Original Teachings

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GO game stuff (known as weiqi in Chinese and baduk in Korean)

Transcript of Original Teachings

riginalCHAN

VINTAGE

BooKs

A Division of Random House, New York

Teachings ofBUDDHISMSelected from

The Transmission of the Lamp

TRANSLATED WITH INTRODUCTIONS BY

CHANG CHUNG-YUAN

First Vintage Books Edition, November 1971 Copyright 1969 by Chang Chung-yuan All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto. Originally published by Pantheon Books in 1969.

ISBN: 0-394-71333-8Library {)f Congress Catalogue Card Number: 75-79799 Manufactured in the United States of America

Contents

Foreword

Vll

PART IINTRODUCTION

Metaphysical and Logical Approaches in Early Ch'an Teachings No-mind Is Not Different from Mind Dialectic as a Self-conscious Move-

317

Nru-T'ou FA-YUNG

YuNG-CHIA HsuAN-CHIO

ment

PART IIINTRODUCTION

Interfusion of Universality and Particularity "He Is the Same as Me, Yet I Am

41

TuNG-SHAN LIANG-CHIEH

Not He!"Ts'AO-SHAN PEN-CHI

58"Purity Is in the Impure"

71

PART IIIINTRODUCTION

Liberation from Subjectivity and Objectivity

85102 107

HuANG-PO Hsi-YUN Mu-cHOU TAo-TsUNG LIN-CHI 1-HSUAN

To Roar Like a Tiger"Before a Donkey and After a Horse"

"Here I Will Bury You Alive"

116

PART IVINTRODUCTION

Illogical and Unconventional Approaches129

to Ch'anKIANGSI TAO-I

"The Mind Is the Buddha"

148

Contents NAN-cH'uAN P'u-YuAN

"To Be a Buffalo Down the Hill"Logs,

153 164 174

CHAO-CHOU Ts'uNG-SHEN

"You See the the Chao-chou Bridge"

But

Not

P'ANG YuN

Inner Harmony in Daily Activity

PART VINTRODUCTION

Inner Experience Illustrated in Three-Way Great Action and Great Potentiality "An Excellent Swordsman" Enlightened by One Stroke

InterplayKuEI-SHAN LING-YU YANG-SHAN Hui-CHI

185 200209 219

HSIANG-YEN CHIH-HSIEN

PART VIINTRODUCTION FA-YEN W:EN-I

The Six Phenomena and the Void "One Got It, the Other Missed""From

229238 Cow

YuNG-MING YEN-SHOU

the Womb of a

an

Elephant Is Born"

250

PART VIIINTRODUCTION

"The Swiftness and Steepness" -a Forceful Means to Enlightenment "Not To Blind Any Man's Eye" "The Mountain Is Steep; the Clouds

HsuEH-FENG 1-Ts'uN YuN-MEN W:EN-YEN

259 275283

Are Low"TuNG-SHAN SHou-cH'u

"Living Words and Dead Words"

296302

Final Remarks

A CHART OF THE EMINENT CH' AN MASTERS ( 594-.Y INTERPLAY

Hua-lin, head monk in the temple, went angrily to Master Pochang when he heard that Kuei-shan was to be appointed abbot on Mount Kuei. How could this be? he asked. Whereupon Po-chang said to him, "If you can correctly answer my question in front of the assembly, you will be appointed abbot." Po-chang then pointed to a pitcher and said, "Do not call this a pitcher. What, rather, should you call it?" Hua-lin answered, "It cannot be cailed a wooden wedge." Master Po-chang shook his head and turned to Ling-yu for an answer. Ling-yu kicked the pitcher over. Master Pochang laughed and said, "Our head monk has lost his bid for Mount Kuei." Thus Ling-yu was selected to be the abbot in the new monastery. From this kung-an it is quite clear that Hua-lin's answer was only on an intellectual level. He merely argued about the name of an object, revealing no depth of inner cultivation. Kuei-shan Lingyu, however, did not take his answer from the relative plane. He did not declare that the pitcher should be called this or that. In knocking over the pitcher instead, he revealed his inner enlightenment. Another illustration of great potentiality and great action occurring simultaneously is found in the fascicle of Po-chang. One_ day all the monks of the ternple were working together in the fields. When the drum s~mmoning them to dinner sounded, one of the monks threw up his hoe, and laughing heartily, started back toward the temple. Master Po-chang remarked, "What fine work this is! It is the way whereby the Goddess of Mercy enters Ultimate Real'ty" 1 The monk who laughed and threw up his hoe demonstrated thus his awakening to the truth of Ch'an. From the depths of his unconscious his potentiality suddenly manifested itself in a spontaneous action, just as Kuei-shan had revealed his potentiality in action by wordlessly knocking over the pitcher. Responses such as t~ese do not aim at a display of intellectual superiority but reveal spontaneous enlightenment. Sometimes Kuei-shan considered potentiality as separate from action, but what he mainly stressed was potentiality in action, ta-chi chih yung. Once when he complained that his disciples had not attained great action, one of his disciples, Chiu-feng Tzu-hui,

