Otolith shape icefish

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17 minutes about changes of the otolith shape with the growth of the swimming speed and with the changes in the environment - sample to develop

Transcript of Otolith shape icefish

  • 1. 1 mm1 mmby Ryszard Traczyk21.3 km/h~0.9 km/h~0.8 km/h

2. Terrestrial observations of separate geographical and vertical living on different age groups andspecies of fish suggest that differences in otolith shape among them became from difference in theirenvironment conditions. (Extracted and enlarged otoliths are over or near the fish heads: Median or Transverse plane)S. Orkney SouthGeorgiaAntarctic Circumpolar0.1 km/hPs. georgianus Ch. aceratusWHITE-BLOODED: high Antarctic; ice pack zone; temperate80S 74, ~70S; 63, ~60S; 63, ~5730S; 52, ~45S 30S-100-200-300-400-500-600-700-800Current[m]S. japonicusChannichthyidaeMacrouridaeC. gunnariFisher, 1985; Kellermann, 1990; North 1990; Hecht, 198721 km/h1 km/h0.9 km/h 3. A S WAT E R T E M P E R AT U R E I S D R O P P I N GS. Orkney SouthGeorgiaAntarctic Circumpolar0.1 km/hPs. georgianus Ch. aceratusWHITE-BLOODED: high Antarctic; ice pack zone; temperate80S 74, ~70S; 63, ~60S; 63, ~5730S; 52, ~45S 30S-100-200-300-400-500-600-700-800Current[m]Decrease of Otolith Length, increase of Otolith HeightS. japonicusChannichthyidaeMacrouridaeC. gunnariincrease of Otolith LengthMand flattening (T plane)TMTMTTTTMMMMM21 km/h0.9 km/h1 km/h 4. Age groups of Ps. georgianus seperated in time scale confirm geographical divide ofotolith mass frequency as separate age groups on Antarctic islands: 2 aged at PamerArchipelago, in February, 3 aged at King George in March, and 4 aged and older fish atS. Orkney in December.4N4=102; MOr=0,0430,00051g;s=0,0026; TLr=47,1 cm; MCr=1113,7g;Gr=3,7; r=0,8N3=6; MOr=0,0320,00185g;s=0,0023; TLr=37 cm; MCr=453,3g;Gr=1,7; r=0,8N5=19; MOr=0,0520,00119g;s=0,0027; TLr=49,1 cm;MCr=1229,2g; Gr=3,4; r=0,57654321011109876543210Age groupNOW [g]South Orkney Is30.XII.1978N6=5; MOr=0,0670,00126 g;s=0,0014; TLr=50,8 cm;MCr=1471g; Gr=3,4; r=0,4N3=26;MOr=0,0340,00058g;s=0,0015;TLr=43,2cm;MCr=752,5g; Gr=2,3; r=1,7N4=9; MOr=0,0410,0011g;s=0,0017; TLr=47,6cm;MCr=1158,9g; Gr=4; r=2N5=3; MOr=0,0520,00233g;s=0,0021; TLr=52,3cm;MCr=1673,3g; Gr=3,3; r=2,787654321043210Age groupNOW [g]King George,25.III.1979N=39 N2=1; MO=0,021; TL=31cm;MC=210g; G=1; =2N3=62; MOr=0,0330,00045g;s=0,0018; TLr=42,1cm;MCr=740,6g; Gr=2,4; r=1,9N4=20; MOr=0,0410,00126g;s=0,0029; TLr=47,8cm;MCr=1224,8g; Gr=3,2; r=2,5N2=10; MOr=0,0230,00081g;s=0,0013; TLr=30,4cm; MCr=260g;Gr=1,5; r=1,2N6=1;MO=0,064;TL=51cm;MC=1750g;G=3; =376543210111098765432100.0100.0120.0140.0160.0180.0200.0220.0240.0260.0280.0300.0320.0340.0360.0380.0400.0420.0440.0460.0480.0500.0520.0540.0560.0580.0600.0620.0640.0660.0680.0700.072Age group0.074NOW [g]N5=4; MOr=0,0520,00151g;s=0,0015; TLr=50,8 cm;MCr=1548,8g; Gr=3,8; r=2Palmer A., Deception, Elephant Is:19-22.II.1979, N=97Traczyk, 2012 5. Age groups of Ps. georgianus seperated in time scale confirm geographical divide ofotolith mass frequency as separate age groups on Antarctic islands: 2 aged at PamerArchipelago, in February, 3 aged at King George in March, and 4 aged and older fish atS. Orkney in December.5N4=102; MOr=0,0430,00051g;s=0,0026; TLr=47,1 cm; MCr=1113,7g;Gr=3,7; r=0,8N3=6; MOr=0,0320,00185g;s=0,0023; TLr=37 cm; MCr=453,3g;Gr=1,7; r=0,8N5=19; MOr=0,0520,00119g;s=0,0027; TLr=49,1 