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Wednesday, November 14, 2007
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Indo-Pakistani WarsI -INTRODUCTION Indo-Pakistani Wars, three wars fought between India and Pakistan since the two nations gained independence from Britain in 1947. The first and second wars (1947-1949; 1965) were fought over the territory of Jammu and Kashmr, in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The status of the territory remains a matter of dispute between India and Pakistan. The third war (1971) involved Indian military intervention in a civil war in Pakistan. This brief and decisive intervention resulted in the independence of Pakistans eastern province, East Pakistan, as the nation of Bangladesh. II -HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The roots of Indo-Pakistani discord can be traced to the process of British colonial withdrawal from the Indian subcontinent. In 1947 the British government decided to partition the British Indian Empire into the independent states of India and Pakistan. This decision followed the failure of the two nationalist parties of British India, the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, to resolve their differences in negotiations preceding independence. The Muslim League advocated the creation of a separate state called Pakistan to serve as the homeland for Muslims of South Asia. The Congress, on the other hand, officially supported building a single country based on secular (nonreligious) nationalism. That single country would have been predominantly Hindu, however, because Hindus greatly outnumbered Muslims in British India. These two competing ideologies of state-building collided over the status of Jammu and Kashmr, which had been one of 562 so-called princely states in the British Indian Empire. These states were nominally
independent as long as they recognized the paramountcy (authority) of the British crown. Under this colonial doctrine, the maharajas (monarchs) of these states exercised all powers except those pertaining to defense, foreign affairs, and communications. With the end of colonial rule, the maharajas were informed by the last British viceroy to India, Lord Louis Mountbatten, that they had to choose between joining either India or Pakistan. Mountbatten ruled out the prospect of independence. Furthermore, he decreed that predominantly Muslim princely states that bordered Pakistan would become part of that nation. Jammu and Kashmr therefore posed an interesting conundrum. It had a predominantly Muslim population, a Hindu ruler, and its borders abutted both India and Pakistan. The Pakistani leadership laid claim to the princely state on grounds that fellow Muslims in a neighboring state had to be incorporated into Pakistan to ensure its completeness. India, on the other hand, was interested in incorporating the territory into the Indian Union to demonstrate that a predominantly Muslim state could thrive within the context of a secular India. However, the monarch of Jammu and Kashmr, Maharaja Hari Singh, had hopes of maintaining his states independence and delayed accession to either India or Pakistan, even after British rule formally ended in mid-August 1947. III -THE FIRST INDO-PAKISTANI WAR A -Events Before the War In October 1947 a rebellion broke out amid the Pashtun tribes in the western areas of Jammu and Kashmr. The Muslim Pashtuns had long resented the Hindu maharajas rule, and in the wake of the British departure they moved to exploit the power vacuum and challenge the maharajas authority. Pakistani irregular forces, comprising members of the Pakistani army disguised as local tribesmen, entered the fray to support the Pashtun rebels. Within a week the rebels and their allies attacked and seized the border town of Muzzafarbd and then moved toward Srnagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmr. Hari Singh, now in a state of panic for fear Srnagar would fall to the rebels, appealed to Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru for military assistance. Nehru set two preconditions for the provision of assistance: first, the maharaja would have to accede Jammu and Kashmr to India, and second, the accession would have to receive the approval of Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah, leader of the secular Jammu and Kashmr National Conference, the largest political party in the state. In late October, satisfied these preconditions had been met, Nehru accepted the maharajas Instrument of Accession that gave India powers of defense, foreign affairs, and communications in Jammu and Kashmr. Pakistan immediately disputed the validity of the maharajas accession, claiming he had signed under duress. B -Major Events During the War On October 27 Indian troops were airlifted into Srnagar to stop the Pakistan-aided tribal advance. By this time the rebel forces, calling themselves Azad Kashmr (Free Kashmr), had captured a third of the states territory. Over the next several months the Indian army fought a number of pitched battles with the rebel forces. In the spring of 1948, Indian forces mounted a major offensive designed to regain much of the lost territory. This Indian offensive led to the direct involvement of the regular (uniformed) Pakistani army. The fighting escalated during the course of the year, but neither side made significant territorial gains. On the advice of Mountbatten, Nehru had referred the dispute to the United Nations Security Council in January 1948. The council subsequently passed a series of resolutions seeking an end to the conflict. The resolutions called upon Pakistan to end its aggression in Jammu and Kashmr and enjoined India to hold a plebiscite (vote) to determine the wishes of the Kashmris on the final disposition of their state. Both sides eventually agreed to these terms, and the war ended on January 1, 1949, with the declaration of an UNsponsored cease-fire. By then about 1,500 soldiers and rebels had died in battle. C -Events After the War Because the territorial dispute remained unresolved, Jammu and Kashmr was partitioned along a line that reflected troop deployments at the time of the cease-fire. The de facto border was known as the Cease-Fire Line (CFL) until 1972, when it was renamed the Line of Control (LOC). Since the partition, about one-third of the former princely state has been under Pakistani control. This area includes a small autonomous regionknown by Pakistanis as Azad Kashmr and by Indians as Pakistanioccupied Kashmras well as a larger section directly administered by Pakistan, known as the Northern Areas. The remaining two-thirds of the historic region, including the southern province of Jammu, has been under Indian control. This area is administered as Jammu and Kashmr State. (In historical references, the name of Jammu and Kashmr, commonly shortened to Kashmr, refers to the entire area of the former princely state.) In 1954 the legislative assembly of Jammu and Kashmr State formally voted to join the state into the Indian Union. In Indias view, the vote ratified the maharajas 1947 accession and made the state an integral part of India.
After the war, the United Nations sought to reach an accord that would be acceptable to both parties and finally resolve the status of the disputed territory. However, these efforts proved futile as neither India nor Pakistan appeared willing to make significant concessions. IV -THE SECOND INDO-PAKISTANI WAR In 1965 India and Pakistan went to war over Jammu and Kashmr a second time. Pakistan, dissatisfied with both multilateral and bilateral negotiations, again sought to wrest Jammu and Kashmr from India through the use of force. This effort failed as India held its ground, and the war ended in a stalemate after almost two months of armed conflict. Although the second war over the territory was shorter than the first, the increased firepower of the two nations resulted in a more deadly war, with a total of about 6,800 battle casualties. A -Events Before the War A number of factors precipitated the second conflict over Jammu and Kashmr. In the wake of a border war between India and China in 1962, efforts by the United States and Britain to settle the territorial dispute had, like the UN mediation process, met with little success. Furthermore, India significantly expanded its defense spending after suffering losses in the border war against China. At a regional level, India had started to integrate Jammu and Kashmr State into the rest of the country, such as bringing it under the jurisdiction of the Indian Supreme Court. All of these factorsthe failure of diplomatic efforts, the growth of Indias military, and Indias efforts at integrationprovoked Pakistani misgivings about the erosion of its claim to Kashmr. When rioting broke out in Srnagar in December 1963 following the theft of a holy relic from the Hazratbal mosque, the Pakistani leadership construed the anti-Indian tone of the disturbances as a sign of support for the merger of Kashmr with Pakistan. Accordingly, Pakistani president Muhammad Ayub Khan and his foreign minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, decided to try once again to wrest the territory from India. B -Major Events During the War Pakistani army personnel disguised as local Kashmris began to infiltrate into the Kashmr Valley in early August 1965. Once they entered the valley, the infiltrators intended to foment a rebellion among Kashmri Muslims. The strategy, known as Operation Gibraltar, went awry from the very outset, however. The Kashmris did not respond as expected; instead, they turned the infiltrators over to the local authorities. Accordingly, the Indian army moved to secure the border and on August 15 scored a major victory after a prolonged artillery barrage. Attacks and counterattacks followed in quick succession. On September 1 the Pakistanis opened a new front in the southern sector, catching Indian forces unprepared. Indian forces responded with air strikes, leading to Pakistani retaliation. On September 5 the Pakistanis made a significant thrust into Indian territory that threatened to cut off Jammu and Kashmr State from the rest of India. The following day Indian troops crossed the international border in the Pakistani province of Punjab near its capital of Lahore. Faced with this threat to Lahore, the Pakistanis launched a counterattack at Khem Karan in the neighboring Indian state of Punjab. This attack, spearheaded by the Pakistani First Armored Division, was anticipated by the Indian forces and failed, with Pakistani forces suffering major losses. C -Events After the War By mid-September the war had reached a stalemate, and the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution calling for a cease-fire. The Indian government accepted the cease-fire resolution on September 21, as did the Pakistani government the following day. The two parties subsequently attended Soviet-hosted peace talks in Toshkent (Tashkent), the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (present-day Uzbekistan). On January 10 the two sides signed the Toshkent Agreement and reestablished the CFL as the de facto border in Jammu and Kashmr. V -THE THIRD INDO-PAKISTANI WAR Unlike the first and second Indo-Pakistani wars, the third war, fought in 1971, did not involve the status of Kashmr. Instead, it began as a Pakistani civil war in which East Pakistan, the eastern province of Pakistan, sought to secede from the country. This conflict escalated into a 14-day war between India and Pakistan after Indias military intervened to support the secession of East Pakistan. Although even shorter than the previous wars, the third war resulted in 11,500 battle deathsthe highest of all three conflicts. It also resulted in a truncated Pakistan, as East Pakistan became the sovereign nation of Bangladesh. A -Events Before the War The 1947 partition of the British Indian empire had created a Pakistan comprised of two wingsWest Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) and East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan; now Bangladesh)that were separated by 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of Indian territory. In the wake of Pakistans first free and fair election in
