Our$SegregatedCapital$$ ... impossible, it is now feasible to make important interracial progress...

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Transcript of Our$SegregatedCapital$$ ... impossible, it is now feasible to make important interracial progress...

  • Our  Segregated  Capital     An  Increasingly  Diverse  City    

    with  Racially  Polarized  Schools    

       

    Gary  Orfield  &  Jongyeon  Ee   February  2017  

  • 2 Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles Our Segregated Capital, February 2017

       

  • 3 Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles Our Segregated Capital, February 2017

    Table of Contents LIST  OF  TABLES  .......................................................................................................................................................  4   LIST  OF  FIGURES  ......................................................................................................................................................  5   FOREWORD  ...............................................................................................................................................................  6   EXECUTIVE    SUMMARY  .......................................................................................................................................  11   BACKGROUND  AND  CONTEXT  ..........................................................................................................................  15   WHY  IT  MATTERS:  RESEARCH  SHOWS  POWERFUL  INTEGRATION  EFFECTS  ....................................................................  16   THE  HISTORY  OF  THE  ISSUE  IN  WASHINGTON  ......................................................................................................................  19   CIVIL  RIGHTS  AND  WASHINGTON  SCHOOLS  ..........................................................................................................................  21   THE  JUDICIAL  EFFORT:  SERIOUS  BUT  TOO  LATE  ..................................................................................................................  24  

    DEMOGRAPHIC  REALITIES:  ..............................................................................................................................  27   POPULATION  AND  SCHOOL  ENROLLMENT  TRENDS  IN  WASHINGTON  ..............................................  27   HOUSING  SEGREGATION  IS  THE  UNDERLYING  REALITY  .......................................................................................................  29   BLACK  EXODUS,  WHITE  RETURN  ............................................................................................................................................  30   SURPRISING  WHITE  GROWTH  IN  THE  DC  POPULATION  ......................................................................................................  31   SMALL  CHANGES  IN  SCHOOL  DIVERSITY  ................................................................................................................................  32   CHANGES  IN  SCHOOL  POPULATION  .........................................................................................................................................  33   TRYING  EVERYTHING  ELSE  .......................................................................................................................................................  37   THE  CHANGING  CITY  AND  METRO  POPULATION:  HOUSING  ISSUES  ..................................................................................  41  

    SEGREGATION  TRENDS  IN  WASHINGTON  DC  .............................................................................................  44   INTERGROUP  CONTACT  IN  SCHOOLS  IN  THE  DISTRICT  OF  COLUMBIA  ...............................................................................  47   DOUBLE  SEGREGATION:  SEGREGATION  BY  RACE  AND  POVERTY  .......................................................................................  52  

    WASHINGTON  DC  CHARTER  SCHOOLS  AND  PUBLIC  SCHOOLS  .............................................................  53   INTERGROUP  CONTACT  IN  PUBLIC  AND  CHARTER  SCHOOLS  IN  DC  ...................................................................................  56   SEGREGATION  IS  DOUBLE  SEGREGATION  IN  DC  PUBLIC  AND  CHARTER  SCHOOLS  ..........................................................  62   RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN  ACADEMIC  PERFORMANCE  AND  RACIAL  COMPOSITION  ........................................................  68   Mathematics  results  (Below  basic  and  advanced  levels)  ....................................................................................  69  

    METROPOLITAN  TRENDS  ..................................................................................................................................  75   OVERALL  TRENDS  OF  TOTAL  SCHOOLS  AND  STUDENTS  IN  THE  METROPOLITAN  AREA  ................................................  76   MULTIRACIAL  AND  MINORITY  SEGREGATED  SCHOOLS  IN  LARGE  DISTRICTS  OF  DC  METRO  AREA  .............................  78   INTERGROUP  CONTACT  IN  LARGE  DISTRICTS  OF  DC’S  METRO  AREA  ...............................................................................  79  

    CONCLUSION  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  ......................................................................................................  83   APPENDIX  A  ...........................................................................................................................................................  87   APPENDIX  B  ...........................................................................................................................................................  94  

  • 4 Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles Our Segregated Capital, February 2017

    List of Tables TABLE  1:  SCHOOL  ENROLLMENT  BY  RACE  IN  COMBINED  PUBLIC  AND  CHARTER  SCHOOLS,  .............  44   TABLE  2:  TOTAL  NUMBER  OF  PRIVATE  SCHOOLS  AND  STUDENTS  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AND  

    WASHINGTON,  DC,  2001-­‐02  AND  2011-­‐12  .........................................................................................................  45   TABLE  3:  STUDENT  ENROLLMENT  BY  RACE  AND  RACIAL  PROPORTION  IN  DC  PRIVATE  SCHOOLS,

     .................................................................................................................................................................................................  45   TABLE  4:  SCHOOLS  CLASSIFIED  BY  PERCENT  OF  NONWHITE  STUDENTS  .....................................................  46   TABLE  5:  EXPOSURE  TO  WHITES  BY  THE  TYPICAL  STUDENT  OF  EACH  RACE  AND  THE  

    PERCENTAGE  OF  WHITES  ..........................................................................................................................................  48   TABLE  6:  EXPOSURE  TO  BLACKS  BY  TYPICAL  STUDENT  OF  EACH  RACE  &  PERCENTAGE  OF  BLACKS

     .................................................................................................................................................................................................  49   TABLE  7:  EXPOSURE  TO  LATINOS  BY  THE  TYPICAL  STUDENT  OF  EACH  RACE  AND  THE  

    PERCENTAGE  OF  LATINOS  .........................................................................................................................................  49   TABLE  8:  EXPOSURE  TO  ASIANS  BY  THE  TYPICAL  STUDENT  OF  EACH  RACE  AND  THE  PERCENTAGE  

    OF  ASIANS  ..........................................................................................................................................................................  50   TABLE  9:  EXPOSURE  TO  WHITES  AND  ASIANS  BY  THE  TYPICAL  STUDENT  OF  EACH  RACE  AND  THE  

    PERCENTAGE  OF  WHITES  AND  ASIANS  ...............................................................................................................  51   TABLE  10:  EXPOSURE  TO  LOW-­‐INCOME  STUDENTS  BY  THE  TYPICAL  STUDENT  OF  EACH  RACE  AND  

    THE  PERCENTAGE  OF  STUDENTS  LIVING  IN  POVERTY  ...............................................................................  52   TABLE  11:  SCHOOL  ENROLLMENT  BY  RACE  IN  PUBLIC  AND  CHARTER  SCHOOLS,  2002-­‐2014  ...........  55   TABLE  12:  SCHOOLS  CLASSIFIED  BY  PERCENT  OF  NONWHITE  STUDENTS  IN  WASHINGTON  DC  .....  55   TABLE