Paper 9: Tour Guiding Essentials Module 14: Communication

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THE DEVELOPMENT TEAM Principal Investigator Prof. S. P. Bansal, Vice Chancellor, Indira Gandhi University, Rewari Co-Principal Investigator Dr. Prashant K. Gautam, Director, UIHTM, Panjab University, Chandigarh Paper Coordinator Prof. Sandeep Kulshreestha, Director, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management Paper Co-Coordinator Dr. Saurabh Dixit, Nodal Officer, IITTM, Gwalior Content Writer Dr. Saurabh Dixit, Nodal Officer, IITTM, Gwalior Content Reviewer Dr. Prashant K. Gautam, Director, UIHTM, Panjab University, Chandigarh Paper 9: Tour Guiding Essentials Module 14: Communication
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Transcript of Paper 9: Tour Guiding Essentials Module 14: Communication

Director, UIHTM, Panjab University, Chandigarh
Paper Coordinator Prof. Sandeep Kulshreestha,
Director, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management
Paper Co-Coordinator Dr. Saurabh Dixit,
Nodal Officer, IITTM, Gwalior
Nodal Officer, IITTM, Gwalior
Director, UIHTM, Panjab University, Chandigarh
Paper 9: Tour Guiding Essentials Module 14: Communication
Items Description of Module
Module Title Communication
Objectives After completing this chapter you will
Learn about the importance of communication in
14.5 Measurement of Communication
Recommended Books
14.0 Introduction
Communication means to share. The word communication is derived from the Latin word
communiqué. As per Shannon, there are many steps in communication. Major ones are:-
The framing of open inspiration (Motivation)
2. Message creation and synthesis pre-composition
3. Message encoding for instance modernized data, made substance, talk, pictures
and so forth.
4. Transmission of the encoded data or message as a progression of signs using a
specific channel or medium.
5. Noise sources, for instance, trademark qualities and now and again human
development (both consider and unplanned) begin influencing the idea of signs spreading
from the sender to no less than one beneficiaries.
6. Reception of signs and re-assembling of the encoded message from a gathering of
received signals.
8. Interpretation and understanding the original message.
(C.E. Shannon. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" (PDF).
Recovered 2017-05-01. On twelfth May'2017)
14.1 Communication
The word communication is defined as an integration of two activities i.e. generation of
signals, transfer of signals farm one place to another or sending signals, receiving signals,
understanding meaning of signals.
Communication for a tour guide is like the spinal cord in a human body. A Tour guide
cannot survive without good communication. Guide is the person who communicates
hidden story behind a place, monument, market, and handcraft to the tourists.
Communication word is derived from the word communicate (it means to share).
‘Communi’ care is a Latin word.
Communication means to frame a message in your mind, to speak and listener listens to
the message and interprets in the brain. So, it is a process which passes on some
information from speaker to listener. Communication is complete when speaker speaks
(what he wants) and listeners understand (the same message). We are incomplete without
Communication is the backbone of tourism and travel industry. Without communication
we cannot think of any activity n tourism. Right from designing of a tour package to
completion of tour, communication is involved in every step. A tour guide must have
good idea about communication. He must also have good command for better
communication. Toru guides must practices verbal and non-verbal communication. He
must understand gesture, tone, and lingual, and posture, verbal, formal and informal
communication. Communication must be given weight during training of a tour guide.
Toru guide must also learn the use of icons and their meaning. Tour guides must create a
good content for the destinations they are visiting quite often on tour packages. They
must practice meet and greet exercises with the tourists. They must know how to handle a
big group using gestures, How to display confidence in front of tourist, How to
handshake, How to gather and disburse people at the destination.
A tour guide must also learn to write formal letters, e-mails, small messages, texting over
electronic media. He must also learn English and other major languages they are
concerned with. If your company is dealing with French group, you must also learn
French and non-verbal communications of people of that country. Good hand writing
used to improve communication between travel company and tour guide.
Communication can be improved by rehearsing regularly.
14.2 Medium of communication
Medium means channel or system of communication between sender and receiver. It is
the means by which information is transmitted from speaker (i.e. tour guide) to the
listener (i.e. tourists). It can be divided into two classes’ physical media and mechanical
Physical medium
It means channels where the person speaking can be seen or heard by the group members
or tourists. Here, tourists not only hear the message, he can see or feel body language also
and feel the climate of tourist place/ monument/ site. In majority of situations tourists
expect physical communication with the tour guide.
Mechanical medium
In this type of communication medium is mechanical. It means written or electronic
channels. Examples of mechanical mediums are:-
a. E-Mails
b. Letters
14.3 Communication in Tour Guiding
A tour guide job is based on communication only. Communication is a process, which
requires a huge collection of abilities in relational handling, tuning in, watching, talking,
addressing, investigating, motions, and assessing empowers joint effort and cooperation.
Communication is the backbone of any activity in tourism and travel trade. Without
communication, we cannot complete the task. Communication synergies speed of any
A tour guide must have good verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal
communication helps in commentary making and non-verbal communication is useful for
communication with the travel agency.