December 1970, the leaders of the western and eastern wings failed to reach an understanding about power sharing. In March 1971, after talks failed to break the deadlock, the Pakistani government launched a military crackdown in East Pakistan. During what was called Operation Searchlight, large numbers of the Bengali intelligentsia in East Pakistan were killed and many prominent Bengali leaders were thrown in jail. In response, the Awami League leadership of East Pakistan declared the provinces independence on March 26. As the crackdown escalated into a full-blown and brutal civil war over the next two months, some 10 million Bengalis fled East Pakistan and took refuge in the neighboring Indian state of West Bengal. The Indian leadership of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi quickly decided that it was cheaper to resort to war against Pakistan than to absorb millions of refugees into Indias already bloated population. Highly antagonistic relations between India and Pakistan also contributed to Indias decision to intervene in Pakistans civil war. Gandhi and her advisers fashioned a strategy to support the creation of a separate state for ethnic Bengalis. This strategy involved support for the indigenous Bengali resistance movement, led by the Mukti Bahini (Liberation Force). To this end, Indias military intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing, helped to organize, train, and arm these insurgents. The Mukti Bahini managed to harass the regular Pakistani army units stationed in East Pakistan and helped to create conducive conditions for a fullscale Indian military intervention in early December. B -Major Events During the War On December 3, 1971, the third Indo-Pakistani war formally began with a Pakistani air attack on a number of air bases in northwestern India. The Indian air force responded the next day by striking at several West Pakistani air bases. Along with the airborne attack, the Pakistani army simultaneously launched a ground operation in Kashmr and in the Punjab region, thereby opening a western front. In the western sector a number of pitched battles took place, particularly in Azad Kashmr near Pnch (Poonch) and Chhamb. Other major engagements took place farther to the south in the Punjab region at DerNnak and Anpgarh. Even farther south, an invading Pakistani tank column was bombed by the Indian air force, which carried out as many as 4,000 sorties during the conflict. The use of air power was more limited in East Pakistan. The real thrust into the province was made by three Indian army divisions that launched a five-pronged attack on Dhaka, the provincial capital, and received the surrender of Pakistani forces there on December 16. The following day, India declared a unilateral cease-fire, and Pakistani leader General Muhammad Yahya Khan called on his forces to reciprocate. East Pakistan immediately seceded from Pakistan and became the sovereign nation of Bangladesh. C -Events After the War In 1972 Pakistani president Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (formerly the foreign minister) met with Indian prime minister Gandhi at the hill resort town of Simla in northern India to discuss a postwar settlement. Although the third Indo-Pakistani war had not been triggered by events in Kashmr, the unresolved issues surrounding that disputed state weighed heavily in the settlement talks. The two leaders negotiated a settlement that recognized the de facto border in Jammu and Kashmr as the Line of Control (LOC). Both sides agreed to abstain from the use of force to settle the Kashmr dispute, and India agreed to return some 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. VI -KASHMR: THE UNRESOLVED DISPUTE Indo-Pakistani relations continued to be strained after the Simla Agreement, for it did not address the final status of Kashmr. Armed hostilities continued to erupt in the territory along the LOC, making any political resolution to the dispute highly unlikely. The vast majority of Indias political establishment has indicated a willingness to settle the dispute along the LOC and formally cede the Pakistani-controlled portion of the state to Pakistan. However, Pakistan has refused to accept the status quo in Kashmr as long as Muslimmajority areas, such as the fertile Kashmr Valley, are under Indian administration. Meanwhile, the proliferation of nuclear weapons by both India and Pakistan since the 1970s has dramatically increased the stakes of their long-standing territorial dispute. Both India and Pakistan acknowledge that the Simla Agreement requires them to settle their bilateral disputes without resorting to the use of force. However, neither one has been willing or able to uphold this provision, and they disagree over who is to blame for continuing violence in the territory. In addition, Indian and Pakistani officials interpret other important aspects of the Simla Agreement quite differently. Indian decision-makers believe that the agreement supersedes all former UN resolutions and requires strictly bilateral negotiations to bring a resolution to the dispute. The Pakistani side argues that the agreement leaves open the possibility of multilateral negotiations. The varying interpretations of this document aside, the two parties remain fundamentally at odds over the terms of any resolution to the dispute. A -The Kashmr Insurgency Since 1989 the dispute over Kashmr has taken on a new dimension due to the emergence of a separatist insurgency among Muslims in the Indian-controlled portion of the territory. Described as an ethnoreligious
(ethnic and religious) insurgency, it initially involved mostly Muslim Kashmris. Many Pakistanis, Afghans, and Arabs subsequently joined the insurgency, increasing its militancy. Pakistani support has helped to sustain the insurgency materially and prevent its suppression by Indian security forces. Fighting between the insurgents and Indian security forces has resulted in more casualties than all three Indo-Pakistani wars combined. Although estimates vary, most dispassionate estimates suggest that about 40,000 individuals have lost their lives since the onset of the insurgency. Both the rebels and the Indian security forces are known to have committed substantial human rights violations. Politically, the principal demand of the insurgency is that India hold a plebiscite to determine the status of the territory. This demand rests on the assumption that the Muslim-majority areas of the state would prevail, leading to secession from the Indian Union. Some of the insurgents support merger with Pakistan, while others want a unified, independent Kashmr state. The most militant members of the insurgency, whose numbers have swelled in recent years, create mayhem and terror without any clear political agenda. Meanwhile, India steadfastly refuses to hold a plebiscite on the premise that Jammu and Kashmr State is an integral part of the Indian Union, as provided for in the Indian constitution. Elections to the states legislative assembly have consistently brought to power moderate candidates who support this view. The Jammu and Kashmr Liberation Front (JKLF) and the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen are the two principal insurgent groups of indigenous Kashmri origins. The JKLF renounced violence in the mid-1980s. However, it has refused to enter the political process under the terms of the Indian constitution. In addition to the insurgent groups, a number of separatist organizations have banded together under the aegis of the All-Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC). The APHC has also refused to enter the political process even though its members are not involved in the insurgency. B -Recent Developments Since the late 1990s, the situation in Kashmr has been especially tense. In May 1998 India and Pakistan each exploded nuclear devices during weapons tests. These demonstrations of nuclear capabilities were clearly intended to intimidate the other side. Afterwards, both sides came under intense international pressure to resolve the Kashmr dispute, lest it escalate into a nuclear war. In an attempt to allay international concerns, Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee accepted the invitation of his Pakistani counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, to visit Pakistan. Accordingly, Vajpayee traveled to the Pakistani city of Lahore in February 1999 to inaugurate a bus service linking it with the nearby Indian city of Amritsar. This meeting at Lahore was seen as an initial attempt to usher in a more cordial Indo-Pakistani relationship. In early May, however, units of the Pakistani Northern Light Infantry, a paramilitary unit with troops recruited mostly from the Pakistan-administered Northern Areas, made incursions across the LOC at Dras and Kargil. Although initially caught by surprise, the Indian army responded with vigor and managed to dislodge the Pakistani intruders. Sharif, in an attempt to save face, sought and obtained the intercession of the United States from President Bill Clinton. Clintons agreement to intercede rested on the restoration of the sanctity of the LOC. Under Indian military and American diplomatic pressure, Sharif agreed to Clintons terms and the conflict was brought to a close. In October 1999 General Pervez Musharraf, the chief of staff of the Pakistani army, overthrew Sharifs democratically elected but increasingly authoritarian regime. Pakistans relations with India, which had been strained as a consequence of the Kargil conflict, worsened under Musharraf. Indian leaders accused Musharraf of continuing to materially assist the Kashmri insurgents. Musharraf denied these allegations, insisting that his regime was only involved in providing moral, political, and diplomatic support to the insurgents. The most dramatic deterioration in relations came after December 13, 2001, when members of two Pakistanbased insurgent groups, the Jaish-e-Muhammad and the Lashkar-e-Taiba, attacked the Indian national parliament in Delhi. Prompt action on the part of local police and paramilitary forces contained the ferocity of the attack and limited the number of deaths. In the aftermath of this attack, India recalled its ambassador from Pakistan, severed road and rail links, and dramatically increased its military deployments along the IndoPakistani border and in Jammu and Kashmr State. Relations between the two countries continued to worsen through much of 2002 as additional terrorist attacks took place on Indian soil and India continued to exert growing military pressure on Pakistan. In Kashmr, artillery fire routinely erupted along the LOC. Both countries increased troop deployments along their shared border, amassing a total of about 1 million troops. Fearing an outbreak of war between two nuclear-armed states, the United States and a number of other major powers intervened to defuse the increasing tensions. The status of Jammu and Kashmr remains one of the most volatile territorial disputes in the world, and India and Pakistan are no closer to reaching a resolution in the foreseeable future.
