Organization of the Skeleton. The Human Skeleton 206 bones Divided into two portions....
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- Slide 1
- Organization of the Skeleton
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- The Human Skeleton 206 bones Divided into two portions. Axial Skeleton- Contains the bones which are in the mid-vertical axis of the body. Appendicular Skeleton- Bones which are outside the mid-vertical axis, associated with the appendages.
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- Axial Skeleton Skull Contains 22 bones. Bones of the skull include; (8) cranial, (13) facial and the (1) mandible. Sutures- Connection between the bones of the skull. Sinus-Chamber- Located in the skull, are lined with mucous membranes, and filled with air. Connect with the nasal cavity to drain fluids and reduce the weight of the skull.
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- Axial Skeleton Cranium (8) bones 1.Frontal Bone- Large bone forming the anterior part of the skull (forehead). Orbits: Eye sockets, partially formed by the frontal bone. Supraorbital Foramen: Hole above each orbital where blood vessels pass.
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- Axial Skeleton Cranium 2.Parietial Bone(s)-Two bones which form most of the superior/lateral cranium. Meet at the top of the skull at the sagittal suture. Meet the frontal bone at the coronal suture.
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- Axial Skeleton Cranium 3.Occipital Bone- Thick bone which forms the posterior wall and floor of the cranium. Meets the parietal bone at the lambdoid suture. Foramen Magnum- Opening for the spinal cord. Occipital Condyles- Processes that articulate with the first vertebrae, to allow head movement.
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- Axial Skeleton Cranium 4.Temporal Bone(s)- Two bones on either side of the cranium, below the parietal bones. Meet the parietal bones at the squamous suture. Styloid Process- Serves as an anchor for muscles of the tongue and pharynx.
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- Axial Skeleton Cranium 5. Sphenoid Bone- Butterfly shaped bone that forms the lower lateral walls and floor of the cranium, also the posterior walls of the orbits. Optic foramen- Location of the optic nerve passage. 6.Ethmoid Bone- Small bone anterior to the sphenoid bone. Forms sections of the cranial floor, orbital walls, and nasal cavity.
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- Axial Skeleton Facial Bones Contains 13 immovable bones and a movable mandible. 1.Maxillary Bone(s)- Two bones on each side of the face that form the upper jaw. 2.Palatine Bone(s)- Two L-shaped bones that are posterior to the maxillary bones. Forms posterior roof of mouth and floor of the nasal cavity.
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- Axial Skeleton Facial Bones 3.Zygomatic Bone(s)- Two bones on the side of the face that form the cheeks. 4.Nasal Bone(s)- Two small rectangular bones that meet to form the bridge of the nose. 5.Lacrimal Bone(s)- Two fingernail shaped bones, form part of the orbits medial walls.
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- Axial Skeleton Facial Bones 6.Vomer- Single bone along the midline within the nasal cavity. Meets with the ethmoid bone to form the nasal septum, which divides the nasal cavity in half. 7.Inferior Nasal Concha- Two thin scroll- like bones attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Forms shelves which air is channeled into the nasal cavity.
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- Axial Skeleton Facial bones 8.Mandible-Single lower jaw bone, articulates with the temporal bones. Only movable bone of the skull. Forms TMJ (temporal-mandibular joint) Lock Jaw Dislocated Jaw
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- Axial Skeleton Hyoid Bone Single bone that doesnt articulate with any other bones. Located in the upper neck region. Horse-shoe shaped supports the tongue and provides attachments for muscles.
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- Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column Strong flexible rod that supports the trunk, while allowing for movement. Extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. Comprised of a series of irregular bones known as vertebrae. Between each vertebrae is an intervertebral disc. The adult vertebral column contains 26 vertebrae (after fusion).
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- Axial Skeleton Structure of typical vertebra: Body: Thick, disc-shaped front portion, designed for supporting weight. Vertebral Arch: Forms a ring to hold the spinal cord called the Vertebral Foramen. Seven processes arise from this vertebral arch and serve for either joint formation or muscle attachment.
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- Axial Skeleton Types of Vertebrae and their Structures. Cervical- (7) Vertebrae of the neck region, the support the head. The lightest of the vertebrae Transverse foramen- small hole that permits the passage of arteries to the brain.
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- Axial Skeleton Types of Vertebrae and their Structures. Cervical- (7) Vertebrae of the neck region, the support the head. Atlas- First vertebrae that connects with the occipital condyles of the cranium. Contains no body Allows for the up and down movement of the head Axis- Second vertebrae that contains a tooth like projection called the: Odontoid process- It projects up through the rings of the atlas and allows for twisting of the head.
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- Axial Skeleton Types of Vertebrae and their Structures. Thoracic- (12) Only vertebrae that articulate with the ribs. (upper and middle of the back) Lumbar- (5) Vertebrae that are larger and thicker, this is due to the increase in the body weight stress they support. (lower back)
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- Axial Skeleton Types of Vertebrae and their Structures. Sacrum- Large triangular bone that forms the posterior part of the pelvis. (5) vertebrae fused together. Sacral Canal: contains the spinal cord. Coccyx- A series of 3-5 fused bones that is attached to the sacrum by ligaments. (tail bone)
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- Axial Skeleton Thoracic Cage Formed by thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and the ribs. Conical, basket-shaped structure (cone shaped). Partially encloses the internal structures of the chest. Supports the upper limbs.
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- Axial Skeleton Thoracic Cage Sternum- AKA breast bone, Its a flat, narrow bone at the center of the chest. Articulates with the clavicles on one end. Articulates with the ribs via the costal cartilage. Consists of three (3) parts: Manubrium- Superior part Body- Large middle part Xiphoid Process- Small pointy inferior end.
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- Axial Skeleton Thoracic Cage Ribs (12) sets in every individual. Attach to the thoracic vertebrae in the back and the sternum in the front. True Ribs- First seven (7) pair, connects directly to the sternum via the costal cartilage. False Ribs- Remaining five (5) pair, have an indirect connection or no connection at all to the sternum. Floating Ribs- Last two (2) or sometimes three (3) pairs of ribs, have no connection at all to the sternum.