Communication also deals with the era of signs, exchange of signs cultivate one place to
another or sending signals, getting signals, understanding significance of signs. A tour
guide must know meaning of symbols, icons found at many places. A tour guide is an
individual who imparts story behind (related to) a place, landmarks, markets, and
handcrafts to the tourists/ visitors. The word communication is related to the word impart
(it intends to share).
14. 4 Classification of communication
There are many channels of communication. Channel means medium. These channels
What is verbal communication?
Verbal communication means message conveyed through the voice from sender to
receiver. It depends on voice, pitch, rhythm, volume and way of speaking. Most of the
messages/ information are conveyed verbally in travel agencies, hotels, monuments,
railway stations, airports. For example: you must be familiar with railway station
announcement system or announce at airport. If information is the clearly audible and
understand by the passenger, there are chances that passengers will not be able to catch
the train or flight.
Think about natural calamities Tsunami, Earth Quake, SARS. Message is passed on and
action is expected at the same time. One wrong message or miscommunication may
create chaos at the tourism destination.
Non-verbal communication
Travel agents collect information form tourists about the name, age, source of travel, the
destination of travel etc. If there is any mistake on the part of travel agent, there will be a
penalty on him. One tour group boarded the train and after boarding tour guide found that
ticket is booked for next day. As non-verbal communication is in writing, it is more
important and authentic.
One way communication
A message is passed one from sender to receiver is one way communication. One way
communication is used when authorities pass on the message to a group of people. You
must be familiar with travel channels in TV, these channels are one way communication.
E-Mail is a one way communication. The Receiver has time to think and respond in one
way communication.
Two way communication
If there is a message from one side and simultaneous receiver is also responding, it is two
way communications. Communication trough telephone, mobile is two way
communications. Receiver has to respond immediately to two way communication.
Message is acknowledged in two way communication. Two way communications is fast,
Non-verbal communication
Verbal means speaking. Communication in which we communicate without speaking is
non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is very important for day to day
life. It has immense less significance in tourism and travel industry. For example: folding
hands to welcome the tourist in place of saying Namaste is non-verbal communication. It
includes eye to eye contact, handshake, winking etc. Speech (verbal communication) also
contains non-verbal segments known as paralanguage, e.g. musicality, emphasis, beat,
and stress. It impacts communication most at the instinctive level and develops trust. In
like way, formed works fuse nonverbal segments, for instance, handwriting style, spatial
strategy of words and the use of emoticons to pass on feelings. Nonverbal communication
delineates the systems of passing on a sort of information as non-semantic depictions.
Instances of nonverbal communication consolidate haptic communication, chromatic
communication, signals, non-verbal communication, outward appearances, eye to eye
connection, and how one dress. Tourists coming from faraway places cannot understand
spoken words (if there is different language and that language speaking guide is not
available), so here non-verbal communication is more powerful. Nonverbal
communication furthermore relates to objective of a message.
There are many reasons to justify that why non-verbal communication expects a vital part
in communication:
a. Non-verbal communication is present everywhere.
b. They are fused into every single communication show. To have indicated
communication, all non-verbal channels, for example, the body, go up against,
voice, appearance, touch, partition, timing, and other environmental forces must
be secured in the midst of eye to eye affiliation.
c. Created communication can similarly have non-verbal qualities. Messages and
web visits empower individual's the contrasting option to change content literary
style shades, stationary, emoticons, and capitalization with a particular ultimate
objective to get non-verbal prompts into a verbal medium.
d. Non-verbal communication is multifunctional.
e. Many particular non-verbal diverts are secured meanwhile in communication
acts, and empower the likelihood for synchronous messages to be sent and got.
f. Non-verbal communication may outline a broad vernacular structure.
g. Smiling, crying, coordinating, stroking, and glaring are non-verbal practices that
are used and grasped by tourists/ travelers (any individual) paying little regard to
h. Non-verbal signs allow the most major kind of communication, when verbal
communication is not effective in view of vernacular obstructions.
Posture and movement
Posture and movement of a person tells/ implicates number of things. It is a kind of
informal communication. Your movement defines your confidence level. You must also
know personal distances to be kept keeping in mind cross cultural issues. Tour guides’
body language and posture provides important information to supplement words.
Facial Expressions
Being a tour guide, we must welcome our guest with Namaste and smile. If tourists do
not understand the meaning of Namaste, but, he can understand by your smiling face that
you are welcoming him. Facial expressions are very important in the tourism industry.
Tourists understand your feeling through your facial expressions. Our face is very
expressive. It can communicate countless emotions without speaking or saying a single
word. Facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, disgust etc. are
almost same in every culture. It is valuable for a tour guide to use an appropriate facial
Emoticons are used in social media in place of facial expressions in real time situation.
The Gestures implicate your focus area and what you wish to point out. Gesture is a form
of non-verbal communication and non-vocal form of communication in which bodily
action communicate a message. It is used either in place of in conjunction with speech.