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PakistanI -INTRODUCTION Pakistan, officially Islamic Republic of Pakistan, republic in South Asia, marking the area where South Asia converges with Southwest Asia and Central Asia. The capital of Pakistan is Islmbd; Karchi is the countrys largest city. The area of present-day Pakistan was the cradle of the earliest known civilization of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilization (2500?-1700 BC). The territory was part of the Mughal Empire from 1526 until the 1700s, when it came under British rule. Pakistan gained independence in August 1947. It initially comprised two parts, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which were separated by about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of territory within India. In December 1971 East Pakistan seceded and became the independent republic of Bangladesh. II -LAND AND RESOURCES Pakistan is bordered on the west by Iran, on the north and northwest by Afghanistan, on the northeast by China, on the east and southeast by India, and on the south by the Arabian Sea. A panhandle of Afghanistan territory in the northwest, the Wakhan Corridor, separates Pakistan and Tajikistan. The area of Pakistan is 796,095 sq km (307,374 sq mi), not including the section of Jammu and Kashmr under its control. Jammu and Kashmr is a disputed territory located between Pakistan and India. Pakistan controls a portion of the territory as Azad (Free) Kashmr and the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA), while India controls a portion as the state of Jammu and Kashmr. A -Natural Regions Pakistan has great extremes of elevation, reaching the highest point at the Himalayan peak of K2 (also known as Mount Godwin Austen) in the north and the lowest point at the Arabian Sea coast in the south. The Indus River flows the length of Pakistan from north to south. The Indus and its tributaries form a wide river valley with fertile plains in Punjab and Sind (Sindh) provinces. Pakistan is mountainous in the north and west. Earthquakes are frequent, and occasionally severe, in the northern and western areas. Much of Pakistan is a dry, sun-scorched region. To the west of the Indus are the rugged dry mountains of the Sulaimn Range, which merge with the treeless Krthar Range in the south. Farther west are the arid regions of the Baluchistan Plateau and the Khrn Basin. A series of mostly barren low mountains and hills predominate in the western border areas. The Thar Desert straddles the border with India in the southeast. The country also possesses a variety of wetlands, with the glacial lakes of the Himalayas, the mudflats of the Indus Valley plains, and the extensive coastal mangroves of the Indus River delta. The wetland areas cover an estimated area of 7.8 million hectares (19.3 million acres). B -Rivers The Indus River is the lifeline of Pakistan. Without the Indus and its tributaries, the land would have turned into a barren desert long ago. The Indus originates in Tibet from the glacial streams of the Himalayas and enters Pakistan in the northeast. It runs generally southwestward the entire length of Pakistan, about 2,900
km (1,800 mi), and empties into the Arabian Sea. The Indus and its tributaries provide water to two-thirds of Pakistan. The principal tributaries of the Indus are the Sutlej, Bes, Chenb, Rvi, and Jhelum rivers. In southwestern Punjab Province these rivers merge to form the Panjnad (Five Rivers), which then merges with the Indus to form a mighty river. As the Indus approaches the Arabian Sea, it spreads out to form a delta. Much of the delta is marshy and swampy. It includes 225,000 hectares (556,000 acres) of mangrove forests and swamps. To the west of the delta is the seaport of Karchi; to the east the delta fans into the salt marshes known as the Rann of Kutch. C -Coastline The coastline of Pakistan extends 1,050 km (650 mi) along the Arabian Sea. The Makran Coast Range forms a narrow strip of mountains along about 75 percent of the total coast length, or about 800 km (500 mi). These steep mountains rise to an elevation of up to 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Most of the coast is underdeveloped, with deserted beaches and only a few fishing villages. D -Mountain Peaks and Passes Pakistan has within its borders some of the worlds highest and most spectacular mountains. In the northern part of the country, the Hindu Kush mountains converge with the Karakoram Range, a part of the Himalayan mountain system. Thirteen of the worlds 30 tallest peaks are in Pakistan. The tallest include K2 (also known as Mount Godwin Austen), the second highest peak in the world at 8,611 m (28,251 ft), in the Karakoram Range; Nanga Parbat (8,125 m/26,657 ft) in the Himalayas; and Tirich Mr (7,690 m/25,230 ft) in the Hindu Kush. Many mountain passes cross Pakistans borders with Afghanistan and China. Passes crossing over the mountains bordering Afghanistan include the Khyber, Boln, Khojak, Kurram, Tochi, and Gomal passes. The most well-known and well-traveled is the Khyber Pass in the northwest. It links Peshwar in Pakistan with Jallbd in Afghanistan, where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kbul. It is the widest and lowest of all the mountain passes, reaching a maximum elevation of 1,072 m (3,517 ft). The route of the Boln Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahr in Afghanistan; it also serves as a vital link within Pakistan between Sind and Baluchistan provinces. Historically, the Khyber and Boln passes were used as the primary routes for invaders to enter India from Central Asia, including the armies of Alexander the Great. Also historically significant is Karakoram Pass, on the border with China. For centuries it was part of the trading routes known as the Silk Road, which linked China and other parts of Asia with Europe. E -Plants and Animals The vegetation of Pakistan varies with elevation, soil type, and precipitation. Forests are largely confined to the mountain ranges in the north, where coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar grow. The southern ranges of the Himalayas, which are of lower elevation, receive heavy rainfall and have dense forests of deodar, pine, poplar, and willow trees. The more arid Sulaimn and Salt mountain ranges are sparsely forested with a type of mulberry called shisham, a broad-leaved, deciduous tree. Dry-temperate vegetation, such as coarse grasses, scrub plants, and dwarf palm, predominates in the valleys of the North-West Frontier Province and the Baluchistan Plateau. The arid western hills are dotted with juniper, tamarisk (salt cedar), and pistachio trees. The area of Zirat, Baluchistan, has juniper forests that are believed to be 5,000 years old; however, they are dwindling due to deforestation. Dry-tropical scrub and thorn trees are the predominant vegetation in the Indus River plain. Known as rakh, this vegetation is native to the region and can survive temperatures higher than 45C (113F). Riverine forests, found in the Indus floodplain, require six weeks of monsoon flooding to sustain them during the dry months. Irrigated tree plantations are found in Punjab and Sind. Mangrove forests in the coastal wetlands are an integral part of the marine food chain. Animal life in Pakistan includes deer, boar, bear, crocodile, and waterfowl. The wetlands provide an essential habitat for a number of important mammal species, including coated otter, Indus dolphin, fishing cat, hog deer, and wild boar. During the migration season, at least 1 million waterfowl representing more than 100 species visit the extensive deltas and wetlands of Pakistan. Pakistans rivers and coastal waters contain many types of freshwater and saltwater fish, including herring, mackerel, sharks, and shellfish. Threatened or endangered species include the snow leopard, Marco Polo sheep, blue sheep, and ibex (a type of wild goat). These animals can still be found in remote and protected areas of the Himalayas. The houbara bustard has been overhunted as a game bird in Pakistan and is officially protected. F -Climate The climate of Pakistan varies widely, with sharp differences between the high mountains and low plains. The country experiences four seasons. In the mountainous regions of the north and west, temperatures fall below freezing during winter and are mild during summer. In the Indus plains, temperatures range between about 32 and 49C (about 90 and 120F) in summer, and the average in winter is about 13C (about 55