Inner Experience Illustrated in Three-Way Interplay

stepped out of the crowd and started to walk away. When Kueishan called to him, he proceeded straight ahead without even turning his head. Kuei-shan remarked, "This man is certainly qualified to be a man of Ch'an." His silent disappearance from the scene was his answer-a gesture of non-action. But to Kuei-shan the gesture was correct, a powerful action. It was, in fact, potentiality in action. Reality may be revealed through action or silence: thus both become great potentiality and great action. From these remarks on great potentiality and great action, perhaps we can derive what Kuei-shan meant by ti, substance, and yung, function. The following kung-an, famous in Ch'an literature, appears in the fascicle of Kuei-shan. One day when the Master and Yang-shan were picking tea leaves, the Master said, "All day I have heard your voice as we picked tea leaves, but I have not seen you yourself. Show me your real self." Yang-shan shook the tea tree. The Master commented ,"You have achieved the function but not the substance." When Yang-shan asked his Master what he himself had achieved, the Master remained silent. Thereupon Yang-shan commented, "You, Master, have achieved the substance but not the function." What Kuei-shan and Yang-shan meant was that ti, substance, is formless and thoughtless, and yet through it reality is revealed. Yung, function, is the direct and free action manifesting absolute reality. In other words, ti is reality revealed in non-action, and yung is reality manifested in action. If the shaking of a tea tree manifests reality, then it is an instance of the great action, or ta-yung; if silence reveals reality, then it is an example of the great potentiality, or ta-chi. The essence of Ch'an may be experienced either in silence or in action. must note that the ti and yung discussed by Kuei-shan are not identical to those in the "three greatnesses" expounded by Asvaghosa, the. great Indian Mahayana philospher, in The Awakening of Faith. These three greatnesses are ti, substance; hsiang, appearance; and yung, function. But substance here implies appearance or form, and function implies activity. If we mistake these three greatnesses for merely intellectually intelligible concepts,

We

INNER ExPERIENCE ILLUSTRATED IN THREE-WAY INTERPLAY

Ch'an slips away from us. Unless we ourselves experience what Kuei-shan and Yang-shan experienced, we will never be able to penetrate to the underlying truth. To experience Ch'an in silence and in actio~ is to progress in self-realization. A disciple's various levels of inner achievement may be recognized by his gestures and words, however irrelevant or irrational they may appear to one who is accustomed to more conventional communication. When we compare Hsiang-yen's three famous gathas, we find they reveal successive stages in the progression of his inner enlightenment. In theJ~ecorded Dialogues of Ch' an Master Kuei-shan Ling-yu of T'an-chou we learn that when Hsiang-yen was accidentally enlightened by the sound of a stone knocking against a bamboo tree, his brother monk Yang-shan, from Mount Kuei, went to the place where Hsiang-yen was staying, to test him. When Yang-shan arrived, Hsiang-yen recited the gatha he had composed after his awakening: With one stroke, all previous knowledge is forgotten. No cultivation is needed for this. This occurrence reveals the ancient way And is free from the track of quiescence. No trace is left anywhere. Whatever I hear and see does not conform to rules. All those who are enlightened Proclaim this to be the greatest action. Yang-shan did not accept this gatha, remonstrating, "Herein you followed the sayings of the ancient masters. If you have really been awakened, speak from your own experience." Then Hsiang-yen composed a second gatha: My poverty of last year was not real poverty. This year it is want indeed. In last year's poverty there was room for a piercing gimlet. In this year's poverty even the gimlet is no more. Yang-shan made the following well-known comment on this gatha: "You may have the Ch'an of Tathagata,1 but as for the Ch'an of the Patriarchs, you have not yet even dreamed of it." Hearing this, Hsiang-yen immediately uttered his third gatha:

Inner Experience I11ustrated in Three-Way Interplay

I have my secret. I look at you with twinkling eye. If you do not understand this Do not call yourself a monk. Yang-shan was much pleased with this third gatha and went back to report to Master Kuei-shan, "I rejoice that brother Hsiang-yen has grasped the Ch'an of the Patriarchs." These three gatha reveal Hsiang-yen's inner experience on different levels. The first is an intellectual description of his awakening. Although he was truly enlightened, this gatha is merely a conceptual product of his sudden awakening, not a direct revelation from th