Being a tour guide, you must know hand gestures and other body actions. Hand gestures
make group members (members of tour group) to listen you. You should know how to
make your gestures purposeful. You must be careful and aware cross culturally. Gestures
are attention directing, requesting information, reference specifying, supporting,
answering questions in yes or no. You can use hand gestures for:-
a. Listing
g. Just a part
o. You listen to me
p. Stop
q. We
Verbal communication
Verbal communication is communication through spoken words. Verbal communication
is the talked or made transport out of a message. Verbal communication is the use of
sound and words to express something. It is the opposite of expression through manners
and/ or gestures. For example: saying Namaste to tourists is a verbal communication. It
can also be defined as sharing the information with clients/ tourists using speech is a
verbal communication. Toru Commentary is a form of verbal communication. Tourists
easily understand spoken words, so verbal communication is very powerful. Good or
effective verbal communication depends on a number of factors. These factors are:-
1. Clarity of speech
If you are guiding at any tourism destination. Your speech/ commentary must be
clear. Otherwise, tourist will not understand what you are saying or what do you
want to say or express. Pronounce every word clearly (as probably tourist is from
some other place/ state/ region/ country). Tourist might be having some other
language for example: Malayalam, French, and Spanish etc.
2. Cool and Calm
Remain cool and calm while speaking to the tourists. If you are cool and calm,
you will be able to decide what to speak and what not to speak. You will be able
to speak in better way.
A cool and calm person can speak with patience and deliver the message properly.
3. Focused
Talk to the point. As you have limited time to interact with the tourists, be
focused and should know what to speak. Speak to the point. If you are focused,
you can give more examples related to tourism, tourist place, traditions, rituals,
festivals, monuments, peoples, political scenario, weather, geography etc. A
focused tour guide can easily satisfy tour group members.
( accessed on 30th
Diction is the style of speaking or choosing words. Diction makes a lot of difference in
commentary making of a good tour guide, the way you select words in your commentary
and general speaking with the group member cerate difference.
Clear linguistic
Linguistic is the study of language and its forms. It is about structure and use of
psychology of language.
Tone means vocal sound of a person with reference to the quality, strength and pitch;
attitude of a place or writing. It gives strength of firmness to your voice.
A tour guide must have habit to speak in the voice, which can be heard by all group
members. You can use cordless phone or collar mice ( if the tourist place is
It is related to the speed of which you are speaking in front of the client or tourists. If rate
is more, client will not be able to understand your words or sentences. If the rate is too
slow, you will take much time to cover the topic. The Rate must be according to the
tourists and their background of language. When you are reading through a side show in
presentation, rate is lower than normal. Normally, we speak about 125 words per minute.
Rate of speech is very important while delivering commentary to the group. It is less in
the case of a group interaction and more in case of single or Fit’s.
We can also classify communication on the basis of direction from sender to receiver and
receiver to sender.
1. One way communication
2. Two way communication
In tourism and hospitality industry one must good in both verbal and non-verbal
communication. It is a part of service industry. Product is in intangible form. So,
whatever you have committed in writing that is important. Tour guiding speaking in front
of a group must be good in verbal communication.
14.5 Measurement of Communication
In tour guiding, individual must assess following variables to measure communication.
Creation of content
Being a tour guide, you must plan has to create content for tour guiding. It means,
creating or drafting commentary, finalizing itinerary program received from the travel
accompany, checking the script for best communication, checking and rechecking words
as per the adaptability of the tour group ( as mostly groups are from other areas and there
is difference in language and pronunciation). Content is the most powerful tool which
drives a good commentary and results in the best feedback from the clients. Content must
be too the point. You must focus on each and every word of the content to further refine
it. Try to translate localized words, if possible. Give more examples.
Delivery of content
Second most important part in communication is delivery. Proper delivery can ensure that
receiver is able to receive information derived by the tour guide. While delivering
commentary, you must ensure that words are spoken properly and tone, volume and rate
were all right. While delivering content through commentary keep your volume of voice,
so that your voice should be audible to all group members.
Consumption of content
Consumption of content means your communiqué is consumed or accepted by the listener
i.e. tourists. If he has understood your message properly, it means content is consumed.
Now a day majority of people are multi-tasker and if your commentary (content) is
consumed properly that is your success. You must make your content of commentary
easy to consume. Provide entertaining content. Ensure that your content is imaginable (as
tourists must be able to think about the past, if you are narrating him history of
monument.). Be focused and try t avoid dual content consumption (at the end of
tourists.). Being a tour guide, you must try to increase content engagement (at the end of
tourists) by enriching your content with selective words. Tourist expects content of their
interest. As long as it satisfies then, they take interest in commentary and pay attention to
the message otherwise they roam around here and there.
Management of content
It means creation, editing, making content available to other ( in the form of commentary
or some other form of information).
Engagement and outcomes
We may develop understanding of how to reach our clients and what will be possible
outcomes. Ultimately, this will lead to minimize the wastage and renew focus on the
guiding work.
Recovered 2017-05-01. On twelfth May'2017