cm;MCr=1229,2g; Gr=3,4; r=0,57654321011109876543210Age groupNOW [g]South Orkney Is30.XII.1978N6=5; MOr=0,0670,00126 g;s=0,0014; TLr=50,8 cm;MCr=1471g; Gr=3,4; r=0,4N3=26;MOr=0,0340,00058g;s=0,0015;TLr=43,2cm;MCr=752,5g; Gr=2,3; r=1,7N4=9; MOr=0,0410,0011g;s=0,0017; TLr=47,6cm;MCr=1158,9g; Gr=4; r=2N5=3; MOr=0,0520,00233g;s=0,0021; TLr=52,3cm;MCr=1673,3g; Gr=3,3; r=2,787654321043210Age groupNOW [g]King George,25.III.1979N=39 N2=1; MO=0,021; TL=31cm;MC=210g; G=1; =2N3=62; MOr=0,0330,00045g;s=0,0018; TLr=42,1cm;MCr=740,6g; Gr=2,4; r=1,9N4=20; MOr=0,0410,00126g;s=0,0029; TLr=47,8cm;MCr=1224,8g; Gr=3,2; r=2,5N2=10; MOr=0,0230,00081g;s=0,0013; TLr=30,4cm; MCr=260g;Gr=1,5; r=1,2N6=1;MO=0,064;TL=51cm;MC=1750g;G=3; =376543210111098765432100.0100.0120.0140.0160.0180.0200.0220.0240.0260.0280.0300.0320.0340.0360.0380.0400.0420.0440.0460.0480.0500.0520.0540.0560.0580.0600.0620.0640.0660.0680.0700.072Age group0.074NOW [g]N5=4; MOr=0,0520,00151g;s=0,0015; TLr=50,8 cm;MCr=1548,8g; Gr=3,8; r=2Palmer A., Deception, Elephant Is:19-22.II.1979, N=97 6. This same is for age groups in length frequency geographicallydivided on separated Antarctic Islands.30 N2520151050TL [cm]6543IIIIVVVIS. Orkney, 30.XII.1978; N = 142Theoretical; EmpiricalAge GroupN3=7;TL3=37,41,6 cm,N4=108;TL4=470,4 cm,s4=2,1N5=21;TL5=49,20,7s5=1,6 N6=6;TL6=511,32520151050NTL [cm]65432IIIIIIVVPalmer A., Deception, Elephant,18-22.II.1979, N=171;Theoretical; EmpiricalAge GroupN2=16; TL2=31,10,9 cm, s2=1,9N3=97;TL3=41,80,4s3=2N4=41;TL4=48,20,5s4=1,5N5=10;TL5=50,90,8s5=1,3N6=7;TL6=51,70,8s6=1,11614121086420NN4=34; TL4=48,50,5 cm,s4=1,4 N5=4;TL5=52,30,5 cm,s5=0,5TL [cm]2543IIIIIIVVPalmer A., Deception, King George,Elephant; 25.III.1979; N=145AgeGroupTheoretical; empiricalN2=24; TL2=30,80,7 cm, s2=1,7N3=83; TL3=420,5 cm,s3=2,425 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 7. This same is for age groups in length frequency geographically divided on separated AntarcticIslands.: 2 aged fish at Pamer A., in March, 3 aged fish dominated at Elephan in February, and 4aged and olders fish at South Orkney in December.30 N2520151050TL [cm]6543IIIIVVVIS. Orkney, 30.XII.1978; N = 142Theoretical; EmpiricalAge GroupN3=7;TL3=37,41,6 cm,N4=108;TL4=470,4 cm,s4=2,1N5=21;TL5=49,20,7s5=1,6 N6=6;TL6=511,32520151050NTL [cm]65432IIIIIIVVPalmer A., Deception, Elephant,18-22.II.1979, N=171;Theoretical; EmpiricalAge GroupN2=16; TL2=31,10,9 cm, s2=1,9N3=97;TL3=41,80,4s3=2N4=41;TL4=48,20,5s4=1,5N5=10;TL5=50,90,8s5=1,3N6=7;TL6=51,70,8s6=1,11614121086420NN4=34; TL4=48,50,5 cm,s4=1,4 N5=4;TL5=52,30,5 cm,s5=0,5TL [cm]2543IIIIIIVVPalmer A., Deception, King George,Elephant; 25.III.1979; N=145AgeGroupTheoretical; empiricalN2=24; TL2=30,80,7 cm, s2=1,7N3=83; TL3=420,5 cm,s3=2,425 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 8. Ps. georgianus from the younger age groups prefer the western part of the Atlantic Antarctic, andthe older age group East - North part. Age group is identified by otolith shape, which, indicate thedifferent habitats, development stages and strategies of life: type of swimming.8201816141210864221 %18151296310864220 %15105%6420King Edward I., N=7925 30 35 40 45 50 55TL [cm]Palmer Arch, N=5927.1%; TL=30.8cm; s=1.8 45.8%; TL=40cm; s=1.7 25.4%; TL=47cm; s=1.5 1.7%; TL=51.5cm; s=0.50TL [cm]12.3%; TL=30.6cm; s=1.660.7%; TL=41.7cm; s=2 20.9%;TL=47.9cm;s=1.44.3%; TL=50.4cm; s=0.81.8%; TL=51.1cm; s=0.2Deception I., N=1630%TL [cm]2.5%; TL=33.5cm; s=2.148.1%; TL=43.7cm; s=1.935.4%; TL=49.3cm;s=1.413.9%; TL=53.1cm; s=0.90TL [cm]S. Orkney, Western part, N=133 0.8%; TL=40.5cm;s=0.573.7%; TL=48cm;s=1.821.8%; TL=49.9cm; s=2.33.8%; TL=52.2cm;s=20%TL [cm]S. Orkney, Eastern part, N=1384.3%; TL=37cm; s=2.176.1%;TL=47.2cm; s=2.115.9%; TL=48.9cm; s=1.63.6%; TL=50.8cm;s=1.8 9. 