F). Mountainous areas receive most precipitation as heavy snowfall in winter. In other areas of Pakistan, most precipitation comes with the summer monsoons during July and August. The summer monsoons are seasonal winds that bring torrential rainfall, breaking the hot, dry spell and providing much-needed relief. The rainfall is so heavy that it causes rivers in Punjab and Sind provinces to flood the lowland areas. Rainfall is scarce the rest of the year. Punjab Province has the most precipitation in the country, receiving more than 500 mm (20 in) per year. In contrast, the arid regions of the southeast (the Thar Desert in Sind) and southwest (Baluchistan) receive less than 125 mm (5 in) annually. G -Natural Resources More than 20 different types of minerals have been identified in Pakistan, but few are of sufficient quality or quantity to be commercially exploited. Most mineral deposits are found in the mountainous regions. Pakistans exploited natural resources include coal, natural gas, petroleum, gypsum, limestone, chromite, iron ore, rock salt, and silica sand. Pakistan has extensive natural gas reserves, notably in the vicinity of Sui, Baluchistan, from where it is piped to most of the large cities of Pakistan. Petroleum is limited, but exploration for additional reserves holds promise. Most of the countrys coal is of poor quality. The Salt Range in Punjab Province has large deposits of pure salt. Only about 3.3 percent of Pakistans total land area is forested, and timber is in short supply. H -Environmental Issues The wetlands in Pakistan are a precious resource. In an arid to semiarid environment, these ecosystems have tremendous value. People, domestic livestock, and wildlife depend on them for livelihood and survival. The wetlands are also a major source of food staples, livestock grazing and fodder, fuel wood, and irrigation water. However, the fragile wetland ecologies are threatened by poor conservation, over-exploitation, and urban and industrial pollution. Pakistans forests also are in urgent need of protection and conservation. The country has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. The primary causes of deforestation are population growth and settlement, lack of fuelwood alternatives, insect damage and diseases, forest fires, and lack of awareness about the importance of preservation. In the 1970s the government of Pakistan began making efforts to protect the countrys forests. It has created 14 national parks, covering a total area of 2,753,375 hectares (6,803,738 acres). The protected forests of the parks help prevent soil erosion. The parks are also wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves. Khunjerab National Park, established in 1975, is an important habitat sanctuary for a number of threatened or endangered species, including the snow leopard. It is one of the countrys most important alpine biodiversity regions. Located in the Himalayas, it is also one of the highest-altitude parks in the world at 5,000 m (16,000 ft). Most of the parks generally have no ecological basis, however, existing primarily as tourist attractions or for the preservation of game animals. Pakistan participates in the World Heritage Convention and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, and it has one designated biosphere preserve under the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Man and the Biosphere Program. III -THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN The people of Pakistan are ethnically diverse. They trace their ethnic lineages to many different origins, largely because the country lies in an area that was invaded repeatedly during its long history. Migrations of Muslims from India since 1947 and refugees from Afghanistan since the 1980s have significantly changed the demographics of certain areas of the country. The people of Pakistan come from ethnic stocks such as Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, Greek, Scythian, Hun, Arab, Mongol, Persian, and Afghan. Although an overwhelming majority of the people are Muslim, religion does not supercede ethnic affiliations. The people follow many different cultural traditions and speak many different languages and dialects. Pakistan has a population of 150,694,740 (2003 estimate), yielding an average population density of 189 persons per sq km (490 per sq mi). The countrys population was increasing in 2003 at a rate of 2 percent a year. Only 33 percent of the people live in urban areas. A -Cultural Groups Pakistan is a multilingual and multiethnic nation. Most of the people belong to one of the countrys five major ethnolinguistic groups: Punjabis, Sindhis, Pashtuns (Pakhtuns), Mohajirs (Muslims who migrated to the newly formed nation of Pakistan after 1947), and Baluchis. Ethnically distinct subgroups exist within each of these five categories. Overall, ethnic identity is multilayered and complex and may be based on a combination of religion, language, ethnicity, and tribe.
Not all of the ethnolinguistic groups are equally represented in the power structure of Pakistan. Mohajirs, Punjabis, and Pashtuns are the dominant groups, while Sindhis and Baluchis struggle to advance and protect their interests. Punjabis constitute 58 percent of the population. They have diverse origins, but over the centuries they coalesced into a coherent ethnic group in the historic Punjab region and developed a common language, Punjabi. Today most Punjabis prefer to read and write in Pakistans official language, Urdu, and their language-based ethnic identity is relatively weak. Many Punjabis are farmers in the fertile valley of Punjab Province. Punjabis also predominate in the military and the federal government. Sindhis constitute 13 percent of the population of Pakistan. Their traditional homeland is the province of Sind, where they maintain the countrys largest concentration of large landholdings. Sindhis are a predominantly rural people. They have a strong sense of linguistic and cultural pride and identity. They have a rich literary and folk tradition and prefer to read and write in their own language, Sindhi. Pashtuns constitute 12.5 percent of the population. Pashtuns are divided into many tribes, and their tribal structure is egalitarian. Pashtuns follow a strict code of conduct known as Pashtunwali (Pashtun Way). Pashtun identity, including their interpretation of Islamic law, is formulated and guided by Pashtunwali. The code is based on the absolute obligations of providing hospitality and sanctuary, even to ones enemies, and exacting revenge at all costs in the defense of ones honor. The code also requires Pashtuns to abide by the decisions of the jirga (council of tribal leaders) in matters of dispute. Many Pashtuns have blue eyes and claim to be descendants of the European soldiers who fought for Alexander the Great in the region 2,000 years ago. They have a rich oral tradition in their ethnic language, Pashto, but many Pashtuns prefer to read and write in Urdu. Pashtuns are primarily farmers, livestock herders, traders, and soldiers in the Pakistan military. Baluchis constitute 4 percent of the population. Most Baluchis are nomadic, migrating wherever the desertlike conditions of their homeland, the Baluchistan Plateau, provide enough vegetation to raise their animals. Raising livestock, mainly sheep and goats, and selling their hides and wool is a way of life for the Baluchis. They also have apple, almond, and apricot orchards, and some grow wheat. Baluchi tribal organization is strictly hierarchical, and each tribe is headed by a sardar (tribal chief). Most Baluchis speak Baluchi (Balochi), a language that is similar to Persian. About one-fifth of Baluchis also speak Brahui, a Dravidianderived language. Baluchis are the least educated and poorest segment of the population and are inadequately represented in government. Mohajirs constitute about 8 percent of the population. They are Muslims who settled in Pakistan after the partition of British India in 1947. Unlike other cultural groups of Pakistan, they do not have a tribe-based cultural identity. They are the only people in the country for whom Urdu, the official language, is their native tongue. Mohajirs were the vanguard of the Pakistan Movement, which advocated the partition of British India in order to create the independent nation of Pakistan for Indian Muslims. After the partition, a large number of Muslims migrated from various urban centers of India to live in the new nation of Pakistan. These migrants later identified themselves as mohajirs, meaning refugees in both Urdu and Arabic. A large number of Mohajirs settled in the cities of Sind Province, particularly Karchi and Hyderbd. They were better educated than most indigenous Pakistanis and assumed positions of leadership in business, finance, and administration. Today they remain mostly urban. Sindhis felt dispossessed by the preponderance of Mohajirs in the urban centers of Sind. With the emergence of a Sindhi middle class in the 1970s and adoption of Sindhi as a provincial language in 1972, tensions between Mohajirs and Sindhis began to mount. The 1973 constitution of Pakistan divided Sind into rural and urban districts, with the implication that the more numerous Sindhis would be better represented in government. Many Mohajirs felt that they were being denied opportunities and launched a movement to represent their interests. The movement, which evolved into the Mohajir Qaumi Movement (MQM) in the mid1980s, called for official recognition of Mohajirs as a separate cultural group and advocated improved rights for Mohajirs. Although factional rivalries and violence within the MQM tarnished its image and shrunk its power base, the movement continues to be a potent force in urban centers of the province, particularly Karchi. The MQM has contributed to a more defined Mohajir identity within the country. B -Political Regions The ethnic groups of Pakistan are distributed according to their historical settlement in the region. The current political regions of Pakistan roughly correspond to the settlement patterns established long before the partition of British India in 1947, when Pakistan was created as a homeland for Indian Muslims. The four provinces are Punjab, the Muslim portion of the historic Punjab region; Sind, the traditional homeland of the Sindhis; the North-West Frontier Province, a small portion of the Pashtun tribal lands; and Baluchistan, a portion of the Baluchi tribal lands. The traditional homelands of the Pashtuns and Baluchis extend beyond the
