P and S fertilizer reaction products in the seed-row as · PDF file · 2016-09-02P...

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Transcript of P and S fertilizer reaction products in the seed-row as · PDF file · 2016-09-02P...

  • P and S fertilizer reaction products in the seed-row as revealed by XANES

    spectroscopyGourango Kar*, Jeff Schoenau, AdamGillespie, and Derek Peak

    Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan Canada.

  • Introduction

    2

    Sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) are an essential nutrients for crop production

    S and P fertilizers are commonly applied together in bands for crop production in Western Canada

  • Forms and AvailabilityAvailability depends on Species formed after application Soluble (solution) sulfate and phosphate

    immediately available for root uptake Some fertilizers require transformation to

    these forms

    Understand the fate of applied S andP!

    Will help to most beneficially use S and Pcontaining fertilizers

    3

  • Traditional Approaches to Study of S and P Fertilizer Fate

    Examining plant availability of the S and P

    Through plant nutrient uptake and yieldresponse

    Measuring content of total or available formsin soil before and after plant growth

    4Photo courtesy T. King

  • Research Justification

    There has been little recent work tofollow the fate and transformation(speciation) of applied S and Pfertilizers in prairie soils in the weeksfollowing application

    XANES spectroscopy is under-utilizedas a tool to reveal chemical speciationin agricultural soils

    5

  • Traditional wet chemical analyses methods- May not be able to identify particular S and P species in soil, artifacts created

    6

    XANES spectroscopy can distinguish different oxidation states of an element

    Offers unique ability to followtransformation of fertilizers todifferent forms of varying plantavailability over time.

    2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18

    (b)

    variscite

    Fe(III)PO4

    HCO3-NaOH

    Energy (keV)

    Why XANES

  • Objective

    7

    To develop and employ a synchrotrontechnique to assess the fate of differentfertilizer S forms and P added in theseed-row

  • www.maptown.com/.../canada-topo-maps.html

    Black Chernozem MelfortBrown ChernozemCentral Butte

    Saskatchewan, Canada

    Field Study Sites

    8

    http://www.maptown.com/.../canada-topo-maps.html

  • Experiment Details Research design: RCBD Treatment: Urea, ammonium sulfate, calcium

    sulfate, elemental S, and monoammoniumphosphate

    Application rate: 20 kg S and P2O5 ha-1 in seed-row

    Soil sample collection: from the seed-row 1, 4and 8 weeks after seeding canola.

    9Photo courtesy T.KingU of S

  • Analytical Techniques

    Wet chemical analysis: CaCl2 extractable available sulfate Available P by modified Kelowna method

    XAS spectroscopic techniques: S and P K-edge XANES

    Data analysis: Gaussian curve fitting Linear combination fitting

    10

  • 11

    ResultsAvailable soil sulfate concentration in theseed-row after 1, 4 and 8 weeks of crop growth

    Black Chernozem

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    Control AS Gypsum ES

    Central Butte site

    Week 1Week 4Week 8

    SO4-

    2 -S

    (mg

    kg-1

    soil)

    Brown Chernozem

    Chart1

    ControlControlControlControlControlControlControl13.47512.90718496689.464356.60541949216.60541949219.7606908789.7606908785.6833742625.683374262

    ASASASASASASAS119.93513.23305084755.71761446.729629073446.72962907344.43170644614.43170644610.96725949640.9672594964

    GypsumGypsumGypsumGypsumGypsumGypsumGypsum429.30539.092778187212.5280299.558731889399.558731889312.435318303212.43531830323.24600399863.2460039986

    ESESESESESESES18.27513.01764922627.86956158.28018317038.28018317039.66077529.66077523.38286637753.3828663775

    Week 1

    Week 4

    Week 8

    Melfort site

    2013 Field PLANT Data HASAN

    Total NTotal PTotal S

    SitePlotSiteCropTreatmentBlockSerial #Total BiomassBagTotal BiomassTotal BiomassTotal BiomassGrain BiomassGrain BiomassGrain BiomassStraw BiomassStraw BiomassStraw BiomassStrawStrawStrawStrawGrainGrainGrainGrainTN UptakeStrawStrawStrawStrawGrainGrainGrainGrainTP UptakeP RecoveryStrawStrawStrawStrawGrainGrainGrainGrainTS UptakeS RecoverySas Template

    and Bag (g)(g)(g)(g/m2)(kg/ha)(g)(g/m2)(kg/ha)(g)(g/m2)(kg/ha)Total NN UptakeTotal NN UptakeGrain+StrawTotal PP UptakeTotal PP UptakeGrain+StrawS UptakeS UptakeGrain+StrawSITEP RecoveryS Recovery

    1.0 metre row length harvest. 25.4 cm seed row spacing.1M row lengthug/mlug/gkg/kgkg/haug/mlug/gkg/kgkg/hakg/haug/mlug/gkg/kgkg/haug/mlug/gkg/kgkg/hakg/ha%% Sug/gkg/kgkg/ha% Sug/gkg/kgkg/hakg/ha%Central Butte (CB) = 1SiteSiteCropBlockTreatmentGrain BioTotal BioP UptakeS UptakeSiteCropBlockTreatmentP RecSiteCropBlockTreatmentS Rec

    =75ml/0.2500g=300Melfort Herzberg (MH) = 2t/hat/hakg/hakg/ha%%

    CB10111110350168182716.57165.483.03326.893268.9098.97389.653896.4610.33683101.040.0031010412.0888.19426458.200.026586.4998.570.7536043015226.08129044120.00022608130.8811.3423402.600.003411.1212.000.151631516.30.00151635.910.208820880.0020886.8312.73Melfort Armstrong (MA) = 3CB11113.277.1712.0012.73111843.97111379.75

