Paleontology 1- Vertebrate Lab - ccsf.edu Paleontology 1- Vertebrate Lab Graptolites Fish Conodonts

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Transcript of Paleontology 1- Vertebrate Lab - ccsf.edu Paleontology 1- Vertebrate Lab Graptolites Fish Conodonts

  • 5/7/2011

    1

    Paleontology 1-

    Vertebrate Lab

    Graptolites

    Fish

    Conodonts

    Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Birds

    Mammals

    Vertebrate Evolution

    Chordates – Animals with a notocord, not necessarily a backbone.

    Vertebrates are a subphylum of Chordates

    Earliest records of Chordates are without vertebrae, soft-bodied.

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    –a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, and gill slits

    Amphioxus

    Oldest Known Chordate

    Yunnanozoon lividum 525 million year old rocks of China

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    Phylum Chordata

    Graptolites

    Subphylum Vertebrata

    Conodonts

    Fish

    Sharks

    Bony Fish

    Tetrapods

    Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Amniote egg

    Birds

    Mammals

    Horse teeth

    Marine

    mammal

    vertebrae

    Graptolites

    Nemagraptus gracilis.

    http://www.premdesign.com/nemlrg.jpg

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    Fish

    Ostracoderms –

    –earliest (Cambrian and Ordovician)

    – jawless

    – shallow marine

    –Probably bottom feeders

    Ostracoderms

    Cambrian to Devonian

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Ostracoderm.jpg http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/etext/hoosier/image/pa-18.jpg

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    Fish evolve jaws

     Joints in forward gill arches

    Mouth could open wider –Pumped more oxygen past gills

    –Allowed eating larger prey

    Acanthodians – 1st jawed fish –Spiny, scaly, teeth, reduced body armor

    –Most abundant in the Devonian, extinct in Permian

    Fish with jaws: 1st Acanthodians

    Various primitive acanthodians from Early Devonian England and

    Scotland, Mesacanthus pusillus, Parexus falcatus, Ishnacanthus

    gracilis

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Mesacanthus_Parexus_Ischnacanthus.JPG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Devonian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland

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    Age of Fishes = Devonian

    Placoderms

    – Late Silurian to Permian

    –Plate-skinned fish – heavy armor

    –Freshwater and ocean

    –Bottom dwellers (small) and Large predators

    Dunkleosteus More than 12m in length

    Phyllolepis

    Coccosteus (top, Middle Devonian), Campbellodus (left, Late Devonian),

    and Bothriolepis (bottom right. Late Devonian) ©

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DunkleosteusSannoble.JPG http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Dunkleosteus_BW.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Phyllolepis12DB.jpg

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    Age of Fishes = Devonian

    Cartilaginous fish – Chrondrichthyes

    –Sharks, rays and skates

    –Early Devonian to recent

    White shark

    Ray

    Skate

    Age of Fishes = Devonian

     Bony Fish – Osteichthyes – Ray-finned fish: with thin bones radiating in fins

     Devonian to Recent

     Most common fish today; Mesozoic and Cenozoic

    – Lobe-finned fish: with thick bones and muscles for fins  Silurian to Recent

     Many extinct in Permian

     Coelacanth- thought to be extinct in Cretaceous, found in modern seas = Latimeria

     Lungfish has modified swim bladder that allows it to breath air

     Crossopterigians probably evolved into amphibians

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/White_shark.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Dasyatis_americana_bonaire.jpg

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    Transition to Amphibians

    Group of Crossopterigians called rhipidistians appear to be ancestors of amphibians

    Structural similarities are striking

    Earlier and earlier finds are causing some rethinking of timing (Acanthostega)

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    Crossopterigian Amphibian

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    Vertebrates Invade Land

    Several transitional species

    –Acanthostega – many features of amphibians but not truly land dwelling; shallow fresh water

    –Panderichthys – transitional, shallow water

    –Tiktaalik roseae – fish and tetrapod features

    Oldest known amphibian, Ichthyostega, Late Devonian

    Acanthostega

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acanthostega_gunnari.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/Acanthostega_BW.jpg

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    Panderichthys

    Ichthyostega – oldest amphibian

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Panderichthys_BW.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Panderichthys12DB.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Ichthyostega_BW.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Ichthyostega_skull.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Ichthyostega_-_skull.JPG

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    Carboniferous Landscape

    Labyrinthodont – Late Paleozoic

    Proterogyrinus

    Labyrinthodont

    tooth cross-section

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Proterogyrinus_DB.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Labyrinthodon_Mivart.png

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    Eryops Large labyrinthodont amphibian

    Fate of the Amphibians

    Many became extinct at Permian/Triassic extinction event (66%)

    Few survived the Cretaceous/Tertiary event and those are small

    Frogs, salamanders etc.

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    Reptiles conquer the land

    Amphibians must have water in which to lay gelatinous eggs.

    Reptiles have Amniotic Eggs that have shells and don’t dry out in air.

    Reptiles therefore could venture farther onto the land

    Amniote Egg

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    Westlothiana – Oldest reptile?

    Late Mississippian of Scotland

    Hylonomus lyelli

    30 cm long. Joggins Cliffs, Nova Scotia

    Found in tree stumps

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Westlothiana_BW.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Hylonomus_BW.jpg

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    Pelycosaurs

     Fin-backed reptiles  Evolved in Pennsylvanian; dominant by

    Permian  Herbivores and Carnivores  Sail back used for?

    – Sexual display – Protection – Scary display – Thermoregulatory device

     Capture sun’s heat  Turn to wind for cooling

    Reptiles conquer the land

    Amphibians must have water in which to lay gelatinous eggs.

    Reptiles have Amniotic Eggs that have shells and don’t dry out in air.

    Reptiles therefore could venture farther onto the land

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    Amniote Egg

    Westlothiana – Oldest reptile?

    Late Mississippian of Scotland

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Westlothiana_BW.jpg

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    Hylonomus lyelli

    30 cm long. Joggins Cliffs, Nova Scotia

    Found in tree stumps

    Pelycosaurs

     Fin-backed reptiles  Evolved in Pennsylvanian; dominant by

    Permian  Herbivores and Carnivores  Sail back used for?

    – Sexual display – Protection – Scary display – Thermoregulatory device

     Capture sun’s heat  Turn to wind for cooling

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Hylonomus_BW.jpg

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    Fate of the Reptiles

    66% of reptiles and amphibians became extinct in the Permian/Triassic mass extinction event

    Reptiles radiated in the Mesozoic to become dominant animal life form

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pristeroognathus_DB.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lemurosaurus.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Estemmenosuchus_BW.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anteosaurus_BW.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/Oligokyphus_BW.jpg

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    Reptiles

    Stem reptiles are the protothyrids of the Mississippian

    Pelycosaurs were dominant in the Pennsylvanian and Permian (sail- backs)

    Archosaurs include crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and birds

    Dinosaurs

    Archosaurs – ancestors of the dinosaurs

    –Small (

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    Dinosaurs and Relatives

    Two Types of Dinosaurs

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    Hadrosaur “Duck –billed”

    dinosaur

    Miasaura nest and chick

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    Ceratopsids

    Triceratops

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    Stegosaurus skull and reconstruction

    Ankylosaurus reconstruction

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tetestegosaurus.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Stegosaurus_BW.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Ank