modern political borders, both provincial and national. Punjab is the most populated province of Pakistan, with 72.6 million people (1998). Most of the people are Punjabis. The province contains most of the countrys largest cities, but the rural agricultural areas are also densely settled. The province is the second largest in area. Sind is the second most populated province in Pakistan, with about 30 million people (1998). Its population is the most urbanized in Pakistan. Sindhis make up about 60 percent of the population of Sind, living mostly in rural areas. Mohajirs constitute the remaining 40 percent and live mostly in the provinces large cities. Sind is the third largest province in area. The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) has a population of 17.6 million (1998). The majority of the people are Pashtuns. The province is part of the historic Pashtun tribal lands, which extend throughout southern and southeastern Afghanistan and well into western Pakistan, including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Baluchistan. The NWFP is Pakistans smallest province in area. In the 1980s refugees from war-torn Afghanistan began to settle in the province. Refugee camps and rudimentary villages were set up in the border areas. A large number of refugees also established communities in cities such as Peshwar. Many became semipermanent residents of Pakistan because Afghanistan remained in a state of war through the mid-1990s. The majority of refugees were Pashtuns, facilitating their assimilation into the provinces population, in many cases through intermarriage. Baluchistan is the most sparsely populated and least developed province of Pakistan. A majority of the 6.5 million (1998) people who live in Baluchistan are Baluchis. Pashtuns are the second largest ethnic group in the province. In recent years a large number of Afghan refugees have settled in Baluchistan. In area, Baluchistan is the largest province of Pakistan, covering nearly 40 percent of the countrys total territory. However, the province is an arid and inhospitable hinterland. C -Principal Cities Pakistans largest city is Karchi, the capital of Sind Province. It is the countrys only seaport and a major financial, industrial, and commercial center. It is also known as the ethnic melting pot of Pakistan. Lahore, the capital of Punjab Province, is Pakistans second largest city and a cultural and educational center. Faisalbd, in central Punjab, is the center of textile and fertilizer industries. Multn, the largest city in southern Punjab, has many ancient Muslim shrines, a huge fertilizer factory, and small cottage industries such as carpet weaving and pottery. Hyderbd, in Sind Province, is a manufacturing center with textile and glass factories, as well as a cultural center with museums, historic mosques, and a medical school. Peshwar, the capital of the North-West Frontier Province, is a busy, overcrowded frontier outpost and a hub of trade with Afghanistan. For centuries it served as a gateway and trading post between Afghanistan and Southeast Asia. Islmbd is the capital of Pakistan and the seat of the federal government; it forms its own administrative unit, the Islmbd Capital Territory. Just to the south, in bordering Punjab Province, is Rwalpindi, the headquarters of the Pakistani army and an industrial center. D -Religion Islam is the faith of about 97 percent of the people of Pakistan. About three-quarters of the countrys Muslims are Sunni, and about one-quarter are Shia. Some small Muslim fringe sects, such as the Ahmedis and Zikris, also exist. Hindus and Christians form the largest religious minorities, accounting for about 3 percent of the population. Other religious groups include Sikhs, Parsis, and a small number of Buddhists. The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic state but guarantees freedom of religion. E -Languages Urdu is the official language of Pakistan. It is the first language of only a small percentage of the population, but it cuts across linguistic and provincial boundaries as the national language. More than 75 percent of Pakistanis can speak and understand Urdu. In urban areas about 95 percent of the people communicate in Urdu. Urdu replaced English as the official language in 1978. Most Pakistanis speak at least two languages. A large segment of the population is trilingual, speaking English, Urdu, and an ethnic-based regional language. Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Baluchi, and Brahui are the major regional languages. These languages have many regional dialects, including Saraiki, a widely spoken dialect of Punjabi. Regional languages are recognized as a potent force because language and ethnic identity are closely interrelated; even the national census categorizes groups according to their language, rather than their ethnicity. However, there is growing awareness among Pakistanis that for social mobility, national cohesion, and individual success, it is imperative to be fluent in Urdu and proficient in English. Several factors contributed to the establishment of Urdu as the lingua franca of Pakistan. It was the
language of the educated Muslims in northern India, who spearheaded the Pakistan Movement. Urdu helped foster a linguistic identity among Muslims in the region. Although similar to Hindi as a spoken language, Urdu uses a Persian-derived script and incorporates many Arabic words. Choosing Urdu as the national language provided a linguistic basis for the formation of a Muslim national identity. It also provided the country with a neutral language because Urdu does not have ethnic or tribal associations. Since the founding of Pakistan in 1947, state-controlled electronic and print media have promoted Urdu. In the public schools of the country, Urdu is the principal language of instruction. For all practical purposes, however, English is the de facto official language. Pakistans legal system is based on British common law, and judicial and government documents are mostly written in English. Pakistanis of all social strata strive to learn English, which has a certain elite status. Although the quality of instruction in English has declined, English continues to be the language of the educated and those who want to move ahead in life. F -Education Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world. In 2003 only 45.7 percent of adult Pakistanis were literate. Male literacy was 59.8 percent, while female literacy was 30.6 percent. From 1976 to 2001 the number of primary schools doubled, but so did the population. High levels of population growth continue to hamper educational development in the country. The government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children. According to the constitution, it is the states responsibility to provide free primary education. Five years has been established as the period of primary school attendance, but attendance is not compulsory. While the enrollment rate in primary school is high for boys, less than one-half of girls attend school. In the 1999 2000 school year 96 percent of primary school-aged children were enrolled in school, while only 39 percent of secondary school-aged children attended. In 1996, 3.5 percent of Pakistans college-aged population attended institutions of higher education. The wealthiest and best students seek education in British and American universities. At the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of the Punjab, founded in 1882 in Lahore. Pakistan now has more than 20 public universities. Among Pakistans leading public institutions of higher education are Quaid-e-Azam University (1965), in Islmbd, the University of Karchi (1951), the University of Peshwar (1950), and the University of Sindh (1947), near Hyderbd. Since 1978 the government has encouraged the privatization of education at all levels. This led to the creation of three major private universities: Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Agha Khan University Medical College (in Karchi), and Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (in Topi, North-West Frontier Province). The National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), in Rwalpindi, conducts research in the fields of science and technology for both the public and private sectors. IV -THE ARTS Pakistan has a rich and diverse cultural heritage. Pakistanis celebrate their culture through folk music, dance, and festivals. They have a strong appreciation for poetic expression and storytelling. The history of the country comes to life in the splendid architectural detail of centuries-old mosques and forts. After it became part of the expansive Mughal Empire in 1526, the region that is now Pakistan entered a golden age of literature, architecture, and music. A -Literature Most Pakistanis adore poetry and commonly memorize long poems. A mushaira (poetry reading) in Pakistan can attract hundreds of listeners. Among classical poets in the Urdu language, Mirza Ghalib is perhaps the most widely admired. Ghalib, who wrote in the 19th century, is known for his lyrical and spiritual ghazals. Ghazals are the most popular form of poetry in the Urdu and Persian languages. The official national poet of Pakistan is Allama (the Wise) Muhammad Iqbal. He earned the title of poetphilosopher of Pakistan not only because he was an exceptionally talented poet, but also because he was active in the politics of his time. In 1930 he called for the creation of a separate Muslim state in northwestern British India. He wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian and gave university lectures in English. Faiz Ahmed Faiz is perhaps the most adored modern poet in Pakistan. Faiz began writing poetry in the 1950s after a distinguished journalism career. His ghazals are primarily concerned with class struggle, rather than the conventional themes of love and beauty. A progressive writer, Faiz was also a political dissident, and military governments banned his poetry from television and radio. Ahmad Fraz, Muneer Niazi, and Parveen Shakir are some of the other popular Urdu-language poets of Pakistan.
Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, a Sufi mystic who in the first half of the 18th century wrote about love and Sindhi life, is the most revered poet of the Sindhi language. His poetry is widely recited by illiterate and educated Sindhis alike. Khushal Khan Khattak is the most famous poet of the Pashto language. In the 17th century he wrote poetry describing the beauty of women and nature, using military metaphors. The most well-known poet of the Punjabi language is Bulleh Shah, of the 17th century, whose poetry challenged the religious orthodoxy. In recent years short stories and travelogues have gained literary prominence, in addition to poetry. B -Music and Film The classical music tradition in Pakistan traces its roots to the 13th-century poet and musician Amir Khusru, who composed the earliest ragas, the traditional rhythmic form. To play the ragas, Muslim musicians invented the sitar, a long guitar-like stringed instrument, and the tabla, a small pair of hand drums. Qawwali, a form of devotional song, arose as part of the Sufi (Islamic religious sect) tradition. This rich vocal tradition is based on melodic and free-rhythmic song-poems and classical musical forms. It is traditionally performed at the shrines of Sufi saints, but today qawwali singers also perform for major secular events. Qawwali singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan won international popularity in the late 20th century by infusing qawwali performances with new form and style. Other traditional musical formsincluding the Punjabi bhangra, the Sindhi juhumar, and the Pashtun khattackhave also acquired new forms and continue to be popular for dancing. Punjabi, Pashto, and Sindhi folk songs are popular in rural Pakistan. Modern Pakistani musical groups and singers have introduced new forms of pop music based on traditional melodies. Most Pakistanis prefer and enjoy songs from Pakistani and Indian movies. These songs are commonly played on radio and television. A synthesis of musical scores from movies, traditional folk music, and popular Western music is gaining popularity. The film industry of Pakistan, known as Lollywood, is concentrated in Lahore. Most Pakistani movies are long, melodramatic love stories with plenty of songs. The film industry is often regulated and censored by the government. Films must follow the conventions of Islamic law, and the showing of physical contact such as kissing is prohibited. In the mid-1970s the industry produced about 150 movies a year, but since then the number has declined. In the 1980s the market for Pakistani films shrunk as a result of restrictions imposed by the military regime of Muhammad Zia ul-Haq and the availability of smuggled videotapes of Indian and Western movies. Television became a major cultural influence in Pakistan in the 1980s, when the state-controlled network, Pakistan Television, attained national reach. It aired both Pakistani and American shows. In recent years satellite and cable television services have significantly increased access to international networks offering many different cultural and political perspectives. C -Architecture Pakistan has inherited a combination of Mughal and British colonial architectural forms. Mughal architects combined the Muslim preferences for large domes, slender towers, and archways with the Hindu use of red sandstone, white marble, and inlaid jewels. Mughal artists decorated the monuments with verses from the Quran, the sacred text of Islam. The best example of this architecture is the Badshahi Mosque and Lahore Fort (built between the 1580s and 1670s). The courtyard of the mosque can accommodate 100,000 worshipers, making it the second largest mosque in the world. Pakistan also has the worlds largest mosque, the Faisal Mosque in Islmbd, a gift from Saudi Arabia that was constructed in the 1980s. It was designed by a Turkish architect to look like an Arab desert tent. Other examples of Mughal architecture include Shalimar Gardens (laid out in 1641), in Lahore; the Shah Jahan Mosque (17th century), in Thatta, Sind Province; and the mid-18th-century tomb of the great Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, in Bhit Shh, near Hyderbd. Quranic calligraphy and miniature painting have a strong tradition in Pakistan dating to Mughal rule. The most celebrated miniature and mural paintings and calligraphic works were created in the 20th century by Abdul Rehman Chughtai and Sadequain. These Mughal traditions are also visible on colorfully painted and decorated trucks and buses that ply the country. D -Libraries and Museums Karchi is the seat of some of the most important libraries in Pakistan; these include the Liaquat Memorial Library (1950), the Central Secretariat Library (1950), and the University of Karchi library. Also of note are the National Archives of Pakistan, in Islmbd, and the Punjab Public Library (1884), in Lahore. The National Museum of Pakistan (1950), in Karchi, is noted for its archaeological material from the
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa sites in the Indus Valley. Important materials from this ancient civilization are also found at the Institute of Sindhology, in Jm Shoro, and the Hyderbd Museum. The Lahore Museum (1864), the countrys largest museum, and the Peshwar Museum (1906) also have exhibits on the rich cultural history of the region. The Industrial and Commercial Museum, in Lahore, contains exhibits on the manufactures of Pakistan. The National Museum of Science and Technology is a participatory science center in Lahore. V -ECONOMY Like most developing countries, Pakistan is confronted with the problems of rapid population growth, sizable budget deficits, and heavy dependence on foreign aid and loans. The economy is strained from supporting a large military establishment and from providing for the needs of Afghan refugees. Pakistan receives considerable economic assistance from foreign countries and from international organizations. Over the years Pakistan has accumulated a foreign debt of about $40 billion. Debt repayment, defense spending, and general administrative expenditures consume 80 percent of Pakistans annual budget. Only 20 percent is available for development of the social sector. After Pakistan exploded a nuclear device in May 1998, it faced the imposition of international sanctions. The fact that the country survived the sanctions without a collapse of its currency or violent street demonstrations is generally regarded as proof of the countrys resilience. Heading into the 21st century, Pakistani leaders have a chance to seize the moment in order to modify and build a sound social and economic order that may steer the nation to a more durable path of progress. In 2001 Pakistans gross domestic product (GDP) was $58.7 billion. The government budget in 2000 included $9.9 billion in revenues and $13.5 billion in expenditures. A -Economic Development After East Pakistan seceded to become the independent nation of Bangladesh in December 1971, the elected government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto tried to pick up the pieces of a truncated Pakistan. It devised economic policies that led to a drastic devaluation of the Pakistani currency, thereby boosting agricultural exports. To ease unemployment pressure the government encouraged the export of Pakistani labor to the Middle East. It also embarked on the nationalization of industries, banks, and agriculture-based industries. This expansion of the public sector ultimately shook private-sector confidence so that investment plummeted. The annual growth rate declined, averaging between 2.7 percent and 3.7 percent during most of the 1970s. During the 1980s the countrys economy grew an average rate of 6 percent annually. This high growth rate was largely created by three factors: aid from the United States, the influx of foreign exchange from Pakistanis working abroad, and high crop yields. First, Pakistan received an average of $600 million per year in economic and military aid from the United States from 1981 to 1989, largely because of Pakistans support for anti-Soviet forces in the Afghan-Soviet War. (During this decade Pakistan was the third-largest recipient of U.S. aid, after Israel and Egypt.) Second, Pakistan received $2.5 billion in remittances from Pakistanis working abroad in the Persian Gulf States and other countries. Third, good weather conditions produced bumper cotton and wheat crops. At the same time, the government did little to devise policies to boost the confidence of private investors or promote the welfare of Pakistani citizens. The negative fallout of the Afghan war on Pakistan was an expansion of the black market (the illicit sale of commodities) and the proliferation of portable weapons and violence. Despite the high economic growth rate, the economy remained largely agricultural, and socioeconomic disparities between the rich and poor widened. Also during the 1980s, the military regime increased defense spending to such an extent that the fiscal deficit rose to 10 percent of the GDP. In addition, public debt ballooned from less than 40 percent of the GDP to more than 80 percent. The debt trap that Pakistan finds itself in today originated during this decade. The economy of Pakistan slowed to an average annual growth of 3.8 percent during the 1990s. Factors contributing to the sluggish growth included corruption and mismanagement at the highest levels of government and the rise of ethnic and sectarian violence in Karchi and other urban centers. These factors shook investor confidence. The economic performance of the 1990s was also related to the structural adjustment programs (SAPs) of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Loans from these international lending agencies were subject to conditions on Pakistans national economic policies. Pakistan received its first formal loan in 1988. In Pakistan the primary focus of the IMF-sponsored program was to lower the budget and currentaccount deficits. These objectives were to be achieved by reducing public expenditures and broadening the tax base. In addition, in 1992-1993 the IMF further insisted that Pakistan reduce defense expenditures, impose an agricultural tax, and improve methods of tax collection. These reforms were never fully implemented, however, and the IMF-sponsored program did not achieve the desired result. Inflation rose from 8 percent in the 1980s to 11 percent in the 1990s, although a nominal reduction in the budget deficit
was visible. Direct foreign investment did not improve and the export sector remained sluggish. A high-powered Privatization Commission was created in 1990 to encourage privatization of public-sector industries, economic deregulation, and other reforms designed to boost confidence in the principles of a free-market economy. However, the commission was slow to implement its privatization program. B -Agriculture About 28 percent of Pakistans total land area is cultivated. Agriculture and related activities, including fishing, engage 47 percent of the workforce and provide 25 percent of the GDP. Chief cash crops are cotton (textile yarn and fabrics produce more than one-half of export earnings) and rice. Principal crops in 2002 (with output in metric tons) included sugarcane, 48 million; wheat, 18.5 million; rice, 5.8 million; cotton lint, 5.1 million; and corn, 1.7 million. Livestock included cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, and poultry. Land reform is a controversial issue in Pakistan. At independence in 1947, a large proportion of the arable land was concentrated in a small number of large estates, many of them owned by absentee landlords and cultivated by tenant farmers. Land reforms introduced in 1959 provided some security of tenure to tenants but did little to break up the large estates. In the 1970s the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto introduced more extensive land reforms. The amount of land any individual could own was significantly reduced, and landlords were not compensated for the land they surrendered. Most of the expropriated land was distributed to tenants, but the government retained land that was not suitable for farming. Landlords strongly resisted the reforms, however, and the government bureaucracy was somewhat lax in enforcing them. In the end, the reforms shook the landlords but did not break their hold. By the end of the 20th century, about half of the countrys arable land was held by only a small percentage of wealthy landowners. The