    Wheat19111219298149149585.75857.563.89251.542515.3584.89334.213342.1312.92043876.120.0038761212.95100.1130033.000.030075.5488.500.7887638603236.62915808820.00023662920.7912.3753712.500.00379.3410.130.174691746.90.00174695.840.264962649.60.00264966.6612.50Wheat11212.525.8610.1312.50112849.62112341.67

    (1-48)25111325404162242951.59515.089.27351.463514.57152.41600.046000.399.39122817.360.0028173616.9182.37824713.400.024786.86103.761.1337181985340.11545955880.00034011552.0415.7534725.900.004716.6118.650.151421514.20.00151429.090.246532465.30.00246538.6617.75(1-48)11313.519.5118.6517.75113857.571133-5.09

    45111445325145180707.67076.483.80329.923299.2195.94377.723777.1713.76524129.560.0041295615.6092.66627799.800.027891.72107.321.0948295956328.44887867650.00032844891.2412.7393821.700.003812.6113.850.191519150.0019157.230.229862298.60.00229867.5814.82CROP11413.307.0813.8514.821148-38.21114310.14

    12112112376168208818.98189.083.39328.313283.07124.61490.594905.9112.17163651.480.0036514817.9190.59627178.800.027289.23107.140.7844399449235.33198345590.0002353321.1511.823546.000.003511.6412.800.137031370.30.00137036.720.223612236.10.00223617.3414.06Wheat = 111123.288.1912.8014.06111932.7711142.73

    13112213354145209821.98218.584.39332.243322.44124.36489.614896.0611.76723530.160.0035301617.2893.57328071.900.028193.27110.550.80962875242.8886250.00024288861.1912.2733681.900.003712.2313.420.181218120.0018128.870.266912669.10.00266918.8717.74Canola = 211223.328.2213.4217.741129167.71112485.58

    33112333327133194762.57624.886.51340.593405.91107.16421.894218.9012.91083873.240.0038732416.3484.28725286.100.025386.12102.461.3129786765393.89360294120.00039389361.6616.0134803.900.004816.3618.020.169911699.10.00169917.170.230442304.40.00230447.8515.02Peas = 311323.417.6218.0215.021139-39.15113464.66

    42112442288115173681.86817.768.05267.912679.13105.12413.864138.5811.93643580.920.0035809214.8288.60926582.700.026671.2286.041.7895860294536.87580882350.00053687582.2211.373411.000.00349.1411.360.155915590.0015596.450.223182231.80.00223185.9812.4311422.686.8211.3612.43114919.1811446.20

    711317341168173681.16811.073.41289.022890.1699.59392.093920.8714.37964313.880.0043138816.91102.2730681.000.030788.67105.590.8654667463259.64002389710.000259641.0212.4633738.900.003710.8111.820.346163461.60.003461613.570.246924690.0024697.1420.7179.7511132.896.8111.8220.7111110-6.44111519.32

    14113214317114203797.47974.479.47312.873128.74123.08484.574845.6710.44963134.880.0031348815.1985.83625750.800.025880.5795.760.7528940074225.86820220590.00022586821.0910.8353250.500.003310.1711.260.184151841.50.00184158.920.247624760.0024767.7516.6741.67Wheat: Samples 1-4811233.137.9711.2616.6711210-19.75112527.00

    29113329354141213838.68386.289.71353.193531.89123.30485.434854.3312.1143634.20.003634217.6479.29823789.400.023884.02101.660.9839349265295.18047794120.00029518051.4310.693207.000.003211.3312.760.203322033.20.00203329.870.208720870.0020877.3717.24-5.09Caniola: Samples 49-9611333.538.3912.7617.241131021.501135-0.43

    46113446280107173680.46803.966.79262.952629.53106.03417.444174.4115.30724592.160.0045921619.1795.00528501.500.028574.9594.121.6889018382506.67055147060.00050667062.1213.4854045.500.004010.6412.750.221852218.50.00221859.260.249862498.60.00249866.5715.8310.14Peas: Samples 97-14411432.636.8012.7515.8311410-25.8211451.14

    811418303168135531.55315.053.43210.352103.5481.57321.143211.4218.09845429.520.0054295217.4496.22728868.100.028960.7378.161.438434375431.53031250.00043153031.3913.4574037.100.00408.499.880.244182441.80.00244187.840.245542455.40.00245545.1713.012.7311142.105.319.8813.0111111-3.4511160.25

    15114215352146206809.98099.273.89290.912909.06131.83519.025190.1620.74326222.960.0062229632.3093.92428177.200.028281.97114.271.6141433824484.24301470590.0004842432.5111.1463343.800.00339.7312.240.252412524.10.002524113.100.273652736.50.00273657.9621.0685.5811242.918.1012.2421.061121150.751126-43.33

    351143354271402871131.511315.0100.59396.023960.24186.81735.477354.7221.19926359.760.0063597646.7792.31527694.500.0277109.68156.452.3530268382705.90805147060.00070590815.1916.3814914.300.004919.4624.650.190251902.50.001902513.990.258162581.60.002581610.2224.2264.66RCBD Design11343.9611.3124.6524.2211311-14.191136-57.87

    41114441298120178699.66995.768.54269.842698.43109.15429.724297.2415.63724691.160.0046911620.1687.87726363.100.026471.1491.301.8262549632547.87648897060.00054787652.3513.0483914.400.003910.5612.920.217942179.40.00217949.370.224992249.90.00224996.0715.446.20Blocks; 1, 2, 3, 411442.707.0012.9215.441141142.09114635.32

    511515336168168661.46614.270.80278.742787.4097.20382.683826.7712.48123744.360.0037443614.3395.04228512.600.028579