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Transcript of Paper on Characterization of Pressure Composite Tubes

MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FILAMENT WOUND COMPOSITE TUBES BY INTERNAL PRESSURE TESTING

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

BY

PINAR KARPUZ

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINNERING

MAY 2005

Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences

Prof. Dr. Canan ZGEN Director I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.

Prof. Dr. Tayfur ZTRK Head of Department This is to certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.

Prof. Dr. Alpay ANKARA Supervisor Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Filiz SARIOLU Prof. Dr. Alpay ANKARA Assoc. Prof. Dr. C. Hakan GR Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cevdet KAYNAK Fikret ENEL, (M.S. in ME) (METU, METE) (METU, METE) (METU, METE) (METU, METE) (BARI IND.)

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last name : Pnar KARPUZ Signature :

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ABSTRACT

MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FILAMENT WOUND COMPOSITE TUBES BY INTERNAL PRESSURE TESTING

Karpuz, Pnar M.S., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Supervisor : Prof. Dr. Alpay ANKARA

May 2005, 104 pages

The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical characteristics of the filament wound composite tubes working under internal pressure loads, generating data for further investigation with a view of estimating the remaining life cycle of the tubes during service. Data is generated experimentally by measuring the mechanical behavior like strains in hoop direction, maximum hoop stresses that are formed during internal pressure loading. Results have been used to identify and generate the necessary data to be adopted in the design applications. In order to determine these parameters, internal pressure tests are done on the filament wound composite tube specimens according to ASTM D 1599-99 standard. The test tubes are manufactured by wet filament winding method, employing two different fiber types, two different fiber tension settings and five different winding angle configurations.

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The internal pressure test results of these specimens are studied in order to determine the mechanical characteristics, and the effects of the production variables on the behavior of the tubes. Pressure tests revealed that the carbon fiber reinforced composite tubes exhibited a better burst performance compared to the glass fiber reinforced tubes, and the maximum burst performance is achieved at a winding angle configuration of [54]3[90]1. In addition, the tension setting is found not to have a significant effect on the burst performance. The burst pressure data and the final failure modes are compared with the results of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code laminate analysis, and it was observed that there is a good agreement between the laminate analysis results and the experimental data. The stress strain behavior in hoop direction are also studied and hoop elastic constants are determined for the tubes. Keywords: composite, filament winding, internal pressure testing, burst pressure, hoop elastic constant.

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Z

FLAMAN SARGI TEKN LE RETLM KOMPOZT TPLERN BASIN TEST YNTEMYLE MEKANK KARAKTERZASYONU

Karpuz, Pnar Yksek Lisans, Metalurji ve Malzeme Mhendislii Blm Tez Yneticisi : Prof. Dr. Alpay ANKARA

Mays 2005, 104 sayfa

Bu almada i basn ykleri altnda alan filaman sarg tekniiyle retilmi kompozit tplerin mekanik zelliklerinin belirlenmesi ve tasarm uygulamalarnda ve mr almalarnda kullanlmak zere gerekli verilerin elde edilmesi amalanmtr. Bu amala i basn ykleri altnda malzeme iinde evresel ynde oluan gerinim ve gerilimler deneysel yntemlerle llm ve yine deneysel maksimum patlama basnc verileriyle birlikte tasarm uygulamalarnda kullanlabilecek ekilde deerlendirilmitir. Bu zelliklerin belirlenmesi iin iki farkl elyaf malzemesi, iki farkl elyaf gerilginlik deeri ve be farkl sarm as konfigrasyonundan slak filaman sarg yntemiyle retilmi kompozit tplere ASTM D1599-99 standardnn gereince i basn deneyleri uygulanmtr.

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basn deney sonular mekanik zellikleri ve retim parametrelerinin bu zelliklere etkisini belirlemek amacyla incelenmitir. Bu deneyler sonucunda karbon elyafla takviye edilmi tplerin patlama performanslarnn cam elyafla takviye edilmi tplere nazaran daha iyi olduu ve maksimum patlama dayancnn [54]3[90]1 sarm as konfigrasyonunda elde edildii grlmtr. Ekstra elyaf gerginliinin patlama performansna nemli bir etkisi tesbit edilmemitir. Elde edilen i basn patlama sonular ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code lamina analiz sonularyla karlatrlm ve sonularn uyum iersinde olduu gzlenmitir. almada ayrca tplerin gerilim gerinim davranlar incelenmi ve evresel yndeki elastik sabitleri de hesaplanmtr. Anahtar Kelimeler: kompozit, filaman sarg, i basn deneyi, patlama basnc, evresel elastik sabit.

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To My Family

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Alpay ANKARA for his guidance, encouragement, insight, advice and criticism throughout the research. I also want to express my thanks to the examining committee members for their invaluable contributions to this thesis. I am deeply thankful to mom and dad, whose emotional strength, free-flowing love and caring concern have helped shape my maturation. Without their patience and support, the research period would have been a complete disaster. I want to thank all the BARI Elektrik Endstrisi A.. staff for their support. But I want to express my special thanks to Aybars GEDZ, Fikret ENEL and Gkhan GVEN for their continuous concern, help and support; and their friendly and humorous, but very kind attitude towards me all throughout this work. In addition, the technical assistance and efforts of Hasan DEVREZ are greatly acknowledged. Finally, I want to thank all my friends, especially to Ahmet Semih SUNKAR, for their moral support in every occasion, thus making this study easier and more bearable for me. This study was supported by METU Scientific Research Project Funds; Grant No: BAP-2004-03-08-05.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PLAGIARISM ....................................................................................................iii ABSTRACT .........................................................................................................iv Z .........................................................................................................................vi DEDICATION ...................................................................................................viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ix TABLE OF CONTENTS .....................................................................................x LIST OF TABLES ..............................................................................................xiii LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................xiv CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................1 1.1 Objective Of The Study .......................................................................2 2. THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................4 2.1 Composites.............................................................................................4 2.1.1 Classification Of Composites .....................................................5 2.1.1.1 Metal Matrix Composites .....................................................5 2.1.1.2 Ceramic Matrix Composites .................................................6 2.1.1.3 Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) ..................................6 2.1.1.3.1 Matrix Materials ........................................................7 2.1.1.3.2 Reinforcement Materials ...........................................9 2.1.1.3.3 Manufacturing Methods ..........................................12 2.2 Mechanical Characterization of Filament Wound Tubes ...............17 2.2.1 Test Methods and Their Standards ............................................17 2.2.2 Literature Survey on Mechanical Characterization of Filament Wound Tubes ............................................................................19

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3. EXPERIMENTAL WORK .....................................................................28 3.1 Test Tube (Specimen) Design.............................................................28 3.2 Test Setup ............................................................................................30 3.2.1 Pressure Test Setup ...................................................................30 3.2.2 Test Fixtures ..............................................................................32 3.2.3 Strain Gauge Data Acqusition System ......................................33 3.3 Specimen Manufacturing ...................................................................34 3.3.1 Filament Winding Machine .......................................................34 3.3.2 Tooling.......................................................................................35 3.3.3 Filament Winding ......................................................................36 3.3.4 Cutting the Tubes and Grinding of End Reinforcements...........39 3.4 Tube Nomenclature ...........................