Bhutto government also developed favorable credit and loan policies for farmers. The tractor became the new status symbol in rural Pakistan. Improved mechanization gave a boost to agricultural productivity. Formerly an importer of wheat, Pakistan achieved self-sufficiency in the grain by the late 1970s. C -Fishing Fishing resources, although underdeveloped, are extensive. In 1999 the catch was 674,606 metric tons, three-quarters of it obtained from the Indian Ocean. Types of fish caught include sardines, sharks, and anchovies; shrimp are also an important part of the industry. D -Mining In the early 1990s the most important nonfuel minerals (with annual production in metric tons) included gypsum (532,000), rock salt (895,000), limestone (8.8 million), and silica sand (154,000). In 2001 coal production was 3.20 million metric tons, crude petroleum production reached 23.3 million barrels, and production of natural gas was 23.4 billion cubic meters (826 billion cubic feet). E -Manufacturing The manufacturing capacity of Pakistan is still small, but production has been steadily expanding. In 2001 manufacturing accounted for 16 percent of the GDP. About 17 percent of the labor force is engaged in industry, including manufacturing and mining. Important products include processed foods, cotton textiles, silk and rayon cloth, refined petroleum, cement, fertilizers, sugar, cigarettes, and chemicals. Many handicrafts, such as pottery and carpets, also are produced. F -Energy Pakistans total output of electricity in 2001 was 67 billion kilowatt-hours. Hydroelectric dams on the Indus and its tributaries help furnish the countrys energy needs, but the supply of hydroelectricity drops sharply during the dry winter months. About 28 percent of the countrys electricity is produced through dams. The country also has natural-gas fields. About 69 percent of the countrys electricity is generated in thermal installations fueled by natural gas and petroleum. Pakistan has two nuclear power plants, but neither produces a significant amount of electricity. The Karchi plant was built with Canadian help in the early 1960s, and the Chashma plant, on the Indus River in southern Punjab, was built in the 1980s with financial support from China. Pakistan is not self-sufficient in energy production. The country relies on imported petroleum to fuel its electricity-generating thermal plants. However, the countrys exports bring in hardly enough revenues to meet the cost of petroleum imports. During the 1990s rising oil prices had a devastating effect on the economy, leading to a rise in the countrys foreign debt. G -Currency and Banking The basic monetary unit is the Pakistani rupee, consisting of 100 paisa (61.93 rupees equal US$1; 2001
average). The State Bank of Pakistan, established in 1948, issues banknotes; manages currency and credit, the public debt, and exchange controls; and supervises the commercial banks. Pakistani banks were nationalized in 1974, but in the early 1990s the country transferred two banks to private ownership and issued licenses for ten new commercial banks. A number of major foreign banks maintain offices in the country. In conformity with Islamic doctrine, domestic banks in Pakistan have redefined the payment and collection of interest as profit. Investment partnerships between the bank and the customer have replaced loans at interest. H -Foreign Trade The foreign trade of Pakistan consists largely of the export of raw materials and basic products such as cotton yarn and the import of manufactured products. In 2000 exports earned $9.1 billion and imports cost $11.1 billion. The chief exports were cotton textiles, cotton yarn and thread, clothing, raw cotton, rice, carpets and rugs, leather, fish, and petroleum products; the main imports were machinery, electrical equipment, petroleum products, transportation equipment, metal and metal products, fertilizer, and foodstuffs. The United States is the largest trading partner of Pakistan. The United States is also one of the largest contributors of direct foreign investment in Pakistan. In 2000 Pakistan imported more than $646.5 million worth of U.S. products, mostly wheat, chemicals, fertilizers, machinery, and transport equipment. Pakistans exports to the United States amounted to $2.12 billion. Pakistans other trading partners are Japan, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, China, Germany, Hong Kong, France, the Persian Gulf States, and Iran. I -Transportation The lack of modern transportation facilities is a major hindrance to the development of Pakistan. Its terrain, laced with rivers and mountains, presents formidable obstacles to internal overland transportation. The country has 254,410 km (158,083 mi) of roads. The railroad network totals 7,791 km (4,841 mi). Karchi is the principal port of Pakistan. The coastline is underdeveloped because of the rugged topography, but it has promise for development. In recent years successive governments of Pakistan have made efforts to build infrastructure along the Makran Coast. Toward this end, the government of Pakistan signed an agreement with China in the late 1990s to develop an international shipping port at Gwdar as an alternative to Karchi. Gwdar is located on a peninsula that is accessible to large ships traveling from the Gulf of Oman, which leads to the Persian Gulf. The Karakoram Highway was constructed between China and Pakistan in 1978 and opened to regular traffic in 1982. This all-weather road is 1,300 km (800 mi) long and passes through the Himalayas, reaching an elevation of 5,000 m (16,000 ft) at Khunjerab Pass. It is of strategic significance for Pakistan and China, connecting Islmbd with Kashgar, in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the national airline, is in large part government owned. PIA offers flights within Pakistan and to a number of other countries. Many privately owned international airlines also serve Pakistan. In the early 1990s the government ended the airlines monopoly on domestic service, and a number of private carriers have since begun domestic operations. The countrys main international airports serve Karchi, Lahore, Islmbd, and Rwalpindi. J -Communications In 2001 Pakistan had 23 telephone mainlines for every 1,000 people. The number of cellular-phone subscribers is growing rapidly. Radio receivers number 94 and television sets 131 per 1,000 residents. Television broadcasting began in Lahore in 1964 and in Karchi in 1966. Since then television-broadcasting centers have been set up in Peshwar, Rwalpindi, Islmbd, and Quetta, giving the Pakistani television network an almost total nationwide reach. In the early 1990s satellite dishes made it possible for international television programming to reach even the remotest areas of the country. More recently, the availability of cable television has improved accessibility to the international networks. Newspapers are mainly printed in Urdu and English. Pakistan has 352 daily newspapers, most with small circulations. The major dailies are concentrated in Lahore, Karchi, and Islmbd. VI -GOVERNMENT Since independence in 1947 Pakistan has had three constitutions, adopted in 1956, 1962, and 1973, consecutively. The 1973 constitution was the result of consensus among the political parties that were represented in the parliament. After a military coup dtat in 1977, martial law was imposed and the constitution was suspended. In 1985 a civilian government was reestablished, and the 1973 constitution was restored, although in a radically amended form. The Eighth Amendment confirmed and legalized all acts and orders that had been issued under the martial law regime, including amendments to the constitution. The
amended constitution significantly expanded the powers of the president. It also included clauses that promoted Islam as the supreme law of Pakistan. In 1997, however, the constitution was amended to repeal the main provisions of the Eighth Amendment, stripping the president of the power to dismiss the prime minister and dissolve the parliament. After another military coup in 1999, the constitution was suspended and the democratically elected parliament was dissolved. In August 2002 a presidential decree amended the constitution to grant sweeping powers to the president. Parliamentary elections were held in October to restore civilian rule in the country. The 1973 constitution was formally revived in November. A -Executive Pakistans head of state is a president. Under the constitution, the president is elected to a five-year term by members of the national and provincial legislatures. A prime minister is the chief executive official. After legislative elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the legislature to serve as prime minister. As amended in August 2002, the constitution allows the president to dissolve the national legislature, appoint military chiefs and Supreme Court justices, and chair the National Security Council, a quasi-military advisory body. B -Legislature Under the constitution, legislative power is vested in the bicameral Federal Legislature. The National Assembly (lower house) has 342 seats; 60 of these seats are reserved for women and 10 are reserved for non-Muslims on a basis of proportional representation. Members of the National Assembly are directly elected for five-year terms. The Senate (upper house) has 87 seats; senators are elected indirectly by the provincial and national legislatures for six-year terms. C -Judiciary The highest court in Pakistan is the Supreme Court. The judicial system in each province is headed by a high court. There is also a federal Sharia Court, which hears cases that primarily involve Sharia, or Islamic law. Legislation enacted in 1991 gave legal status to Sharia. Although Sharia was declared the law of the land, it did not replace the existing legal code. D -Local Government According to the constitution, Pakistan is a federation. The country is divided into four autonomous (selfgoverning) provinces; two federally administered areas; and the Islmbd Capital Territory, which consists of the capital city of Islmbd. The four provinces are Baluchistan, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, and Sind. The provinces are headed by governors appointed by the president. Under the constitution, each province has a directly elected provincial assembly headed by a chief minister. However, the provincial assemblies were suspended following the 1999 military coup. The Islmbd Capital Territory, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) are under the jurisdiction of the federal government. In the FATA, however, tribal leaders manage most internal affairs. Azad (Free) Kashmr has a separate and autonomous government but maintains strong ties to Pakistan. Control of the territory included within FANA and Azad Kashmr is a matter of dispute between Pakistan and India. E -Political Parties Pakistans founding nationalist party, the Muslim League, dissolved after martial law was imposed in 1958. The Pakistan Muslim League (PML) founded in 1962 bore little resemblance to the original party. The PML subsequently splintered into several factions. In the aftermath of the military coup of 1977, political parties were banned from 1979 until civilian rule was restored in 1985. Although political parties were not banned after the military coup of 1999, they could not participate in government because the parliament and provincial assemblies were dissolved. Many political parties participated in the October 2002 elections that restored civilian rule in Pakistan. The main political groups are the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam), or PML-Q, a faction of the PML that generally supports President Pervez Musharraf and the military; the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), or PML-N, the PML faction that remains loyal to former prime minister Nawaz Sharif; the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), led by former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and the largest party within the Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy (a 15-party pro-democracy bloc); and the Muthida Majlis-e-Amal (United Council of Action), an alliance of six hardline Islamic groups. F -Health and Welfare Health services in Pakistan are limited by a lack of facilities. In 1999 the country had one physician for every 2,703 people and one hospital bed for every 1,535 people. In 1976 an old-age pension system was inaugurated, but it covers relatively few Pakistanis.