9Ps. georgianus from the younger age groups prefer the western part of the Atlantic Antarctic, andthe older age group East - North part. Age group is identified by otolith shape, which, indicate thedifferent habitats, development stages and strategies of life: t y p e o f swimmi n g201816141210864221 %18151296310864220 %15105%6420King Edward I., N=7925 30 35 40 45 50 55TL [cm]Palmer Arch, N=5927.1%; TL=30.8cm; s=1.8 45.8%; TL=40cm; s=1.7 25.4%; TL=47cm; s=1.5 1.7%; TL=51.5cm; s=0.50TL [cm]12.3%; TL=30.6cm; s=1.660.7%; TL=41.7cm; s=2 20.9%;TL=47.9cm;s=1.44.3%; TL=50.4cm; s=0.81.8%; TL=51.1cm; s=0.2Deception I., N=1630%TL [cm]2.5%; TL=33.5cm; s=2.148.1%; TL=43.7cm; s=1.935.4%; TL=49.3cm;s=1.413.9%; TL=53.1cm; s=0.90TL [cm]S. Orkney, Western part, N=133 0.8%; TL=40.5cm;s=0.573.7%; TL=48cm;s=1.821.8%; TL=49.9cm; s=2.33.8%; TL=52.2cm;s=20%TL [cm]S. Orkney, Eastern part, N=1384.3%; TL=37cm; s=2.176.1%;TL=47.2cm; s=2.115.9%; TL=48.9cm; s=1.63.6%; TL=50.8cm;s=1.8Otolith, M-plane, after Hecht, 19870.4 km/h1.6 km/hand speed 10. Water temperature determine distribution of Antarctic fish. So older agegroups, fish 49 centimeters found at South Orkney Islands may havebeen resulted from lower temperature of waters below 0 up to minus 1Celsius degree. Younger age groups of 3 aged fish 43 cm found mostnumerous at Elephan have little warmer waters up to 0 degreescentigrade. The smallest fish 30 cm length of II age group appear atPalmer Archipelago have warm water of above 0 up to 1 Celsius degree.A, B, C - transects2Potential temperature [C] at 200 m110- 1Bransfield Strait- 1georgianus 34>3>4-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 522.698.1South Orkney I.14.45.15658606264Feb.1979 the R/V Prof. Nov. 78 Feb. 79 the Ps. 64 60 56 52 48 44 B 11. Water temperature determine distribution of Antarctic fish.A, B, C - transects2Potential temperature [C] at 200 m110- 1Bransfield Strait- 1georgianus 34>3>4-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 522.698.1South Orkney I.14.45.15658606264Feb.1979 the R/V Prof. Nov. 78 Feb. 79 the Ps. 64 60 56 52 48 44 B 12. A, B, C - transects2Potential temperature [C] at 200 m110- 1Bransfield Strait- 1georgianus 34>3>4-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 522.698.1South Orkney I.14.45.15658606264Feb.1979 the R/V Prof. Nov. 78 Feb. 79 the Ps. 64 60 56 52 48 44 B 13. C. aceratus from larvae to fish of 2 year old, living in a warm pelagic water and preying krill,has weaker activity of AFGP proteins (equals to 0,21-0,41 C) than adult fish.0 year old feezingpoint drop by 0.21CTraczyk, 2013; Arkive nature.pl; Hureau, 19852 years old drop by0.41C of freezing point4.2 years drop by 0.57CBilyk 20110.45 km/h0.1 km/h1.8 km/h1.8 km/h 14. Adult fish at the age of 4.5 years, while descend to the colder depths of -1.47 Chave large activity of AFGP, that reduce freezing point of blood by 0.57C,0.45 km/h0.1 km/h1.8 km/hfood: fishC. aceratus 4 large swimming speed Arkive nature.pl; Hureau, 1985 15. that is accompanied with 4 times increase of their sw