G -Defense Military service in Pakistan is voluntary. In 2001 the countrys armed forces had 620,000 members, including 550,000 in the army, 45,000 in the air force, and 25,000 in the navy. Another 247,000 were in paramilitary units. VII -HISTORY The area of present-day Pakistan has a long history of human settlement as the cradle of the Indus Valley civilization, the earliest-known civilization in South Asia. This Bronze Age culture flourished in the area of the Indus River Valley from about 2500 to 1700 BC. The Indus River is considered the lifeblood of Pakistan, and the ancient culture that arose there serves as an icon of Pakistans territorial identity. Important archaeological sites in Pakistan include Mohenjo-Daro (Sindhi for Mound of the Dead), in Sind Province, and Harapp, near the Ravi River (a tributary of the Indus) in Punjab Province. Pakistans cultural identity is traced to the centuries of Muslim rule in the region. In AD 711 Mohammad bin Qasim, an Arab general and nephew of Hajjaj, ruler of Iraq and Persia, conquered Sind and incorporated it into the Umayyad Caliphate. Thereafter Muslims continued to rule areas of present-day Pakistan for almost 1,000 years. For the first 300 years the region of Sind was the only part of the Indian subcontinent that was under Muslim rule. Muslim rule began to spread to other areas after the Afghan sultan Mahmud of Ghazn, leader of the Ghaznavids, invaded in 997. After he conquered the region of Punjab in the early 11th century, he made Lahore his capital. Between 1175 and 1186 the regions of Sind and Punjab were conquered by Muhammad of Ghur, leader of the Turkish Ghurid Empire, which was centered in what is now west central Afghanistan. His generals conquered all of north India by the time he was assassinated in 1206. That year his general Qutubuddin Aybak laid the foundations of an independent Muslim kingdom in India, the Delhi Sultanate. Thirty-five sultans ruled this rich and powerful sultanate from 1206 to 1526. The sultanate included most of Punjab and Sind during this period. The golden age of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent came with the glory and grandeur of the Mughal Empire (1526-1858). Between 1526 and 1707 six powerful Mughal kings ruled in succession: Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb. As the boundaries of the empire grew, Islam spread in India through incoming Muslim rulers, intermarriages, conversions among the lower Hindu castes, and the teachings of Sufi mystics. The death of Aurangzeb in 1707 marked the beginning of the decline of the Mughal Empire, and of Muslim rule in India. A -British Rule The waning control of the Mughal Empire left the subcontinent vulnerable to new contenders for power from Europe. The British changed the course of history by penetrating India from the Bay of Bengal, in the east; until then invading forces had entered India from the northwest, mostly by way of the Khyber Pass. The English East India Company established trading posts in Bengal and represented British interests in the region. In 1757 company forces defeated Mughal forces in Bengal in the Battle of Plassey. This victory marked the beginning of British dominance in the subcontinent. The company continued to expand the area under its control through military victories and direct annexations, as well as political agreements with local rulers. The British annexed the area of present-day Sind Province in 1843. The region of Punjab, then under the control of the Sikh kingdom of Lahore, was annexed in 1849 after British forces won the second of two wars against the Sikhs. Some areas of Baluchistan were declared British territory in 1887. As the British sought to expand their empire into the northwest frontier, they clashed with the Pashtun tribes that held lands extending from the western boundary of the Punjab plains into the kingdom of Afghanistan. The Pashtuns strongly resisted British invasions into their territories. After suffering many casualties, the British finally admitted they could not conquer the Pashtuns. In 1893 Sir Mortimer Durand, the foreign secretary of the colonial government of India, negotiated an agreement with the king of Afghanistan, Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, to delineate a border. The so-called Durand Line cut through Pashtun territories, dividing them between British and Afghan areas of influence. However, the Pashtuns refused to be subjugated under British colonial rule. The British compromised by creating a new province in 1901, named the North-West Frontier Province, as a loosely administered territory where the Pashtuns would not be subject to colonial laws. The British maintained their empire in the Indian subcontinent for nearly 200 years. The first 100 years were marked by chaos and crisis. The Sepoy Rebellion, also known as the Indian War of Independence, erupted in 1857 and became a widespread revolt against British rule. After the British quelled the rebellion in 1858, they immediately took steps to maintain control. The British government officially abolished the Mughal Empire and
exiled Muhammad Bahadur Shah to Burma. In addition, the British government transferred authority from the English East India Company to the British crown, establishing direct imperial rule in India. To help consolidate control the British initiated a series of educational, administrative, and political processes between 1858 and 1900. English was introduced as the official language. The Muslim response to the imposition of British rule evolved around the ideas and leadership of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. In 1875 Sir Syed founded Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (now Aligarh University) because he believed that Muslims could best improve their social and economic standing by gaining a Western education, rather than the traditional Islamic education. He encouraged Muslims to pursue higher education based on the Western model as a way to advance themselves, and their community, in the new order. He also encouraged Muslims to seek government jobs and show loyalty to the British Raj. At the same time he sought British patronage for improving the lives of the Muslims of India. He demanded a separate Muslim electorate, arguing that Muslims were at a disadvantage among Indias overwhelming majority of Hindus. Hindus also were advancing themselves in the new order more quickly than Muslims, the majority of whom held low socioeconomic status as farmers and laborers. The emerging educated Muslim groups found Sir Syeds ideas inspiring. In the 1880s the British initiated political reforms that allowed the formation of political parties and local government. The Indian National Congress was created in 1885 to advocate for Indian autonomy from British rule. Many Muslims believed the organization focused on Hindu interests, however, and in 1906 Muslims formed the Muslim League to represent their interests. Muslims demanded, and were granted, separate electorates in the Government of India Act of 1909. This guaranteed Muslims representation in the national and provincial legislative councils, although the authority of these legislative councils was severely limited under the British colonial government. Both Muslims and Hindus demanded autonomy (self-government), and in 1919 constitutional reforms were introduced that gave the legislative councils greater authority. However, the reforms fell short of granting autonomy and did not satisfy political demands. The Amritsar Massacre of 1919 further galvanized nationalist, anti-British sentiment. The concept of an autonomous Muslim state was publicly proposed during the Allahbd session of the Muslim League in 1930 by the leading Muslim poet-philosopher in South Asia, Mohammad Iqbal. He envisioned a system in which areas that had Muslim majorities would constitute an autonomous state within India. During the next decade, this concept evolved into the demand for the partition of India into separate Muslim and Hindu nations, known as the Two Nations Theory. In 1940 Muslim League president Mohammed Ali Jinnah presided over the organizations annual session, held that year at Lahore, in which the League made its first official demand for the partition of India. The Lahore Resolution called for an independent, sovereign Muslim state. During preindependence talks in 1946, the British government found that the stand of the Muslim League on separation and that of the Congress on the territorial unity of India were irreconcilable. The British then decided on partition and on August 14, 1947, granted independence to Pakistan. India gained its independence the next day. They both became independent dominions within the Commonwealth of Nations. Pakistan came into existence in two parts: West Pakistan, coextensive with the countrys present boundaries, and East Pakistan, now known as Bangladesh. The two were separated by 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of Indian territory. B -Problems of Partition The division of India caused tremendous dislocation of populations. Some 3.5 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from Pakistan into India, and about 5 million Muslim refugees (known as Mohajirs) migrated from India to Pakistan. The demographic shift caused an initial bitterness between the two countries that was further intensified by each countrys accession of a portion of the princely states in the region. Nearly all of these 562 widely scattered polities joined either India or Pakistan; however, the Muslim princes of Hyderbd and Jngadh and the Hindu ruler of Kashmr chose not to join either country. On August 14 and 15, 1947, these three princely states had become technically independent. But when the Muslim ruler of Jngadh, with its predominantly Hindu population, joined Pakistan a month later, India annexed his territory. In September 1948 India used force of arms to annex Hyderbd (now part of Andhra Pradesh state, in central India), which had a mostly Hindu population. The Hindu ruler of Kashmr, whose subjects were 85 percent Muslim, decided to join India. Pakistan, however, questioned his right to do so, and a war broke out between India and Pakistan. Although the United Nations (UN) subsequently resolved that a plebiscite be held under UN auspices to determine the future of Kashmr, India continued to occupy about two-thirds of the state and refused to hold a plebiscite. Pakistan controlled the remaining portion as Azad (Free) Kashmr, an autonomous region, and the Northern Areas, federally administered. This deadlock, which still persists, has intensified suspicion and antagonism between the two countries.
C -Early Governments and the Constitution of 1956 The first government of Pakistan was headed by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and it chose the seaport of Karchi as its capital. Jinnah, considered the founder of Pakistan and hailed as the Quaid-i-Azam (Great Leader), became head of state as governor-general. The government faced many challenges in setting up new economic, judicial, and political structures. It endeavored to organize the bureaucracy and the armed forces, resettle the Mohajirs (Muslim refugees from India), and establish the distribution and balance of power in the provincial and central governments. Undermining these efforts were provincial politicians who often defied the authority of the c